Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10221

Search results for: multiple access technique

10221 Design and Performance Improvement of Three-Dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access Networks with NAND Detection Technique

Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja


In this paper, we have presented and analyzed three-dimensional (3-D) matrices of wavelength/time/space code for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with NAND subtraction detection technique. The 3-D codes are constructed by integrating a two-dimensional modified quadratic congruence (MQC) code with one-dimensional modified prime (MP) code. The respective encoders and decoders were designed using fiber Bragg gratings and optical delay lines to minimize the bit error rate (BER). The performance analysis of the 3D-OCDMA system is based on measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), BER and eye diagram for a different number of simultaneous users. Also, in the analysis, various types of noises and multiple access interference (MAI) effects were considered. The results obtained with NAND detection technique were compared with those obtained with OR and AND subtraction techniques. The comparison results proved that the NAND detection technique with 3-D MQC\MP code can accommodate more number of simultaneous users for longer distances of fiber with minimum BER as compared to OR and AND subtraction techniques. The received optical power is also measured at various levels of BER to analyze the effect of attenuation.

Keywords: Cross Correlation (CC), Three dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access (3-D OCDMA), Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA), Multiple Access Interference (MAI), Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN), Three Dimensional Modified Quadratic Congruence/Modified Prime (3-D MQC/MP) code

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10220 Performance Analysis of SAC-OCDMA System using Different Detectors

Authors: Somaya A. Abd El Mottaleb, Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Heba A. Fayed, Moustafa H. Aly


In this paper, we present the performance of spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access using different detectors at different transmission distances using single photodiode detection technique. Modified double weight codes are used as signature codes. Simulation results show that the system using avalanche photo detector can move distance longer than that using positive intrinsic negative photo detector.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, modified double weight, multiple access technique, single photodiode.

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10219 Performance Analysis of 5G for Low Latency Transmission Based on Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier Technique and Interleave Division Multiple Access

Authors: A. Asgharzadeh, M. Maroufi


5G mobile communication system has drawn more and more attention. The 5G system needs to provide three different types of services, including enhanced Mobile BroadBand (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC). Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC), Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC), and Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (f-OFDM) are suggested as a well-known candidate waveform for the coming 5G system. Themachine-to-machine (M2M) communications are one of the essential applications in 5G, and it involves exchanging of concise messages with a very short latency. However, in UFMC systems, the subcarriers are grouped into subbands but f-OFDM only one subband covers the entire band. Furthermore, in FBMC, a subband includes only one subcarrier, and the number of subbands is the same as the number of subcarriers. This paper mainly discusses the performance of UFMC with different parameters for the UFMC system. Also, paper shows that UFMC is the best choice outperforming OFDM in any case and FBMC in case of very short packets while performing similarly for long sequences with channel estimation techniques for Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) systems.

Keywords: universal filtered multi-carrier technique, UFMC, interleave division multiple access, IDMA, fifth-generation, subband

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10218 Performance Evaluation of Distributed and Co-Located MIMO LTE Physical Layer Using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform

Authors: Ishak Suleiman, Ahmad Kamsani Samingan, Yeoh Chun Yeow, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman


In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of distributed 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink systems compared to that of the co-located 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink system. The performance evaluation was carried out experimentally by using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP), where the comparison between the 4x4 MIMO LTE transmission downlink system in distributed and co-located techniques was examined. The measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results showed that the distributed technique achieved better system performance compared to the co-located arrangement.

Keywords: multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO), distributed MIMO, co-located MIMO, LTE

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10217 Performance Analysis of IDMA Scheme Using Quasi-Cyclic Low Density Parity Check Codes

Authors: Anurag Saxena, Alkesh Agrawal, Dinesh Kumar


The next generation mobile communication systems i.e. fourth generation (4G) was developed to accommodate the quality of service and required data rate. This project focuses on multiple access technique proposed in 4G communication systems. It is attempted to demonstrate the IDMA (Interleave Division Multiple Access) technology. The basic principle of IDMA is that interleaver is different for each user whereas CDMA employs different signatures. IDMA inherits many advantages of CDMA such as robust against fading, easy cell planning; dynamic channel sharing and IDMA increase the spectral efficiency and reduce the receiver complexity. In this, performance of IDMA is analyzed using QC-LDPC coding scheme further it is compared with LDPC coding and at last BER is calculated and plotted in MATLAB.

Keywords: 4G, QC-LDPC, CDMA, IDMA

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10216 Performance Analysis of Multichannel OCDMA-FSO Network under Different Pervasive Conditions

Authors: Saru Arora, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh


To meet the growing need of high data rate and bandwidth, various efforts has been made nowadays for the efficient communication systems. Optical Code Division Multiple Access over Free space optics communication system seems an effective role for providing transmission at high data rate with low bit error rate and low amount of multiple access interference. This paper demonstrates the OCDMA over FSO communication system up to the range of 7000 m at a data rate of 5 Gbps. Initially, the 8 user OCDMA-FSO system is simulated and pseudo orthogonal codes are used for encoding. Also, the simulative analysis of various performance parameters like power and core effective area that are having an effect on the Bit error rate (BER) of the system is carried out. The simulative analysis reveals that the length of the transmission is limited by the multi-access interference (MAI) effect which arises when the number of users increases in the system.

Keywords: FSO, PSO, bit error rate (BER), opti system simulation, multiple access interference (MAI), q-factor

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10215 A Method for Automated Planning of Fiber to the Home Access Network Infrastructures

Authors: Hammad Khalid


In this paper, a strategy for computerized arranging of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) get to systems is proposed. We presented an efficient methodology for arranging access organize framework. The GIS information and a lot of calculations were utilized to make the arranging procedure increasingly programmed. The technique clarifies various strides of the arranging process. Considering various situations, various designs can be produced by utilizing the technique. It was likewise conceivable to produce the designs in an extremely brief temporal contrast with the conventional arranging. A contextual investigation is considered to delineate the utilization and abilities of the arranging technique. The technique, be that as it may, doesn't completely robotize the arranging however, make the arranging procedure fundamentally quick. The outcomes and dialog are displayed and end is given at last.

Keywords: FTTH, GIS, robotize, plan

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10214 Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Georges El Soury


Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.

Keywords: beam division multiple access, D2D communication, enhanced OFDM, fifth generation broadband, massive MIMO

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10213 Bit Error Rate (BER) Performance of Coherent Homodyne BPSK-OCDMA Network for Multimedia Applications

Authors: Morsy Ahmed Morsy Ismail


In this paper, the structure of a coherent homodyne receiver for the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) network is introduced based on the Multi-Length Weighted Modified Prime Code (ML-WMPC) for multimedia applications. The Bit Error Rate (BER) of this homodyne detection is evaluated as a function of the number of active users and the signal to noise ratio for different code lengths according to the multimedia application such as audio, voice, and video. Besides, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used as an external phase modulator in homodyne detection. Furthermore, the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) and the receiver noise in a shot-noise limited regime are taken into consideration in the BER calculations.

Keywords: OCDMA networks, bit error rate, multiple access interference, binary phase-shift keying, multimedia

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10212 A User Identification Technique to Access Big Data Using Cloud Services

Authors: A. R. Manu, V. K. Agrawal, K. N. Balasubramanya Murthy


Authentication is required in stored database systems so that only authorized users can access the data and related cloud infrastructures. This paper proposes an authentication technique using multi-factor and multi-dimensional authentication system with multi-level security. The proposed technique is likely to be more robust as the probability of breaking the password is extremely low. This framework uses a multi-modal biometric approach and SMS to enforce additional security measures with the conventional Login/password system. The robustness of the technique is demonstrated mathematically using a statistical analysis. This work presents the authentication system along with the user authentication architecture diagram, activity diagrams, data flow diagrams, sequence diagrams, and algorithms.

Keywords: design, implementation algorithms, performance, biometric approach

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10211 Reduction of Multiple User Interference for Optical CDMA Systems Using Successive Interference Cancellation Scheme

Authors: Tawfig Eltaif, Hesham A. Bakarman, N. Alsowaidi, M. R. Mokhtar, Malek Harbawi


In Commonly, it is primary problem that there is multiple user interference (MUI) noise resulting from the overlapping among the users in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) system. In this article, we aim to mitigate this problem by studying an interference cancellation scheme called successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme. This scheme will be tested on two different detection schemes, spectral amplitude coding (SAC) and direct detection systems (DS), using partial modified prime (PMP) as the signature codes. It was found that SIC scheme based on both SAC and DS methods had a potential to suppress the intensity noise, that is to say, it can mitigate MUI noise. Furthermore, SIC/DS scheme showed much lower bit error rate (BER) performance relative to SIC/SAC scheme for different magnitude of effective power. Hence, many more users can be supported by SIC/DS receiver system.

Keywords: optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA), successive interference cancellation (SIC), multiple user interference (MUI), spectral amplitude coding (SAC), partial modified prime code (PMP)

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10210 Error Probability of Multi-User Detection Techniques

Authors: Komal Babbar


Multiuser Detection is the intelligent estimation/demodulation of transmitted bits in the presence of Multiple Access Interference. The authors have presented the Bit-error rate (BER) achieved by linear multi-user detectors: Matched filter (which treats the MAI as AWGN), Decorrelating and MMSE. In this work, authors investigate the bit error probability analysis for Matched filter, decorrelating, and MMSE. This problem arises in several practical CDMA applications where the receiver may not have full knowledge of the number of active users and their signature sequences. In particular, the behavior of MAI at the output of the Multi-user detectors (MUD) is examined under various asymptotic conditions including large signal to noise ratio; large near-far ratios; and a large number of users. In the last section Authors also shows Matlab Simulation results for Multiuser detection techniques i.e., Matched filter, Decorrelating, MMSE for 2 users and 10 users.

Keywords: code division multiple access, decorrelating, matched filter, minimum mean square detection (MMSE) detection, multiple access interference (MAI), multiuser detection (MUD)

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10209 Impact of Capture Effect on Receiver Initiated Collision Detection with Sequential Resolution in WLAN

Authors: Sethu Lekshmi, Shahanas, Prettha P.


All existing protocols in wireless networks are mainly based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision avoidance. By applying collision detection in wireless networks, the time spent on collision can be reduced and thus improves system throughput. However in a real WLAN scenario due to the use of nonlinear modulation techniques only receiver can decided whether a packet loss take place, even there are multiple transmissions. In this proposed method, the receiver or Access Point detects the collision when multiple data packets are transmitted from different wireless stations. Whenever the receiver detects a collision, it transmits a jamming signal to all the transmitting stations so that they can immediately stop their on-going transmissions. We also provide preferential access to all collided packet to reduce unfairness and to increase system throughput by reducing contention. However, this preferential access will not block the channel for the long time. Here, an in-band transmission is considered in which both the data frames and control frames are transmitted in the same channel. We also provide a simple mathematical model for the proposed protocol and give the simulation result of WLAN scenario under various capture thresholds.

Keywords: 802.11, WLAN, capture effect, collision detection, collision resolution, receiver initiated

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10208 The Clustering of Multiple Sclerosis Subgroups through L2 Norm Multifractal Denoising Technique

Authors: Yeliz Karaca, Rana Karabudak


Multifractal Denoising techniques are used in the identification of significant attributes by removing the noise of the dataset. Magnetic resonance (MR) image technique is the most sensitive method so as to identify chronic disorders of the nervous system such as Multiple Sclerosis. MRI and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) data belonging to 120 individuals who have one of the subgroups of MS (Relapsing Remitting MS (RRMS), Secondary Progressive MS (SPMS), Primary Progressive MS (PPMS)) as well as 19 healthy individuals in the control group have been used in this study. The study is comprised of the following stages: (i) L2 Norm Multifractal Denoising technique, one of the multifractal technique, has been used with the application on the MS data (MRI and EDSS). In this way, the new dataset has been obtained. (ii) The new MS dataset obtained from the MS dataset and L2 Multifractal Denoising technique has been applied to the K-Means and Fuzzy C Means clustering algorithms which are among the unsupervised methods. Thus, the clustering performances have been compared. (iii) In the identification of significant attributes in the MS dataset through the Multifractal denoising (L2 Norm) technique using K-Means and FCM algorithms on the MS subgroups and control group of healthy individuals, excellent performance outcome has been yielded. According to the clustering results based on the MS subgroups obtained in the study, successful clustering results have been obtained in the K-Means and FCM algorithms by applying the L2 norm of multifractal denoising technique for the MS dataset. Clustering performance has been more successful with the MS Dataset (L2_Norm MS Data Set) K-Means and FCM in which significant attributes are obtained by applying L2 Norm Denoising technique.

Keywords: clinical decision support, clustering algorithms, multiple sclerosis, multifractal techniques

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10207 Design Channel Non Persistent CSMA MAC Protocol Model for Complex Wireless Systems Based on SoC

Authors: Ibrahim A. Aref, Tarek El-Mihoub, Khadiga Ben Musa


This paper presents Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) communication model based on SoC design methodology. Such model can be used to support the modelling of the complex wireless communication systems, therefore use of such communication model is an important technique in the construction of high performance communication. SystemC has been chosen because it provides a homogeneous design flow for complex designs (i.e. SoC and IP based design). We use a swarm system to validate CSMA designed model and to show how advantages of incorporating communication early in the design process. The wireless communication created through the modeling of CSMA protocol that can be used to achieve communication between all the agents and to coordinate access to the shared medium (channel).

Keywords: systemC, modelling, simulation, CSMA

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10206 Public Wi-Fi Security Threat Evil Twin Attack Detection Based on Signal Variant and Hop Count

Authors: Said Abdul Ahad Ahadi, Elyas Baray, Nitin Rakesh, Sudeep Varshney


Wi-Fi is a widely used internet source that is used to provide internet access in many areas such as Stores, Cafes, University campuses, Restaurants and so on. This technology brought more facilities in communication and networking. On the other hand, due to the transmission of data over the air, which makes the network vulnerable, so it becomes prone to various threats such as Evil Twin and etc. The Evil Twin is a kind of adversary which impersonates a legitimate access point (LAP) as it can happen by spoofing the name (SSID) and MAC address (BSSID) of a legitimate access point (LAP). And this attack can cause many threats such as MITM, Service Interruption, Access point service blocking. Various Evil Twin Attack Detection Techniques are proposed, but they require additional hardware, or they require protocol modification. In this paper, we proposed a new technique based on Access Point’s two fingerprints, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Hop Count, that is hard to copy by an adversary. And we implemented the technique in a system called “ETDetector,” which can detect and prevent the attack.

Keywords: evil twin, LAP, SSID, Wi-Fi security, signal variation, ETAD, kali linux, scapy, python

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10205 Pattern in Splitting Sequence in Okike’s Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher for Encrypting Cyberspace Messages

Authors: Okike Benjamin, E. J. D. Garba


The protection of sensitive information against unauthorized access or fraudulent changes has been of prime concern throughout the centuries. Modern communication techniques, using computers connected through networks, make all data even more vulnerable to these threats. The researchers in this work propose a new encryption technique to be known as Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher. In this proposed encryption technique, a message to be encrypted will first of all be split into multiple parts depending on the length of the message. After the split, different keywords are chosen to encrypt different parts of the message. After encrypting all parts of the message, the positions of the encrypted message could be swapped to other position thereby making it very difficult to decrypt by any unauthorized user.

Keywords: information security, message splitting, pattern, sequence

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10204 Optimized Approach for Secure Data Sharing in Distributed Database

Authors: Ahmed Mateen, Zhu Qingsheng, Ahmad Bilal


In the current age of technology, information is the most precious asset of a company. Today, companies have a large amount of data. As the data become larger, access to data for some particular information is becoming slower day by day. Faster data processing to shape it in the form of information is the biggest issue. The major problems in distributed databases are the efficiency of data distribution and response time of data distribution. The security of data distribution is also a big issue. For these problems, we proposed a strategy that can maximize the efficiency of data distribution and also increase its response time. This technique gives better results for secure data distribution from multiple heterogeneous sources. The newly proposed technique facilitates the companies for secure data sharing efficiently and quickly.

Keywords: ER-schema, electronic record, P2P framework, API, query formulation

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10203 Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique for Optimal Decision-Making Model on Selecting Best Spiker of World Grand Prix

Authors: Chen Chih-Cheng, Chen I-Cheng, Lee Yung-Tan, Kuo Yen-Whea, Yu Chin-Hung


The purpose of this study is to construct a model for best spike player selection in a top volleyball tournament of the world. Data consisted of the records of 2013 World Grand Prix declared by International Volleyball Federation (FIVB). Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART) was used for optimal decision-making model on the best spike player selection. The research results showed that the best spike player ranking by SMART is different than the ranking by FIVB. The results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model.

Keywords: simple multiple-attribute rating technique, World Grand Prix, best spike player, International Volleyball Federation

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10202 Medical Knowledge Management since the Integration of Heterogeneous Data until the Knowledge Exploitation in a Decision-Making System

Authors: Nadjat Zerf Boudjettou, Fahima Nader, Rachid Chalal


Knowledge management is to acquire and represent knowledge relevant to a domain, a task or a specific organization in order to facilitate access, reuse and evolution. This usually means building, maintaining and evolving an explicit representation of knowledge. The next step is to provide access to that knowledge, that is to say, the spread in order to enable effective use. Knowledge management in the medical field aims to improve the performance of the medical organization by allowing individuals in the care facility (doctors, nurses, paramedics, etc.) to capture, share and apply collective knowledge in order to make optimal decisions in real time. In this paper, we propose a knowledge management approach based on integration technique of heterogeneous data in the medical field by creating a data warehouse, a technique of extracting knowledge from medical data by choosing a technique of data mining, and finally an exploitation technique of that knowledge in a case-based reasoning system.

Keywords: data warehouse, data mining, knowledge discovery in database, KDD, medical knowledge management, Bayesian networks

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10201 RAPDAC: Role Centric Attribute Based Policy Driven Access Control Model

Authors: Jamil Ahmed


Access control models aim to decide whether a user should be denied or granted access to the user‟s requested activity. Various access control models have been established and proposed. The most prominent of these models include role-based, attribute-based, policy based access control models as well as role-centric attribute based access control model. In this paper, a novel access control model is presented called “Role centric Attribute based Policy Driven Access Control (RAPDAC) model”. RAPDAC incorporates the concept of “policy” in the “role centric attribute based access control model”. It leverages the concept of "policy‟ by precisely combining the evaluation of conditions, attributes, permissions and roles in order to allow authorization access. This approach allows capturing the "access control policy‟ of a real time application in a well defined manner. RAPDAC model allows making access decision at much finer granularity as illustrated by the case study of a real time library information system.

Keywords: authorization, access control model, role based access control, attribute based access control

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10200 Fault Tolerant Control System Using a Multiple Time Scale SMC Technique and a Geometric Approach

Authors: Ghodbane Azeddine, Saad Maarouf, Boland Jean-Francois, Thibeault Claude


This paper proposes a new design of an active fault-tolerant flight control system against abrupt actuator faults. This overall system combines a multiple time scale sliding mode controller for fault compensation and a geometric approach for fault detection and diagnosis. The proposed control system is able to accommodate several kinds of partial and total actuator failures, by using available healthy redundancy actuators. The overall system first estimates the correct fault information using the geometric approach. Then, and based on that, a new reconfigurable control law is designed based on the multiple time scale sliding mode technique for on-line compensating the effect of such faults. This approach takes advantages of the fact that there are significant difference between the time scales of aircraft states that have a slow dynamics and those that have a fast dynamics. The closed-loop stability of the overall system is proved using Lyapunov technique. A case study of the non-linear model of the F16 fighter, subject to the rudder total loss of control confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: actuator faults, fault detection and diagnosis, fault tolerant flight control, sliding mode control, multiple time scale approximation, geometric approach for fault reconstruction, lyapunov stability

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10199 Zero Cross-Correlation Codes Based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design: Performance Analysis and Applications

Authors: Garadi Ahmed, Boubakar S. Bouazza


The Zero Cross-Correlation (C, w) code is a family of binary sequences of length C and constant Hamming-weight, the cross correlation between any two sequences equal zero. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of ZCC code based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design (BIBD) for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) system using direct detection. The BER obtained is better than 10-9 for five simultaneous users.

Keywords: spectral amplitude coding-optical code-division-multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA), phase induced intensity noise (PIIN), balanced incomplete block design (BIBD), zero cross-correlation (ZCC)

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10198 Simulation Analysis of Wavelength/Time/Space Codes Using CSRZ and DPSK-RZ Formats for Fiber-Optic CDMA Systems

Authors: Jaswinder Singh


In this paper, comparative analysis is carried out to study the performance of wavelength/time/space optical CDMA codes using two well-known formats; those are CSRZ and DPSK-RZ using RSoft’s OptSIM. The analysis is carried out under the real-like scenario considering the presence of various non-linear effects such as XPM, SPM, SRS, SBS and FWM. Fiber dispersion and the multiple access interference are also considered. The codes used in this analysis are 3-D wavelength/time/space codes. These are converted into 2-D wavelength-time codes so that their requirement of space couplers and fiber ribbons is eliminated. Under the conditions simulated, this is found that CSRZ performs better than DPSK-RZ for fiber-optic CDMA applications.

Keywords: Optical CDMA, Multiple access interference (MAI), CSRZ, DPSK-RZ

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10197 Access to Higher Education in Nigeria: The University of Calabar Pre-Degree Programme Experience

Authors: Eni I. Eni, James Okon, Ashang J. Ashang


The pre-degree programme of the University of Calabar was introduced to help increase access to tertiary Education in science related courses. This has become necessary due to population increase and public awareness. Its main objective was to provide access to candidates from educationally less developed states (ELDS) and states within its catchment area. To find out if this objective of the programme has been achieved, an impact evaluation of the programme was conducted, from where the aspect of providing access to University Education was reported here. It was reasoned that if this objective of the programme was properly implemented, there should be an evidence of increase in the access to University Education. To achieve the purpose of this study, two research questions were formulated; expost-facto research design and purposive sampling technique were adopted for the study. Data was collected from the Faculty of Science and analyzed using descriptive statistics in terms of frequencies and percentages. The result of data analysis showed that the pre-degree programme of the University of Calabar has provided educational access to Nigerians especially those from educationally less developed states in science related courses. It was therefore recommended that the programme be sustained and further be improved upon to facilitate its continued provision of access to University Education in Nigeria.

Keywords: higher education, pre-degree programme, University of Calabar, educationally less developed states

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10196 Multi-Level Security Measures in Cloud Computing

Authors: Shobha G. Ranjan


Cloud computing is an emerging, on-demand and internet- based technology. Varieties of services like, software, hardware, data storage and infrastructure can be shared though the cloud computing. This technology is highly reliable, cost effective and scalable in nature. It is a must only the authorized users should access these services. Further the time granted to access these services should be taken into account for proper accounting purpose. Currently many organizations do the security measures in many different ways to provide the best cloud infrastructure to their clients, but that’s not the limitation. This paper presents the multi-level security measure technique which is in accordance with the OSI model. In this paper, details of proposed multilevel security measures technique are presented along with the architecture, activities, algorithms and probability of success in breaking authentication.

Keywords: cloud computing, cloud security, integrity, multi-tenancy, security

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10195 MMSE-Based Beamforming for Chip Interleaved CDMA in Aeronautical Mobile Radio Channel

Authors: Sherif K. El Dyasti, Esam A. Hagras, Adel E. El-Hennawy


This paper addresses the performance of antenna array beam-forming on Chip-Interleaved Code Division Multiple Access (CI_CDMA) system based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detector in aeronautical mobile radio channel. Multipath fading, Doppler shifts caused by the speed of the aircraft, and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are the most important reasons that affect and reduce the performance of aeronautical system. In this paper, we suggested the CI-CDMA with antenna array to combat this fading and improve the bit error rate (BER) performance. We further evaluate the performance of the proposed system in the four standard scenarios in aeronautical mobile radio channel.

Keywords: aeronautical channel, CI-CDMA, beamforming, communication, information

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10194 Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application

Authors: Waleed Maqableh, Ahmad Al-Hamad, Manjit Sidhu


Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.

Keywords: augmented reality, multimedia, user interface, engineering, education technology

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10193 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta


In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa

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10192 Improved Accuracy of Ratio Multiple Valuation

Authors: Julianto Agung Saputro, Jogiyanto Hartono


Multiple valuation is widely used by investors and practitioners but its accuracy is questionable. Multiple valuation inaccuracies are due to the unreliability of information used in valuation, inaccuracies comparison group selection, and use of individual multiple values. This study investigated the accuracy of valuation to examine factors that can increase the accuracy of the valuation of multiple ratios, that are discretionary accruals, the comparison group, and the composite of multiple valuation. These results indicate that multiple value adjustment method with discretionary accruals provides better accuracy, the industry comparator group method combined with the size and growth of companies also provide better accuracy. Composite of individual multiple valuation gives the best accuracy. If all of these factors combined, the accuracy of valuation of multiple ratios will give the best results.

Keywords: multiple, valuation, composite, accuracy

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