Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4735

Search results for: single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set

4735 Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Rough Set and Its Application

Authors: K. M. Alsager, N. O. Alshehri


In this paper, we proposed the notion of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set, by combining single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set. The combination of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set is a powerful tool for dealing with uncertainty, granularity and incompleteness of knowledge in information systems. We presented both definition and some basic properties of the proposed model. Finally, we gave a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach by a numerical example.

Keywords: single valued neutrosophic fuzzy set, single valued neutrosophic fuzzy hesitant set, rough set, single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set

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4734 Some New Hesitant Fuzzy Sets Operator

Authors: G. S. Thakur


In this paper, four new operators (O1, O2, O3, O4) are proposed, defined and considered to study the new properties and identities on hesitant fuzzy sets. These operators are useful for different operation on hesitant fuzzy sets. The various theorems are proved using the new operators. The study of the proposed new operators has opened a new area of research and applications.

Keywords: vague sets, hesitant fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy set, fuzzy sets, fuzzy multisets

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
4733 Application of IF Rough Data on Knowledge Towards Malaria of Rural Tribal Communities in Tripura

Authors: Chhaya Gangwal, R. N. Bhaumik, Shishir Kumar


Handling uncertainty and impreciseness of knowledge appears to be a challenging task in Information Systems. Intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) and rough set theory enhances databases by allowing it for the management of uncertainty and impreciseness. This paper presents a new efficient query optimization technique for the multi-valued or imprecise IF rough database. The usefulness of this technique was illustrated on malaria knowledge from the rural tribal communities of Tripura where most of the information is multi-valued and imprecise. Then, the querying about knowledge on malaria is executed into SQL server to make the implementation of IF rough data querying simpler.

Keywords: intuitionistic fuzzy set, rough set, relational database, IF rough relational database

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4732 Group Decision Making through Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set TOPSIS Method Using New Hybrid Score Function

Authors: Syed Talib Abbas Raza, Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, Saleem Abdullah


This paper presents interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets based TOPSIS method for group decision making. The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set is a mutation of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set and soft set. In group decision making problems IVIFSS makes the process much more algebraically elegant. We have used weighted arithmetic averaging operator for aggregating the information and define a new Hybrid Score Function as metric tool for comparison between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. In an illustrative example we have applied the developed method to a criminological problem. We have developed a group decision making model for integrating the imprecise and hesitant evaluations of multiple law enforcement agencies working on target killing cases in the country.

Keywords: group decision making, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set, TOPSIS, score function, criminology

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4731 A Mixed Expert Evaluation System and Dynamic Interval-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Selection Approach

Authors: Hossein Gitinavard, Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi


In the last decades, concerns about the environmental issues lead to professional and academic efforts on green supplier selection problems. In this sake, one of the main issues in evaluating the green supplier selection problems, which could increase the uncertainty, is the preferences of the experts' judgments about the candidate green suppliers. Therefore, preparing an expert system to evaluate the problem based on the historical data and the experts' knowledge can be sensible. This study provides an expert evaluation system to assess the candidate green suppliers under selected criteria in a multi-period approach. In addition, a ranking approach under interval-valued hesitant fuzzy set (IVHFS) environment is proposed to select the most appropriate green supplier in planning horizon. In the proposed ranking approach, the IVHFS and the last aggregation approach are considered to margin the errors and to prevent data loss, respectively. Hence, a comparative analysis is provided based on an illustrative example to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Keywords: green supplier selection, expert system, ranking approach, interval-valued hesitant fuzzy setting

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4730 Group Consensus of Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Variables for Decision-Making Problem

Authors: Chen T. Chen, Hui L. Cheng


Due to the different knowledge, experience and expertise of experts, they usually provide the different opinions in the group decision-making process. Therefore, it is an important issue to reach the group consensus of opinions of experts in group multiple-criteria decision-making (GMCDM) process. Because the subjective opinions of experts always are fuzziness and uncertainties, it is difficult to use crisp values to describe the real opinions of experts or decision-makers. It is reasonable for experts to use the linguistic variables to express their opinions. The hesitant fuzzy set are extended from the concept of fuzzy sets. Experts use the hesitant fuzzy sets can be flexible to describe their subjective opinions. In order to aggregate the hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables of all experts effectively, an adjustment method based on distance function will be presented in this paper. Based on the opinions adjustment method, this paper will present an effective approach to adjust the hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables of all experts to reach the group consensus. Then, a new hesitant linguistic GMCDM method will be presented based on the group consensus of hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables. Finally, an example will be implemented to illustrate the computational process to enhance the practical value of the proposed model.

Keywords: group multi-criteria decision-making, linguistic variables, hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables, distance function, group consensus

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4729 Application of Interval Valued Picture Fuzzy Set in Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Palash Dutta


More frequently uncertainties are encountered in medical diagnosis and therefore it is the most important and interesting area of applications of fuzzy set theory. In this present study, an attempt has been made to extend Sanchez’s approach for medical diagnosis via interval valued picture fuzzy sets and exhibit the technique with suitable case studies. In this article, it is observed that a refusal can be expressed in the databases concerning the examined objects. The technique is performing diagnosis on the basis of distance measures and as a result, this approach makes it possible to introduce weights of all symptoms and consequently patient can be diagnosed directly.

Keywords: medical diagnosis, uncertainty, fuzzy set, picture fuzzy set, interval valued picture fuzzy set

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4728 Using Genetic Algorithms and Rough Set Based Fuzzy K-Modes to Improve Centroid Model Clustering Performance on Categorical Data

Authors: Rishabh Srivastav, Divyam Sharma


We propose an algorithm to cluster categorical data named as ‘Genetic algorithm initialized rough set based fuzzy K-Modes for categorical data’. We propose an amalgamation of the simple K-modes algorithm, the Rough and Fuzzy set based K-modes and the Genetic Algorithm to form a new algorithm,which we hypothesise, will provide better Centroid Model clustering results, than existing standard algorithms. In the proposed algorithm, the initialization and updation of modes is done by the use of genetic algorithms while the membership values are calculated using the rough set and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: categorical data, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, K modes clustering, rough sets

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4727 Triangular Hesitant Fuzzy TOPSIS Approach in Investment Projects Management

Authors: Irina Khutsishvili


The presented study develops a decision support methodology for multi-criteria group decision-making problem. The proposed methodology is based on the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution) approach in the hesitant fuzzy environment. The main idea of decision-making problem is a selection of one best alternative or several ranking alternatives among a set of feasible alternatives. Typically, the process of decision-making is based on an evaluation of certain criteria. In many MCDM problems (such as medical diagnosis, project management, business and financial management, etc.), the process of decision-making involves experts' assessments. These assessments frequently are expressed in fuzzy numbers, confidence intervals, intuitionistic fuzzy values, hesitant fuzzy elements and so on. However, a more realistic approach is using linguistic expert assessments (linguistic variables). In the proposed methodology both the values and weights of the criteria take the form of linguistic variables, given by all decision makers. Then, these assessments are expressed in triangular fuzzy numbers. Consequently, proposed approach is based on triangular hesitant fuzzy TOPSIS decision-making model. Following the TOPSIS algorithm, first, the fuzzy positive ideal solution (FPIS) and the fuzzy negative-ideal solution (FNIS) are defined. Then the ranking of alternatives is performed in accordance with the proximity of their distances to the both FPIS and FNIS. Based on proposed approach the software package has been developed, which was used to rank investment projects in the real investment decision-making problem. The application and testing of the software were carried out based on the data provided by the ‘Bank of Georgia’.

Keywords: fuzzy TOPSIS approach, investment project, linguistic variable, multi-criteria decision making, triangular hesitant fuzzy set

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4726 A New Concept for Deriving the Expected Value of Fuzzy Random Variables

Authors: Liang-Hsuan Chen, Chia-Jung Chang


Fuzzy random variables have been introduced as an imprecise concept of numeric values for characterizing the imprecise knowledge. The descriptive parameters can be used to describe the primary features of a set of fuzzy random observations. In fuzzy environments, the expected values are usually represented as fuzzy-valued, interval-valued or numeric-valued descriptive parameters using various metrics. Instead of the concept of area metric that is usually adopted in the relevant studies, the numeric expected value is proposed by the concept of distance metric in this study based on two characters (fuzziness and randomness) of FRVs. Comparing with the existing measures, although the results show that the proposed numeric expected value is same with those using the different metric, if only triangular membership functions are used. However, the proposed approach has the advantages of intuitiveness and computational efficiency, when the membership functions are not triangular types. An example with three datasets is provided for verifying the proposed approach.

Keywords: fuzzy random variables, distance measure, expected value, descriptive parameters

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4725 Multi-Criteria Test Case Selection Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Niranjana Devi N.


Test case selection is to select the subset of only the fit test cases and remove the unfit, ambiguous, redundant, unnecessary test cases which in turn improve the quality and reduce the cost of software testing. Test cases optimization is the problem of finding the best subset of test cases from a pool of the test cases to be audited. It will meet all the objectives of testing concurrently. But most of the research have evaluated the fitness of test cases only on single parameter fault detecting capability and optimize the test cases using a single objective. In the proposed approach, nine parameters are considered for test case selection and the best subset of parameters for test case selection is obtained using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Rough Set. Test case selection is done in two stages. The first stage is the fuzzy entropy-based filtration technique, used for estimating and reducing the ambiguity in test case fitness evaluation and selection. The second stage is the ant colony optimization-based wrapper technique with a forward search strategy, employed to select test cases from the reduced test suite of the first stage. The results are evaluated using the Coverage parameters, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, APSC, APDC, and SSR. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that by this approach considerable computational effort can be avoided.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, fuzzy entropy, interval type-2 fuzzy rough set, test case selection

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4724 Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani


The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.

Keywords: entropy measure, Hausdorff distance, neutrosophic set, soft set

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
4723 Complex Fuzzy Evolution Equation with Nonlocal Conditions

Authors: Abdelati El Allaoui, Said Melliani, Lalla Saadia Chadli


The objective of this paper is to study the existence and uniqueness of Mild solutions for a complex fuzzy evolution equation with nonlocal conditions that accommodates the notion of fuzzy sets defined by complex-valued membership functions. We first propose definition of complex fuzzy strongly continuous semigroups. We then give existence and uniqueness result relevant to the complex fuzzy evolution equation.

Keywords: Complex fuzzy evolution equations, nonlocal conditions, mild solution, complex fuzzy semigroups

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4722 A Fuzzy Mathematical Model for Order Acceptance and Scheduling Problem

Authors: E. Koyuncu


The problem of Order Acceptance and Scheduling (OAS) is defined as a joint decision of which orders to accept for processing and how to schedule them. Any linear programming model representing real-world situation involves the parameters defined by the decision maker in an uncertain way or by means of language statement. Fuzzy data can be used to incorporate vagueness in the real-life situation. In this study, a fuzzy mathematical model is proposed for a single machine OAS problem, where the orders are defined by their fuzzy due dates, fuzzy processing times, and fuzzy sequence dependent setup times. The signed distance method, one of the fuzzy ranking methods, is used to handle the fuzzy constraints in the model.

Keywords: fuzzy mathematical programming, fuzzy ranking, order acceptance, single machine scheduling

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4721 A Fuzzy-Rough Feature Selection Based on Binary Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

Authors: Javad Rahimipour Anaraki, Saeed Samet, Mahdi Eftekhari, Chang Wook Ahn


Feature selection and attribute reduction are crucial problems, and widely used techniques in the field of machine learning, data mining and pattern recognition to overcome the well-known phenomenon of the Curse of Dimensionality. This paper presents a feature selection method that efficiently carries out attribute reduction, thereby selecting the most informative features of a dataset. It consists of two components: 1) a measure for feature subset evaluation, and 2) a search strategy. For the evaluation measure, we have employed the fuzzy-rough dependency degree (FRFDD) of the lower approximation-based fuzzy-rough feature selection (L-FRFS) due to its effectiveness in feature selection. As for the search strategy, a modified version of a binary shuffled frog leaping algorithm is proposed (B-SFLA). The proposed feature selection method is obtained by hybridizing the B-SFLA with the FRDD. Nine classifiers have been employed to compare the proposed approach with several existing methods over twenty two datasets, including nine high dimensional and large ones, from the UCI repository. The experimental results demonstrate that the B-SFLA approach significantly outperforms other metaheuristic methods in terms of the number of selected features and the classification accuracy.

Keywords: binary shuffled frog leaping algorithm, feature selection, fuzzy-rough set, minimal reduct

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4720 Fuzzy Population-Based Meta-Heuristic Approaches for Attribute Reduction in Rough Set Theory

Authors: Mafarja Majdi, Salwani Abdullah, Najmeh S. Jaddi


One of the global combinatorial optimization problems in machine learning is feature selection. It concerned with removing the irrelevant, noisy, and redundant data, along with keeping the original meaning of the original data. Attribute reduction in rough set theory is an important feature selection method. Since attribute reduction is an NP-hard problem, it is necessary to investigate fast and effective approximate algorithms. In this paper, we proposed two feature selection mechanisms based on memetic algorithms (MAs) which combine the genetic algorithm with a fuzzy record to record travel algorithm and a fuzzy controlled great deluge algorithm to identify a good balance between local search and genetic search. In order to verify the proposed approaches, numerical experiments are carried out on thirteen datasets. The results show that the MAs approaches are efficient in solving attribute reduction problems when compared with other meta-heuristic approaches.

Keywords: rough set theory, attribute reduction, fuzzy logic, memetic algorithms, record to record algorithm, great deluge algorithm

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4719 Operational Matrix Method for Fuzzy Fractional Reaction Diffusion Equation

Authors: Sachin Kumar


Fuzzy fractional diffusion equation is widely useful to depict different physical processes arising in physics, biology, and hydrology. The motive of this article is to deal with the fuzzy fractional diffusion equation. We study a mathematical model of fuzzy space-time fractional diffusion equation in which unknown function, coefficients, and initial-boundary conditions are fuzzy numbers. First, we find out a fuzzy operational matrix of Legendre polynomial of Caputo type fuzzy fractional derivative having a non-singular Mittag-Leffler kernel. The main advantages of this method are that it reduces the fuzzy fractional partial differential equation (FFPDE) to a system of fuzzy algebraic equations from which we can find the solution of the problem. The feasibility of our approach is shown by some numerical examples. Hence, our method is suitable to deal with FFPDE and has good accuracy.

Keywords: fractional PDE, fuzzy valued function, diffusion equation, Legendre polynomial, spectral method

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4718 Reusing of HSS Hacksaw Blades as Rough Machining Tool

Authors: Raja V., Chokkalingam B.


For rough cutting, in many industries and educational institutions using carbon steels or HSS single point cutting tools in center lathe machine. In power hacksaw blades, only the cutter teeth region used to parting off the given material. The portions other than the teeth can be used as a single point cutting tool for rough turning and facing on soft materials. The hardness and Tensile strength of this used Power hacksaw blade is almost same as conventional cutting tools. In this paper, the effect of power hacksaw blades over conventional tool has been compared. Thickness of the blade (1.6 mm) is very small compared to its length and width. Hence, a special tool holding device is designed to hold the tool.

Keywords: hardness, high speed steels, power hacksaw blade, tensile strength

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4717 Using Gene Expression Programming in Learning Process of Rough Neural Networks

Authors: Sanaa Rashed Abdallah, Yasser F. Hassan


The paper will introduce an approach where a rough sets, gene expression programming and rough neural networks are used cooperatively for learning and classification support. The Objective of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is to obtain new classified data with minimum error in training and testing process. Starting point of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is an information system and the output from this approach is a structure of rough neural networks which is including the weights and thresholds with minimum classification error.

Keywords: rough sets, gene expression programming, rough neural networks, classification

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4716 Combination of Topology and Rough Set for Analysis of Power System Control

Authors: M. Kamel El-Sayed


In this research, we have linked the concept of rough set and topological structure to the creation of a new topological structure that assists in the analysis of the information systems of some electrical engineering issues. We used non-specific information whose boundaries do not have an empty set in the top topological structure is rough set. It is characterized by the fact that it does not contain a large number of elements and facilitates the establishment of rules. We used this structure in reducing the specifications of electrical information systems. We have provided a detailed example of this method illustrating the steps used. This method opens the door to obtaining multiple topologies, each of which uses one of the non-defined groups (rough set) in the overall information system.

Keywords: electrical engineering, information system, rough set, rough topology, topology

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4715 Fuzzy Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Ali Koam, Ismail Ibedou, S. E. Abbas


In this paper, it is introduced the notion of r-fuzzy ideal separation axioms Tᵢi = 0; 1; 2 based on a fuzzy ideal I on a fuzzy topological space (X; τ). An r-fuzzy ideal connectedness related to the fuzzy ideal I is introduced which has relations with a previous r-fuzzy fuzzy connectedness. An r-fuzzy ideal compactness related to Ι is introduced which has also relations with many other types of fuzzy compactness.

Keywords: fuzzy ideal, fuzzy separation axioms, fuzzy compactness, fuzzy connectedness

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4714 Learning Algorithms for Fuzzy Inference Systems Composed of Double- and Single-Input Rule Modules

Authors: Hirofumi Miyajima, Kazuya Kishida, Noritaka Shigei, Hiromi Miyajima


Most of self-tuning fuzzy systems, which are automatically constructed from learning data, are based on the steepest descent method (SDM). However, this approach often requires a large convergence time and gets stuck into a shallow local minimum. One of its solutions is to use fuzzy rule modules with a small number of inputs such as DIRMs (Double-Input Rule Modules) and SIRMs (Single-Input Rule Modules). In this paper, we consider a (generalized) DIRMs model composed of double and single-input rule modules. Further, in order to reduce the redundant modules for the (generalized) DIRMs model, pruning and generative learning algorithms for the model are suggested. In order to show the effectiveness of them, numerical simulations for function approximation, Box-Jenkins and obstacle avoidance problems are performed.

Keywords: Box-Jenkins's problem, double-input rule module, fuzzy inference model, obstacle avoidance, single-input rule module

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4713 Thermal Contact Resistance of Nanoscale Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ravi Prasher


In nanostructured material thermal transport is dominated by contact resistance. Theoretical models describing thermal transport at interfaces assume perfectly flat surface whereas in reality surfaces can be rough with roughness ranging from sub-nanoscale dimension to micron scale. Here we introduce a model which includes both nanoscale contact mechanics and nanoscale heat transfer for rough nanoscale surfaces. This comprehensive model accounts for the effect of phonon acoustic mismatch, mechanical properties, chemical properties and randomness of the rough surface.

Keywords: adhesion and contact resistance, Kaptiza resistance of rough surfaces, nanoscale thermal transport

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4712 Mathematical and Fuzzy Logic in the Interpretation of the Quran

Authors: Morteza Khorrami


The logic as an intellectual infrastructure plays an essential role in the Islamic sciences. Hence, there are a few of the verses of the Holy Quran that their interpretation is not possible due to lack of proper logic. In many verses in the Quran, argument and the respondent has requested from the audience that shows the logic rule is in the Quran. The paper which use a descriptive and analytic method, tries to show the role of logic in understanding of the Quran reasoning methods and display some of Quranic statements with mathematical symbols and point that we can help these symbols for interesting and interpretation and answering to some questions and doubts. In this paper, this problem has been mentioned that the Quran did not use two-valued logic (Aristotelian) in all cases, but the fuzzy logic can also be searched in the Quran.

Keywords: aristotelian logic, fuzzy logic, interpretation, Holy Quran

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4711 A Fuzzy Programming Approach for Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear Fractional Programming Problem

Authors: Sujeet Kumar Singh, Shiv Prasad Yadav


This paper develops an approach for solving intuitionistic fuzzy linear fractional programming (IFLFP) problem where the cost of the objective function, the resources, and the technological coefficients are triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Here, the IFLFP problem is transformed into an equivalent crisp multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) problem. By using fuzzy mathematical programming approach the transformed MOLFP problem is reduced into a single objective linear programming (LP) problem. The proposed procedure is illustrated through a numerical example.

Keywords: triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, linear programming problem, multi objective linear programming problem, fuzzy mathematical programming, membership function

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4710 Sensitivity Analysis in Fuzzy Linear Programming Problems

Authors: S. H. Nasseri, A. Ebrahimnejad


Fuzzy set theory has been applied to many fields, such as operations research, control theory, and management sciences. In this paper, we consider two classes of fuzzy linear programming (FLP) problems: Fuzzy number linear programming and linear programming with trapezoidal fuzzy variables problems. We state our recently established results and develop fuzzy primal simplex algorithms for solving these problems. Finally, we give illustrative examples.

Keywords: fuzzy linear programming, fuzzy numbers, duality, sensitivity analysis

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4709 Improved Qualitative Modeling of the Magnetization Curve B(H) of the Ferromagnetic Materials for a Transformer Used in the Power Supply for Magnetron

Authors: M. Bassoui, M. Ferfra, M. Chrayagne


This paper presents a qualitative modeling for the nonlinear B-H curve of the saturable magnetic materials for a transformer with shunts used in the power supply for the magnetron. This power supply is composed of a single phase leakage flux transformer supplying a cell composed of a capacitor and a diode, which double the voltage and stabilize the current, and a single magnetron at the output of the cell. A procedure consisting of a fuzzy clustering method and a rule processing algorithm is then employed for processing the constructed fuzzy modeling rules to extract the qualitative properties of the curve.

Keywords: B(H) curve, fuzzy clustering, magnetron, power supply

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4708 Rough Neural Networks in Adapting Cellular Automata Rule for Reducing Image Noise

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


The reduction or removal of noise in a color image is an essential part of image processing, whether the final information is used for human perception or for an automatic inspection and analysis. This paper describes the modeling system based on the rough neural network model to adaptive cellular automata for various image processing tasks and noise remover. In this paper, we consider the problem of object processing in colored image using rough neural networks to help deriving the rules which will be used in cellular automata for noise image. The proposed method is compared with some classical and recent methods. The results demonstrate that the new model is capable of being trained to perform many different tasks, and that the quality of these results is comparable or better than established specialized algorithms.

Keywords: rough sets, rough neural networks, cellular automata, image processing

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4707 Decreasing Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Neonates in Poland, 2015-2017

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Beata Pawlus, Maria Pawlak


Introduction: Recently, the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children or present so-called hesitant behaviors has increased in many developed countries. The study aimed to analyze the completeness and timeliness of vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in neonates in a single maternity hospital in Warsaw (Poland). Material and Methods: We analyzed medical records of children born in the hospital between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2016 and calculated the proportion of newborns not vaccinated on time. Results: The percentage of unvaccinated newborns was similar in the analyzed years: 7.2% in 2015 and 6.7% in 2016. Parental decisions rather than medical contraindications caused non-immunization (4.3% vs. 2.9% in 2015, and 4.7% vs. 2% in 2016). Most parents refused both vaccinations (81%-84%), whereas 7-8% refused only hep B vaccination, and 9-11% refused alone tuberculosis vaccination. The majority of hesitant parents decided to delay both vaccinations (70-80%), while 10-11% of parents chose to delay only one vaccination (hep B). In consecutive years, an increase in the percentage of parents delaying tuberculosis vaccination was reported (10 vs. 19%). Discussion: The increase in the number of newborns who are not correctly vaccinated just after birth due to their parents' decision should be considered non-gradual, both for hepatitis B and tuberculosis. It is necessary to implement effective educational and informative measures targeted at future parents to reinforce positive attitudes towards vaccinations and to dispel doubts about them among parents who are hesitant.

Keywords: hepatitis B, tuberculosis, immunization, new-borns, coverage rate

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4706 2D Structured Non-Cyclic Fuzzy Graphs

Authors: T. Pathinathan, M. Peter


Fuzzy graphs incorporate concepts from graph theory with fuzzy principles. In this paper, we make a study on the properties of fuzzy graphs which are non-cyclic and are of two-dimensional in structure. In particular, this paper presents 2D structure or the structure of double layer for a non-cyclic fuzzy graph whose underlying crisp graph is non-cyclic. In any graph structure, introducing 2D structure may lead to an inherent cycle. We propose relevant conditions for 2D structured non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. These conditions are extended even to fuzzy graphs of the 3D structure. General theoretical properties that are studied for any fuzzy graph are verified to 2D structured or double layered fuzzy graphs. Concepts like Order, Degree, Strong and Size for a fuzzy graph are studied for 2D structured or double layered non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. Using different types of fuzzy graphs, the proposed concepts relating to 2D structured fuzzy graphs are verified.

Keywords: double layered fuzzy graph, double layered non–cyclic fuzzy graph, order, degree and size

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