Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 123

Search results for: hepatitis B and C

123 Hepatitis B Vaccination Status and Its Determinants among Primary Health Care Workers in Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rubina Qasim


We assessed Hepatitis B vaccination and its determinants among health care workers (HCW) in Northwest Pakistan. HCWs from both public and private clinics were interviewed about hepatitis B vaccination, socio-demographic, hepatitis B virus transmission modes, disease threat and benefits of vaccination. Logistic regression was performed. Hepatitis B vaccination was 40% (Qualified Physicians: 86% and non-qualified Dispensers:16%). Being Qualified Physician (Adj. OR 26.6; 95%CI 9.3-73.2), Non-qualified Physician (Adj.OR 1.9; 95%CI 0.8-4.6), qualified Dispensers (Adj. OR 3.6; 95%CI 1.3-9.5) compared to non-qualified Dispensers, working in public clinics (Adj. OR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1-5.7) compared to private, perceived disease threat after exposure to blood and body fluids (Adj. OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.1-1.2) and perceived benefits of vaccination (Adj. OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.1-1.2) were significant predictors of hepatitis B vaccination. Improved perception of disease threat and benefits of vaccination and qualification of HCWs are associated with hepatitis B vaccination.

Keywords: Hepatitis B vaccine, immunization, healthcare workers, primary health

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122 Uptake of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Hepatitis C Positive Patients and Their Vaccine Response in Myanmar

Authors: Zaw Z Aung


Background: High-risk groups for hepatitis B infection (HBV) are people who injected drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men (MSM), people living with HIV (PLHIV) and persons with hepatitis C (HCV), etc. HBV/HCV coinfected patients are at increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. To the best of author’s knowledge, there is currently no data for hepatitis B vaccine utilization in HCV positive patients and their antibody response. Methodology: From February 2018 to May 2018, consented participants at or above 18 years who came to the clinic in Mandalay were tested with the anti-HCV rapid test. Those who tested HCV positive (n=168) were further tested with hepatitis B profile and asked about their previous hepatitis B vaccination history and risk factors. Results: Out of 168 HCV positive participants, three were excluded for active HBV infections. The remaining 165 were categorized into previously vaccinated 64% (n=106) and unvaccinated 36% (n=59) There were three characteristics groups- PWID monoinfected (n=77), General Population (GP) monoinfected (n=22) and HIV/HCV coinfected participants (n=66). Unvaccinated participants were highest in HIV/HCV, with 68%(n=45) followed by GP (23%, n=5) and PWID (12%, n=9). Among previously vaccinated participants, the highest percentage was PWID (88%, n=68), the second highest was GP (77%, n=17) and lowest in HIV/HCV patients (32%, n=21). 63 participants completed third doses of vaccination (PWID=36, GP=13, HIV/HCV=14). 53% of participants who completed 3 dose of hepatitis B were non-responders (n=34): HIV/HCV (86%, n=12), PWID (44%, n=16), and GP (46%, n=6) Conclusion: Even in the presence of effective and safe hepatitis B vaccine, uptake is low among high risk groups especially PLHIV that needs to be improved. Integration or collaboration of hepatitis B vaccination program, HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C treatment centers is desirable. About half of vaccinated participants were non-responders so that optimal doses, schedule and follow-up testing need to be addressed carefully for those groups.

Keywords: Hepatitis B vaccine, Hepatitis C, HIV, Myanmar

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121 Effects of an Educational Program on Nurses Knowledge and Practice Related to Hepatitis-B: Pre-Experimental Design

Authors: R. S. Mehta, G. N. Mandal


Hepatitis-B is the major infectious disease of mankind. In Nepal it is reported that more than 4.3% of Nepalese population at any time in their life has been infected with Hepatitis-B virus (HBV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of planned educational programme regarding knowledge and practice of hepatitis-B among the nurses working at medical units of BPKIHS. Pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the nurses working in medical units of BPKIHS. Total 40 nurses were included in the pre-test and 34 in the post-test. The education intervention was arranged on 24th May 2012 from 2:15 pm to 4:45 pm i.e. two and half hours. After two weeks of education intervention post-test was conducted. Most of the participants (60%) were of the age group of 18-22 years, Hindu (82.5%), and unmarried (65%). After education intervention there is significant differences in knowledge on the components of Hepatitis-B at 0.05 level of significance. There is no difference in the attitude components after post-test except the component patient contaminated with Hepatitis-B must be called as the last patient (p=0.035). It can conclude that hepatitis-B educational program improved knowledge and practice among the nurses.

Keywords: educational program, Hepatitis-B, pre-experimental design, medical units

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120 A Medical Resource Forecasting Model for Emergency Room Patients with Acute Hepatitis

Authors: R. J. Kuo, W. C. Cheng, W. C. Lien, T. J. Yang


Taiwan is a hyper endemic area for the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The estimated total number of HBsAg carriers in the general population who are more than 20 years old is more than 3 million. Therefore, a case record review is conducted from January 2003 to June 2007 for all patients with a diagnosis of acute hepatitis who were admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) of a well-known teaching hospital. The cost for the use of medical resources is defined as the total medical fee. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) is firstly employed to reduce the number of dimensions. Support vector regression (SVR) and artificial neural network (ANN) are then used to develop the forecasting model. A total of 117 patients meet the inclusion criteria. 61% patients involved in this study are hepatitis B related. The computational result shows that the proposed PCA-SVR model has superior performance than other compared algorithms. In conclusion, the Child-Pugh score and echogram can both be used to predict the cost of medical resources for patients with acute hepatitis in the ED.

Keywords: acute hepatitis, medical resource cost, artificial neural network, support vector regression

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119 Methylprednisolone Injection Did Not Inhibit Anti-Hbs Response Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Mice

Authors: P. O. Ughachukwu, P. O. Okonkwo, P. C. Unekwe, J. O. Ogamba


Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection is high worldwide with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as important complications. Cases of poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination abound. Immunosuppression, especially from glucocorticoids, is often cited as a cause of poor antibody response and there are documented evidences of irrational administration of glucocorticoids to children and adults. The study was, therefore, designed to find out if administration of glucocorticoids affects immune response to vaccination against hepatitis B in mice. Methods: Mice of both sexes were randomly divided into 2 groups. Daily intramuscular methylprednisolone injections, (15 mg kg-1), were given to the test group while sterile deionized water (0.1ml) was given to control mice for 30 days. On day 6 all mice were given 2 μg (0.1ml) hepatitis B vaccine and a booster dose on day 27. On day 34, blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-HBs titres using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 and the results taken as statistically significant at p value < 0.05. Results: There were positive serum anti-HBs responses in all mice groups but the differences in titres were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At the dosages and length of exposure used in this study, methylprednisolone injection did not significantly inhibit anti-HBs response in mice following immunization against hepatitis B virus. By extrapolation, methylprednisolone, when used in the usual clinical doses and duration of therapy, is not likely to inhibit immune response to hepatitis B vaccinations in man.

Keywords: anti-HBs, hepatitis B vaccine, immune response, methylprednisolone, mice

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118 An In-silico Pharmacophore-Based Anti-Viral Drug Development for Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Romasa Qasim, G. M. Sayedur Rahman, Nahid Hasan, M. Shazzad Hosain


Millions of people worldwide suffer from Hepatitis C, one of the fatal diseases. Interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are the available treatments for patients with Hepatitis C, but these treatments have their own side-effects. Our research focused on the development of an orally taken small molecule drug targeting the proteins in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), which has lesser side effects. Our current study aims to the Pharmacophore based drug development of a specific small molecule anti-viral drug for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Drug designing using lab experimentation is not only costly but also it takes a lot of time to conduct such experimentation. Instead in this in silico study, we have used computer-aided techniques to propose a Pharmacophore-based anti-viral drug specific for the protein domains of the polyprotein present in the Hepatitis C Virus. This study has used homology modeling and ab initio modeling for protein 3D structure generation followed by pocket identification in the proteins. Drug-able ligands for the pockets were designed using de novo drug design method. For ligand design, pocket geometry is taken into account. Out of several generated ligands, a new Pharmacophore is proposed, specific for each of the protein domains of HCV.

Keywords: pharmacophore-based drug design, anti-viral drug, in-silico drug design, Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

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117 Prevalence Determination of Hepatitis D Virus Genotypes among HBsAg Positive Patients in Kerman Province of Iran

Authors: Khabat Barkhordari, Ali Mohammad Arabzadeh


Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg in Kerman province of Iran. This cross-sectional study a total of 400 patients with HBV infection attending the clinic center of Besat from 2012 to 2014 were included. We carried out ELISA to detect anti-HDV antibodies. Those testing positive were analyzed further for HDV-RNA and for genotyping using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and RT-nested PCR- sequencing. Among 400 patients in this study, 67 cases (16.75 %) were containing anti-HDV antibody which we found HDV RNA in just 7 (1.75%) serum samples. Analysis of these 7 positive HDV showed that all of them have genotype I. According to current study the HDV prevalence in Kerman is higher than the reported prevalence of 6.6% for Iran as a whole and clade 1 (genotype 1) is the predominant clade of HDV in Kerman.

Keywords: genotyping, hepatitis delta virus, molecular epidemiology, Kerman, Iran

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116 Optimization of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Purifications to Improving the Production of Hepatitis B Vaccines on Pichia pastoris

Authors: Rizky Kusuma Cahyani


Hepatitis B is a liver inflammatory disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). This infection can be prevented by vaccination which contains HBV surface protein (sHBsAg). However, vaccine supply is limited. Several attempts have been conducted to produce local sHBsAg. However, the purity degree and protein yield are still inadequate. Therefore optimization of HBsAg purification steps is required to obtain high yield with better purification fold. In this study, optimization of purification was done in 2 steps, precipitation using variation of NaCl concentration (0,3 M; 0,5 M; 0,7 M) and PEG (3%, 5%, 7%); ion exchange chromatography (IEC) using NaCl 300-500 mM elution buffer concentration.To determine HBsAg protein, bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in this study. Visualization of HBsAg protein was done by SDS-PAGE analysis. Based on quantitative analysis, optimal condition at precipitation step was given 0,3 M NaCl and PEG 3%, while in ion exchange chromatography step, the optimum condition when protein eluted with NaCl 500 mM. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicates that the presence of protein HBsAg with a molecular weight of 25 kDa (monomer) and 50 kDa (dimer). The optimum condition for purification of sHBsAg produced in Pichia pastoris gave a yield of 47% and purification fold 17x so that it would increase the production of hepatitis B vaccine to be more optimal.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen, Pichia pastoris, purification

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115 Molecular Epidemiologic Distribution of HDV Genotypes among Different Ethnic Groups in Iran: A Systematic Review

Authors: Khabat Barkhordari


Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg among different ethnic groups of Iran. This systematic review study reviews the results of different studies which examined 2000 Iranian patients with HBV infection from 2010 to 2015. Among 2000 patients in this study, 16.75 % were containing anti-HDV antibody and HDV RNA was found in just 1.75% cases. All of positive cases also have genotype I.

Keywords: HDV, genotype, epidemiology, distribution

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114 Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses Among Pregnant Women at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi

Authors: Charles Bijjah Nkhata, Memory Nekati Mvula, Milton Masautso Kalongonda, Martha Masamba, Isaac Thom Shawa


Viral Hepatitis is a serious public health concern globally with deaths estimated at 1.4 million annually due to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B and C are the most common viruses that cause liver damage. However, the majority of infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. Viral Hepatitis has contributed to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is no updated data on the Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C among pregnant mothers in Malawi. To assess the epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C viruses among pregnant women at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. Specific Objectives • To determine sero-prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in pregnant women at QECH. • To investigate risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infection in pregnant women. • To determine the distribution of HBsAg and Anti-HCV infection among pregnant women of different age group. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women at QECH in last quarter of 2021. Of the 114 pregnant women, 96 participants were consented and enrolled using a convenient sampling technique. 12 participants were dropped due to various reasons; therefore 84 completed the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and behavior characteristics to assess the risk of exposure. Serum was processed from venous blood samples and tested for HBsAg and Anti-HCV markers utilizing Rapid screening assays for screening and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for confirmatory. A total of 84 pregnant consenting pregnant women participated in the study, with 1.2% (n=1/84) testing positive for HBsAg and nobody had detectable anti-HCV antibodies. There was no significant link between HBV and HCV in any of the socio-demographic data or putative risk variables. The findings indicate a viral hepatitis prevalence lower than the set range by the WHO. This suggests that HBV and HCV are rare in pregnant women at QECH. Nevertheless, accessible screening for all pregnant women should be provided. The prevention of MTCT is key for reduction and prevention of the global burden of chronic viral Hepatitis.

Keywords: viral hepatitis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, pregnancy, malawi, liver disease, mother to child transmission

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113 The Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viral Infections among Autopsy Cases in Jordan

Authors: Emad Al-Abdallat, Faris G. Bakri, Azmi Mahafza, Rayyan Al Ali, Nidaa Ababneh, Ahmed Idhair


Background: Morgues are high-risk areas for the spread of infection from the cadavers to the staff during the postmortem examination. Infection can spread from corpses to workers by the airborne route, by direct contact, or from needle and sharp object injuries. Objective: Knowledge about the prevalence of these infections among autopsies is prudent to appreciate any risk of transmission and to further enforce safety measures. Method: A total of 242 autopsies were tested. Age ranged from 3 days to 94 years (median 75.5 years, mean 45.3 (21.9 ± SD)). There were 172 (71%) males. Results: The cause of death was considered natural in 137 (56.6%) cases, accidental in 89 (36.8%), homicidal in 9 (3.7%), suicidal in 4 (1.7%), and unknown in 3 (1.2%). Hepatitis B surface antigen was positive in 5 (2.1%) cases. Hepatitis C virus antibody was detected in 5 (2.1%) cases and the hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction was positive in 2 of them (0.8%). HIV antibody was not detected in any of the cases. Conclusions: Autopsies can be associated with exposure to blood borne viruses. Autopsies performed during the study period were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody. Positive tests were subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. There is low prevalence of infections with these viruses in our autopsy cases. However, the risk of transmission remains a threat. Healthcare workers in the forensic departments should adhere to standard precautions.

Keywords: autopsy, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Jordan

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112 Detection and Distribution Pattern of Prevelant Genotypes of Hepatitis C in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western India

Authors: Upasana Bhumbla


Background: Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, which can further lead to cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Worldwide the burden of Hepatitis C infection has become a serious threat to the human race. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has population-specific genotypes and provides valuable epidemiological and therapeutic information. Genotyping and assessment of viral load in HCV patients are important for planning the therapeutic strategies. The aim of the study is to study the changing trends of prevalence and genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Methods: It is a retrospective study; blood samples were collected and tested for anti HCV antibodies by ELISA in Dept. of Microbiology. In seropositive Hepatitis C patients, quantification of HCV-RNA was done by real-time PCR and in HCV-RNA positive samples, genotyping was conducted. Results: A total of 114 patients who were seropositive for Anti HCV were recruited in the study, out of which 79 (69.29%) were HCV-RNA positive. Out of these positive samples, 54 were further subjected to genotype determination using real-time PCR. Genotype was not detected in 24 samples due to low viral load; 30 samples were positive for genotype. Conclusion: Knowledge of genotype is crucial for the management of HCV infection and prediction of prognosis. Patients infected with HCV genotype 1 and 4 will have to receive Interferon and Ribavirin for 48 weeks. Patients with these genotypes show a poor sustained viral response when tested 24 weeks after completion of therapy. On the contrary, patients infected with HCV genotype 2 and 3 are reported to have a better response to therapy.

Keywords: hepatocellular, genotype, ribavarin, seropositive

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111 Seroprevalence of Hepatitis a Virus Infection among General Population in Central-West Tunisia

Authors: Jihene Bettaieb, Kaouther Ayouni, Ghassen Kharroubi, Rym Mallekh, Walid Hammemi, Afif Ben Salah, Henda Triki


In Tunisia, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) represents a public health concern. Due to the progress in sanitation and socio-economic conditions, the epidemiology of HAV has shown dynamic changes over the past years. This study aimed to investigate the current seroprevalence of HAV antibodies (anti-HAV) among the residents of Thala, a rural setting in central-west Tunisia, to determine the age-specific seroprevalence for HAV infection and co-infection with hepatitis C and B virus. A total of 1379 subjects (mean age: 25.0 ± 17.3 years, 555 males/ 824 females) were recruited between January and June 2014. The study population included 95 individuals previously known as hepatitis C positive. Serum samples were collected and screened for the detection of IgG anti-HAV, HBsAg, and HBcAb by the Elisa Test. The overall anti- HAV seroprevalence was about 84.7%. There was no statistically significant difference between males and females. On the 1379 tested individual, 219 were positive for HBcAb, and 67 were positive for HBsAg. IgG anti- HAV were positive in 80.6% of HBsAg-positive patients (54 out of 67), 81.3% of HBcAb-positive patients (178 out of 219), and in 95.8% of HCV-positive patients (91 out of 95). HBV infection and HCV infection were statistically associated with a greater risk of positive anti-HAV antibody (p < 0.001). Our study revealed that Thala represents an intermediate endemicity level and that the introduction of vaccination against HAV in this region is recommended, especially for the hepatitis B or C infected person seronegative for HAV.

Keywords: coinfection, hepatitis A, seroprevalence, Tunisia

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110 Predictive Value of Hepatitis B Core-Related Antigen (HBcrAg) during Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Authors: Yanhua Zhao, Yu Gou, Shu Feng, Dongdong Li, Chuanmin Tao


The natural history of HBV infection could experience immune tolerant (IT), immune clearance (IC), HBeAg-negative inactive/quienscent carrier (ENQ), and HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH). As current biomarkers for discriminating these four phases have some weaknesses, additional serological indicators are needed. Hepatits B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) encoded with precore/core gene contains denatured HBeAg, HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and a 22KDa precore protein (p22cr), which was demonstrated to have a close association with natural history of hepatitis B infection, but no specific cutoff values and diagnostic parameters to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy. This study aimed to clarify the distribution of HBcrAg levels and evaluate its diagnostic performance during the natural history of infection from a Western Chinese perspective. 294 samples collected from treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in different phases (IT=64; IC=72; ENQ=100, and ENH=58). We detected the HBcrAg values and analyzed the relationship between HBcrAg and HBV DNA. HBsAg and other clinical parameters were quantitatively tested. HBcrAg levels of four phases were 9.30 log U/mL, 8.80 log U/mL, 3.00 log U/mL, and 5.10 logU/mL, respectively (p < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the area under curves (AUCs) of HBcrAg and quantitative HBsAg at cutoff values of 9.25 log U/mL and 4.355 log IU/mL for distinguishing IT from IC phases were 0.704 and 0.694, with sensitivity 76.39% and 59.72%, specificity 53.13% and 79.69%, respectively. AUCs of HBcrAg and quantitative HBsAg at cutoff values of 4.15 log U/mlmL and 2.395 log IU/mlmL for discriminating between ENQ and ENH phases were 0.931 and 0.653, with sensitivity 87.93% and 84%, specificity 91.38% and 39%, respectively. Therefore, HBcrAg levels varied significantly among four natural phases of HBV infection. It had higher predictive performance than quantitative HBsAg for distinguishing between ENQ-patients and ENH-patients and similar performance with HBsAg for the discrimination between IT and IC phases, which indicated that HBcrAg could be a potential serological marker for CHB.

Keywords: chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B core-related antigen, hepatitis B surface antigens, hepatitis B virus

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109 From Type-I to Type-II Fuzzy System Modeling for Diagnosis of Hepatitis

Authors: Shahabeddin Sotudian, M. H. Fazel Zarandi, I. B. Turksen


Hepatitis is one of the most common and dangerous diseases that affects humankind, and exposes millions of people to serious health risks every year. Diagnosis of Hepatitis has always been a challenge for physicians. This paper presents an effective method for diagnosis of hepatitis based on interval Type-II fuzzy. This proposed system includes three steps: pre-processing (feature selection), Type-I and Type-II fuzzy classification, and system evaluation. KNN-FD feature selection is used as the preprocessing step in order to exclude irrelevant features and to improve classification performance and efficiency in generating the classification model. In the fuzzy classification step, an “indirect approach” is used for fuzzy system modeling by implementing the exponential compactness and separation index for determining the number of rules in the fuzzy clustering approach. Therefore, we first proposed a Type-I fuzzy system that had an accuracy of approximately 90.9%. In the proposed system, the process of diagnosis faces vagueness and uncertainty in the final decision. Thus, the imprecise knowledge was managed by using interval Type-II fuzzy logic. The results that were obtained show that interval Type-II fuzzy has the ability to diagnose hepatitis with an average accuracy of 93.94%. The classification accuracy obtained is the highest one reached thus far. The aforementioned rate of accuracy demonstrates that the Type-II fuzzy system has a better performance in comparison to Type-I and indicates a higher capability of Type-II fuzzy system for modeling uncertainty.

Keywords: hepatitis disease, medical diagnosis, type-I fuzzy logic, type-II fuzzy logic, feature selection

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108 A Mathematical Model for Hepatitis B Virus Infection and the Impact of Vaccination on Its Dynamics

Authors: T. G. Kassem, A. K. Adunchezor, J. P. Chollom


This paper describes a mathematical model developed to predict the dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to evaluate the potential impact of vaccination and treatment on its dynamics. We used a compartmental model expressed by a set of differential equations based on the characteristic of HBV transmission. With these, we find the threshold quantity R0, then find the local asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease free and endemic equilibrium.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, epidemiology, vaccination, mathematical model

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107 A Vaccination Program to Control an Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis A among MSM in Taiwan, 2016

Authors: Ying-Jung Hsieh, Angela S. Huang, Chu-Ming Chiu, Yu-Min Chou, Chin-Hui Yang


Background and Objectives: Hepatitis A is primarily acquired by the fecal-oral route through person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water. During 2010 to 2014, an average of 83 cases of locally-acquired disease was reported to Taiwan’s notifiable disease system. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC) identified an outbreak of acute hepatitis A which began in June 2015. Of the 126 cases reported in 2015, 103 (82%) cases were reported during June–December and 95 cases (92%) of them were male. The average age of all male cases was 31 years (median, 29 years; range, 15–76 years). Among the 95 male cases, 49 (52%) were also infected with HIV, and all reported to have had sex with other men. To control this outbreak, TCDC launched a free hepatitis A vaccination program in January 2016 for close contacts of confirmed hepatitis A cases, including family members, sexual partners, and household contacts. Effect of the vaccination program was evaluated. Methods: All cases of hepatitis A reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System were included. A case of hepatitis A was defined as a locally-acquired disease in a person who had acute clinical symptoms include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea or abdominal discomfort compatible with hepatitis, and tested positive for anti-HAV IgM during June 2015 to June 2016 in Taiwan. The rate of case accumulation was calculated using a simple regression model. Results: During January–June 2016, there were 466 cases of hepatitis A reported; of the 243 (52%) who were also infected with HIV, 232 (95%) had a history of having sex with men. Of the 346 cases that were followed up, 259 (75%) provided information on contacts but only 14 (5%) of them provided the name of their sexual partners. Among the 602 contacts reported, 349 (58%) were family members, 14 (2%) were sexual partners, and 239 (40%) were other household contacts. Among the 602 contacts eligible for free hepatitis A vaccination, 440 (73%) received the vaccine. There were 87 (25%) cases that refused to disclose their close contacts. The average case accumulation rate during January–June 2016 was 21.7 cases per month, which was 6.8 times compared to the average case accumulation rate during June–December 2015 of 3.2 cases per month. Conclusions: Despite vaccination program aimed to provide free hepatitis A vaccine to close contacts of hepatitis A patients, the outbreak continued and even gained momentum in transmission. Refusal by hepatitis A patients to provide names of their close contacts and rejection of contacts to take the hepatitis A vaccine may have contributed to the poor effect of the program. Targeted vaccination efforts of all MSM may be needed to control the outbreak among this population in the short term. In the long term, universal vaccination program is needed to prevent the infection of hepatitis A.

Keywords: hepatitis A, HIV, men who have sex with men, vaccination

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106 Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in Assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4

Authors: G. Shiha, S. Seif, W. Samir, K. Zalata


Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4 FibroTest (FT) is non-invasive score of liver fibrosis that combines the quantitative results of 5 serum biochemical markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and bilirubin) and adjusted with the patient's age and sex in a patented algorithm to generate a measure of fibrosis. FT has been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (Halfon et al., Gastroenterol. Clin Biol.( 2008), 32 6suppl 1, 22-39). The validation of fibro test ( FT) in genotype IV is not well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of FibroTest in an independent prospective cohort of hepatitis C patients with genotype 4. Subject was 122 patients with CHC. All liver biopsies were scored using METAVIR system. Our fibrosis score(FT) were measured, and the performance of the cut-off score were done using ROC curve. Among patients with advanced fibrosis, the FT was identically matched with the liver biopsy in 18.6%, overestimated the stage of fibrosis in 44.2% and underestimated the stage of fibrosis in 37.7% of cases. Also in patients with no/mild fibrosis, identical matching was detected in 39.2% of cases with overestimation in 48.1% and underestimation in 12.7%. So, the overall results of the test were identical matching, overestimation and underestimation in 32%, 46.7% and 21.3% respectively. Using ROC curve it was found that (FT) at the cut-off point of 0.555 could discriminate early from advanced stages of fibrosis with an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.72, sensitivity of 65%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 68%, NPV of 66% and accuracy of 67%. As FibroTest Score overestimates the stage of advanced fibrosis, it should not be considered as a reliable surrogate for liver biopsy in hepatitis C infection with genotype 4.

Keywords: fibrotest, chronic Hepatitis C, genotype 4, liver biopsy

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105 Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Healthcare Workers in Dutse Metropolis, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: N. M. Sani, I. Bitrus, A. M. Sarki, N. S. Mujahid


Hepatitis is one of the neglected infectious diseases in sub Saharan Africa, and most of the available data is based on blood donors. Health care workers (HCWs) often get infected as a result of their close contact with patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among this group of professionals with a view to improving the quality of care to their patients. Hepatitis B and C infections pose a major public health problem worldwide. While infection is highest in the developing world particularly Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, healthcare workers are at higher risk of acquiring blood-borne viral infections, particularly Hepatitis B and C which are mostly asymptomatic. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and associated risk factors among health care workers in Dutse Metropolis, Jigawa State - Nigeria. A standard rapid immuno-chromatographic technique i.e. rapid ELISA was used to screen all sera for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis C viral antibody (HCVAb) respectively. Strips containing coated antibodies and antigens to HBV and HCV respectively were removed from the foil. Strips were labeled according to samples. Using a separate disposable pipette, 2 drops of the sample (plasma) were added into each test strip and allowed to run across the absorbent pad. Results were read after 15 minutes. The prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in 100 healthcare workers was determined by testing the plasma collected from the clients during their normal checkup using HBsAg and HCVAb test strips. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test. The prevalence of HBV among HCWs was 19 out of 100 (19.0%) and that of HCV was 5 out of 100 (5.0%) where in both cases, higher prevalence was observed among female nurses. It was also observed that all HCV positive cases were recorded among nurses only. The study revealed that nurses are at greater risk of contracting HBV and HCV due to their frequent contact with patients. It is therefore recommended that effective vaccination and other infection control measures be encouraged among healthcare workers.

Keywords: prevalence, hepatitis, viruses, healthcare workers, infection

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104 A Case Study of Response to Dual Genotype Chronic Hepatitis C/HIV Co-Infection to Fixed Dose Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir

Authors: Tabassum Yasmin, Hamid Pahlevan


HIV/Hepatitis C co-infection treatments have evolved substantially and they have similar sustained virologic response rates as those of Hepatitis C monoinfected population. There are a few studies on therapy of patients with dual genotypes, especially in HIV/Hepatic C coinfected group. Most studies portrayed case reports of dual genotype chronic Hepatitis C coinfection treatment with Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir and Ribavirin. A 79-year-old male with a history of HIV on Truvada and Isentress had chronic Hepatitis C with 1a and 2 genotypes. The patient has a history of alcohol intake for 40 years but recently stopped drinking alcohol. He has a history of intravenous drug use in the past and currently is not using any recreational drugs. Patient has Fibro score of 0.7 with Metavir score F2 to F4. AFP is 3.2. The HCV RNA is 493,034 IU/ML. The HBV viral DNA is < 1.30 (not detected). The CD4 is 687CU/MM. The FIB 4 is 3.34 with APRI index 0.717. The HIV viral load is 101 copies/ML. MRI abdomen did not show any liver abnormality. Fixed dose Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir was used for therapy without Ribavirin. He tolerated medication except for some minor gastrointestinal side effects like abdominal bloating. He demonstrated 100% adherence rate. Patient completed 12 weeks of therapy. HCV RNA was undetectable at 4 and 12 weeks. He achieved SVR at week 12 and subsequently had undetectable RNA for 2 years. Dual genotype prevalence in chronic hepatitis C population is rare, especially in HIV/hepatic coinfection. Our case demonstrates that dual genotypic cases can still be successfully treated with Direct Acting Antiviral agents. The newer agents for therapy for pan genotypes were not available at the time the patient was being treated. We demonstrated that dual agent therapy was still able to maintain SVR in our patient.

Keywords: HIV/Hepatitis C, SVR (sustained virologic response), DAA (direct active antiviral agents, dual genotype

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103 Autoimmune Diseases Associated to Autoimmune Hepatitis: A Retrospective Study of 24 Tunisian Patients

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Elhem Ben Jazia


Introduction: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease of unknown cause. Concomitant autoimmune disorders have been described in 30–50% of patients with AIH. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence and the type of autoimmune disorders associated with AIH. Material and Methods: It is a retrospective study over a period of 16 years (2000-2015) including all patients followed for AIH. The diagnosis of AHI was based on the criteria of the revised International AIH group scoring system (IAIHG). Results: Twenty-for patients (21 women and 3 men) followed for AIH were collected. The mean age was 39 years (17-65 years). Among these patients, 11 patients(45.8%) had at least one autoimmune disease associated to AIH. These diseases were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 5), Gougerot Sjogren syndrome (n=5), Primary biliary cirrhosis (n=2), Primitive sclerosant Cholangitis (n=1), Addison disease (n = 1) and systemic sclerosis (n=1). Patients were treated with corticosteroids alone or with azathioprine associated to the specific treatment of associated diseases with complete remission of AIH in 90% of cases and clinical improvement of other diseases. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in AIH patients was 45.8%. These diseases were dominated by autoimmune thyroiditis and Gougerot Sjogren syndrome. The investigation of autoimmune diseases in autoimmune hepatitis must be systematic because of their frequency and the importance of adequate management.

Keywords: autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune thyroiditis, gougerot sjogren syndrome

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102 In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Anti-Hepatitis B Activitis of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Fractions

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari


Cyperus rotendus rhizomes are used as traditional medicine, including Ayurveda in chronic liver diseases and hepatitis B. We investigated the in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of Cyperus rotundus rhizome organic and aqueous fractions. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-injured HepG2 cells at 48 h. DCFH-toxicated cells were recovered to about 88% and 96%, upon treatment with n-butanol and aqueous fractions (200 g/ml), respectively compared to DCFH-only treated cells. Further, C. rotundus fractions were tested for anti-HBV activities by measuring the expression levels of viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 culture supernatants. At 48 h post-treatment, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed dose-dependent inhibition wherein at a higher dose (100 g/ml), HBsAg production was reduced to 60.27%, 46.87 and 42.76%, respectively. In a time-course study, HBsAg production was inhibited up to 50% and 40% by ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (100 g/ml), respectively on day 5. Three three active fractions were further subjected to time-dependent inhibition of HBeAg expression, an indirect measure of HBV active DNA replication. At day 5 post-treatment, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions downregulated HBV replication by 44.14% and 24.70%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed very promising hepatoprotective and anti-HBV potential of C. rotendus tubers fractions in vitro. Our data could, therefore, provide the basis for the claimed traditional use of C. rotendus for jaundice and hepatitis.

Keywords: anti-hepatitis B, cyperus rotundus, hepatitis B virus, hepatoprotection

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101 Comparison between Transient Elastography (FibroScan) and Liver Biopsy for Diagnosis of Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Seham Seif, Shahera Etreby, Khaled Zalata, Waleed Samir


Background: Transient Elastography (TE; FibroScan®) is a non-invasive technique to assess liver fibrosis. Aim: To compare TE and liver biopsy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, genotype IV and evaluate the effect of steatosis and schistosomiasis on FibroScan. Methods: The fibrosis stage (METAVIR Score) TE, was assessed in 519 patients. The diagnostic performance of FibroScan is assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). Results: The cut-off value of ≥ F2 was 8.55 kPa, ≥ F3 was 10.2 kPa and cirrhosis = F4 was 16.3 kPa. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 70.1% and 81.7% for the diagnosis of ≥ F2, 62.6% and 96.22% for F ≥ 3, and 27.7% and 100% for F4. No significant difference between schistosomiasis, steatosis degree and FibroScan measurements. Conclusion: Fibroscan could accurately predict liver fibrosis.

Keywords: chronic hepatitis C, FibroScan, liver biopsy, liver fibrosis

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100 Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Associated Factors among Pregnant Mothers Attending Antenatal Care Service, Mekelle, Ethiopia: Evidence from Institutional Based Quantitative Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Semaw A., Awet H., Yohannes M.


Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major global public health problem. Individuals living in Sub-Sahara Africa have 60% lifetime risk of acquiring HBV infection. Evidences showed that 80-90% of those born from infected mothers developed chronic HBV. Perinatal HBV transmission is a major determinant of HBV carrier status, its chronic squeal and maintains HBV transmission across generations. Method: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 406 pregnant mothers attending Antenatal clinics at Mekelle and Ayder referral hospital from January 30 to April 1/2014. Epidata version 3.1 was used for data entry and SPSS version 21 statistical software was used for data cleaning, management and finally determine associated factors of hepatitis B surface antigen adjusting important confounders using multivariable logistic regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Result: The overall prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women was 33 (8.1%). The socio-demographic characteristic of the study population showed that there is high positivity among secondary school 189 (46.6%). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, history of a contact with individuals who had history of hepatitis B infection or jaundice and lifetime number of multiple sexual partners were found to be significantly associated with HBsAg positivity at AOR = 3.73 95%C.I (1.373-10.182) and AOR = 2.57 95%C.I (1.173-5.654), respectively. Moreover, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and HBV confection rate was found 3.6%. Conclusion: This study has shown that HBV prevalence in pregnant women is highly prevalent (8.1%) in the study area. Contact with individuals who had a history of hepatitis or have jaundice and report of multiple lifetime sexual partnership were associated with hepatitis B infection. Education about HBV transmission and prevention as well as screening all pregnant mothers shall be sought to reduce the serious public health crisis of HBV.

Keywords: HBsAg, hepatitis B, pregnant women, prevalence

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99 Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Nariman Sepehrvand, Khalkhali-Zahra Shirmohamadi


Background: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy-associated deaths in southern Asia. Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro). Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years). Only five cases (3.6%) among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), income level (P=0.19) of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.

Keywords: pregnancy, hepatitis E, women, ELISA

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98 Still Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Despite Proper Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Authors: Sila Akhan, Muge Toygar, Murat Sayan, Simge Fidan


Chronic viral hepatitis B, C, and D can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis and death. The proper treatment reduce the risk of development of HCC importantly, but not to zero point. Materials and Methods: We analysed retrospectively our chronic viral hepatitis B, C and D patients who attended to our Infectious Diseases policlinic between 2004-2018. From 589 biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis patients 3 have hepatocellular carcinoma on our follow up. First case is 74 years old patient. His HCV infection diagnosis was made 8 years ago. First treatment was pegylated interferon plus ribavirin only 28 weeks, because of HCV RNA breakthrough under treatment. In 2013 he was retreated with telaprevir, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin 24 weeks. But at the end of the therapy HCV RNA was found 1.290.000 IU/mL. He has abdominal ultrasonography (US) controls and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 6 months intervals. All seemed normal until 2015 then he has an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and found HCC by chance. His treatment began in Oncology Clinic after verified with biopsy of HCC. And then sofosbuvir/ledipasvir was given to him for HCV 24 weeks. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was obtained. He is on cure for HCV infection and under control of Oncology for HCC. Second patient is 36 years old man. He knows his HBV infection since 2008. HBsAg and HBeAg positive; HDV RNA negative. Liver biopsy revealed grade:4, stage 3-4 according modified Knodell scoring system. In 2010 tenofovir treatment was began. His abdominal US and AFP were normal. His controls took place at 6 months intervals and HBV DNA negative, US, and AFP were normal until 2016 continuously. AFP found 37 above the normal range and then HCC was found in MRI. Third patient is 57 years old man. As hepatitis B infection was first diagnosed; he has cirrhosis and was began tenofovir as treatment. In short time he has HCC despite normal AFP values. Conclusion: In Mediterranian countries including Turkey naturally occurring pre-S/S variants are more than 75% of all chronic hepatitis B patients. This variants may contribute to the development of progressive liver damage and hepatocarcinogenesis. HCV-induced development of HCC is a gradual process and is affected by the duration of disease and viral genotype. All the chronic viral hepatitis patients should be followed up in 6 months intervals not only with US and AFP for HCC. Despite they have proper treatment there is always the risk development of HCC. Chronic hepatitis patients cannot be dropped from follow up even treated well.

Keywords: HCC, HCV, HBV, DAA

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97 A Time since of Injection Model for Hepatitis C Amongst People Who Inject Drugs

Authors: Nader Al-Rashidi, David Greenhalgh


Mathematical modelling techniques are now being used by health organizations worldwide to help understand the likely impact that intervention strategies treatment options and combinations of these have on the prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the people who inject drugs (PWID) population. In this poster, we develop a deterministic, compartmental mathematical model to approximate the spread of the HCV in a PWID population that has been divided into two groups by time since onset of injection. The model assumes that after injection needles adopt the most infectious state of their previous state or that of the PWID who last injected with them. Using analytical techniques, we find that the model behaviour is determined by the basic reproductive number R₀, where R₀ = 1 is a critical threshold separating two different outcomes. The disease-free equilibrium is globally stable if R₀ ≤ 1 and unstable if R₀ > 1. Additionally, we make some simulations where have confirmed that the model tends to this endemic equilibrium value with realistic parameter values giving an HCV prevalence.

Keywords: hepatitis C, people who inject drugs, HCV, PWID

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96 The Risk of Deaths from Viral Hepatitis among the Female Workers in the Beauty Service Industry

Authors: Byeongju Choi, Sanggil Lee, Kyung-Eun Lee


Introduction: In the republic of Korea, the number of workers in the beauty industry has been increasing. Because the prevalence of hepatitis B carriers in Korea is higher than in other countries, the risk of blood-borne infection including viral hepatitis B and C, among the workers by using the sharp and contaminated instruments during procedure can be expected among beauty salon workers. However, the health care policies for the workers to prevent the blood-borne infection are not established due to the lack of evidences. Moreover, the workers in hair and nail salon were mostly employed at small businesses, where national mandatory systems or policies for workers’ health management are not applied. In this study, the risk of the viral hepatitis B and C from the job experiencing the hair and nail procedures in the mortality was assessed. Method: We conducted a retrospective review of the job histories and causes of death in the female deaths from 2006-2016. 132,744 of female deaths who had one more job experiences during their lifetime were included in this study. Job histories were assessed using the employment insurance database in Korea Employment Information Service (KEIS) and the causes of death were in death statistics produced by Statistics Korea. Case group (n= 666) who died from viral hepatitis was classified the death having record involved in ‘B15-B19’ as a cause of deaths based on Korean Standard Classification of Diseases(KCD) with the deaths from other causes, control group (n=132,078). The group of the workers in the beauty service industry were defined as the employees who had ever worked in the industry coded as ‘9611’ based on Korea Standard Industry Classification (KSIC) and others were others. Other than job histories, birth year, marital status, education level were investigated from the death statistics. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the risk of deaths from viral hepatitis in the case and control group. Result: The number of the deaths having ever job experiences at the hair and nail salon was 255. After adjusting confounders of age, marital status and education, the odds ratio(OR) for deaths from viral hepatitis was quite high in the group having experiences with working in the beauty service industry with 3.14(95% confidence interval(CI) 1.00-9.87). Other associated factors with increasing the risk of deaths from viral hepatitis were low education level(OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.73), married women (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.02-1.97). Conclusion: The risk of deaths from viral hepatitis were high in the workers in the beauty service industry but not statistically significant, which might attributed from the small number of workers in beauty service industry. It was likely that the number of workers in beauty service industry could be underestimated due to their temporary job position. Further studies evaluating the status and the incidence of viral infection among the workers with consideration of the vertical transmission would be required.

Keywords: beauty service, viral hepatitis, blood-borne infection, viral infection

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95 Molecular Comparison of HEV Isolates from Sewage & Humans at Western India

Authors: Nidhi S. Chandra, Veena Agrawal, Debprasad Chattopadhyay


Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. It spreads feco orally mainly due to contamination of drinking water by sewage. There is limited data on the genotypic comparison of HEV isolates from sewage water and humans. The aim of this study was to identify genotype and conduct phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from sewage water and humans. Materials and Methods: 14 sewage water and 60 serum samples from acute sporadic hepatitis E cases (negative for hepatitis A, B, C) were tested for HEV-RNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (RTnPCR) using primers designed with in RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) region of open reading frame-1 (ORF-1). Sequencing was done by ABI prism 310. The sequences (343 nucleotides) were compared with each other and were aligned with previously reported HEV sequences obtained from GeneBank, using Clustal W software. A Phylogenetic tree was constructed by using PHYLIP version 3.67 software. Results: HEV-RNA was detected in 49/ 60 (81.67%) serum and 5/14 (35.71%) sewage samples. The sequences obtained from 17 serums and 2 sewage specimens belonged to genotype I with 85% similarity and clustering with previously reported human HEV sequences from India. HEV isolates from human and sewage in North West India are genetically closely related to each other. Conclusion: These finding suggest that sewage acts as reservoir of HEV. Therefore it is important that measures are taken for proper waste disposal and treatment of drinking water to prevent outbreaks and epidemics due to HEV.

Keywords: hepatitis E virus, nested polymerase chain reaction, open reading frame-1, nucleotidies

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94 High Rate of Dual Carriage of Hepatitis B Surface and Envelope Antigen in Gombe in Infants and Young Children, North-East Nigeria: 2000-2015

Authors: E. Isaac, I. Jalo, Y. Alkali, A. Ajani, A. Rasaki, Y. Jibrin, K. Mustapha, S. Charanchi, A. Kudi, H. Danlami


Introduction: Hepatitis B infection is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where transmission predominantly occurs in infants and children by perinatal and horizontal routes. The risk of chronic infection peaks when infection is acquired early. Materials and Methods: Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen results in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Results: Paediatric outpatient visits and in-patient admissions were 64,193 accounting for 13% of total. Individuals tested for Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia were 23,866. Children aged 0-18 years constituted 11% (2,626). Among children tested, males accounted for 52.8% (1386/2626) and females 47.2% (1240/2626). Infants contributed 65 (2.3%); 1-4 year old children 309 (11.7%); 5-9 year old children 564 (21.4%) and adolescents 1717 (65.1%). HbSAg sero-positivity was 18% (496/2626) among children tested. The highest number of children tested per year was in 2009 (518) and 2014 (569) and the lowest, in the first study year (62). The highest sero-positivity rate was in 2010; 21.7% (54/255). Children aged 0-18years accounted for 10.5% (496/4720) of individuals with Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. Sero-positivity was 3.1% (2/65); 12.9% (40/309); 18.1% (102/564); and 20.5% (352/1717) in infants, children ages 1-4years, 5-9years and adolescents respectively. 2.5% (1/40) and 4% (1/25) of male and female infants respectively had HbSAg. Among children aged 1-4years, 15.1% (30/198) of males and 9.0% (10/111) of females were seropositive; 14.8% (52/350) and 22% (50/224) of male and female 5-9year old children respectively has HbSAg. 14.3% (138/943) of adolescent females had Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. Adolescent males demonstrated the highest sero-positivity rate 27.6% (214/774). 97.3% (483/496) of children who demonstrated Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia were tested for dual carriage with the e antigen. Males accounted for 296/483 (63.1%) and females 187/483 (36.9%). Infants constituted 0.97% (4/482); children aged 1-4years, 5-9years and adolescents were 6.8% (33/483); 20.9% (100/483) and 71.3% (342/483) respectively. 17.6% (85/483) of children tested had HBe antigenaemia. Of these, males accounted for 69.4% (59/85). 1.2% (1/85) were infants; 9.4% (8/85%) 1-4years; 22.3% (19/85) 5-9years and 68.2% (58/85) adolescents. 25% (1/4) infants; 24% (8/33) children aged 1-4 years; 19% (19/100) 5-9 year old children and 16.9% (58/342) adolescents had dual carriage. Infants and young children demonstrated the highest rate of dual carriage but were less likely to be tested for dual carriage 37/42 (88%) than their 5-9 year old 98% (100/102) and adolescent 342/352 (97%) counterparts. HB e antigen positivity rate was 45.4% (59/130) males and 36.0% (27/75) in females. Conclusion: Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia is high among adolescent males. Infants and young children who had HBSAg had the highest rate of envelope antigen carriage. Testing in pregnancy, vaccination programmes and prophylaxis need to be strengthened.

Keywords: children, dual carriage, Gombe, hepatitis B

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