Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3848

Search results for: coastal community

3848 Development of Macrobenthic Communities in the North Port, West Coastal Water of Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh

Abstract:

The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution and composition of the macrobenthic community and their response to environmental parameters in the North Port, west coastal waters of Malaysia. A total of 25 species were identified, including 13 bivalvia, 4 gastropoda, and 3 crustacea. The other taxa were less diversified. There were no temporal changes in the macrobenthic community composition, but significant effects (p < 0.05) on the benthic community composition were found on a spatial scale. The correlation analyses and similarity tests were in good agreement, confirming the significant response of macrobenthic community composition to variations of environmental parameters.

Keywords: distribution, macrobenthic community, diversity, North Port, Malaysia

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3847 Study on the Work-Life Balance of Selected Working Single Mothers in the Coastal Community of La Huerta, Paranaque

Authors: Idette Sheirina Biyo, Rhodora Lynn C. Lintag

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This paper explores how the work-life balance of selected working single mothers situated in a coastal community is affecting their well-being. Working single mothers carry the responsibility of earning for their family while simultaneously exercising their motherhood. This study utilized a purposeful qualitative research through semi-structured interviews among ten working single mothers living in the coastal community of La Huerta, Parañaque in order to identify the following: a) experiences of the working single mothers, b) problems usually encountered, and c) how these problems are affecting their well-being. Dorothy Smith’s Feminist Standpoint theory is used as a theoretical lens in order to explain their work-life balance. Results have shown that despite their dual roles as the main income earners and heads of the households, they are not neglecting to care for their well-being. They consider getting sufficient rest, eating well, and going to church as forms of caring for their well-being. Other factors that affect their work-life balance include living arrangements, work hours, type of work, and income.

Keywords: coastal community, well-being, work-life balance, Working single mother

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3846 Community-Based Settlement Environment in Malalayang Coastal Area, Manado City

Authors: Teguh R. Hakim, Frenny F. F. Kairupan, Alberta M. Mantiri

Abstract:

The face of the coastal city is generally the same as other cities face showing the dualistic, traditional and modern, rural and urbanity, planned and unplanned, slum and high quality. Manado city is located on the northern coastal areas of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Manado city is located on the northern coastal areas of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Urban environmental problems ever occurred in this city, which is the impact of dualistic urban. Overcrowding, inadequate infrastructure, and limited human resources become the main cause of untidiness the coastal settlements in Malalayang. This has an impact on the activities of social, economic, public health level in the environment of coastal City of Manado, Malalayang. This is becoming a serious problem which must be tackled jointly by the government, private parties, and the community. Community-based settlement environment setup, into one solution to realize the city's coastal settlements livable. As for this research aims to analyze the involvement of local communities in arrangements of the settlement. The participatory approach of the model used in this study. Its application is mainly at macro and meso-scale (region, city, and environment) or community architecture. Model participatory approach leads more operational research approach to find a solution/answer to the problems of settlement. The participatory approach is a model for research that involves researchers and society as an object at the same time the subject of research, which in the process in addition to researching also developed other forms of participation in the design and build together. The expected results of this study were able to provide education to the community about environmental and set up a livable settlement for the sake of improving the quality of life. The study also becomes inputs to the government in applying the pattern of development that will be implemented in the future.

Keywords: arrangements the coastal environment, community participation, urban environmental problems, livable settlement

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3845 Institutional Superposition, over Management and Coastal Economic Development: Coastal Areas in China

Authors: Mingbao Chen, Mingli Zhao

Abstract:

The coastal zone is the intersection of land and sea system, and also is the connecting zone of the two economic systems of land and sea. In the world, all countries attach great importance to the coastal zone management and the coastal zone economy. In China, the government has developed a number of related coastal management policies and institutional, such as marine functional zoning, main function zoning, integrated coastal zone management, to ensure the sustainable utilization of the coastal zone and promote the development of coastal economic. However, in practice, the effect is not satisfactory. This paper analyses the coastal areas of coastal zone management on coastal economic growth contribution based on coastal areas economic development data with the 2007-2015 in China, which uses the method of the evaluation index system of coastal zone management institutional efficiency. The results show that the coastal zone management institutional objectives are not clear, and the institutional has high repeatability. At the same time, over management of coastal zone leads to low economic efficiency because the government management boundary is blurred.

Keywords: institutional overlap, over management, coastal zone management, coastal zone economy

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3844 Harmonization of State Law and Local Laws in Coastal and Marine Areas Management

Authors: N. S. B. Ambarini, Tito Sofyan, Edra Satmaidi

Abstract:

Coastal and marine are two potential natural resource one of the pillars of the national economy. The Indonesian archipelago has marine and coastal which is quite spacious. Various important natural resources such as fisheries, mining and so on are in coastal areas and the sea, so that this region is a unique area with a variety of interests to exploit it. Therefore, to preserve a sustainable manner need good management and comprehensive. To the national and local level legal regulations have been published relating to the management of coastal and marine areas. However, in practice it has not been able to function optimally. Substantially has not touched the problems of the region, especially concerning the interests of local communities (local). This study is a legal non-doctrinal approach to socio-legal studies. Based on the results of research in some coastal and marine areas in Bengkulu province - Indonesia, there is a fact that the system of customary law and local wisdom began to weaken implementation. Therefore harmonization needs to be done in implementing laws and regulations that apply to the values of indigenous and local knowledge that exists in the community.

Keywords: coastal and marine, harmonization, law, local

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3843 Sustainable Development Approach for Coastal Erosion Problem in Thailand: Using Bamboo Sticks to Rehabilitate Coastal Erosion

Authors: Sutida Maneeanakekul, Dusit Wechakit, Somsak Piriyayota

Abstract:

Coastal erosion is a major problem in Thailand, in both the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea coasts. According to the Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, land erosion occurred along the 200 km coastline with an average rate of 5 meters/year. Coastal erosion affects public and government properties, as well as the socio-economy of the country, including emigration in coastal communities, loss of habitats, and decline in fishery production. To combat the problem of coastal erosion, projects utilizing bamboo sticks for coastal defense against erosion were carried out in 5 areas beginning in November, 2010, including: Pak Klong Munharn- Samut Songkhram Province; Ban Khun Samutmaneerat, Pak Klong Pramong and Chao Matchu Shrine-Samut Sakhon Province,and Pak Klong Hongthong – Chachoengsao Province by Marine and Coastal Resources Department. In 2012, an evaluation of the effectiveness of solving the problem of coastal erosion by using bamboo stick was carried out, with a focus on three aspects. Firstly, the change in physical and biological features after using the bamboo stick technique was assessed. Secondly, participation of people in the community in the way of managing the problem of coastal erosion were these aspects evaluated as part of the study. The last aspect that was evaluated is the satisfaction of the community toward this technique. The results of evaluation showed that the amounts of sediment have dramatically changed behind the bamboo sticks lines. The increase of sediment was found to be about 23.50-56.20 centimeters (during 2012-2013). In terms of biological aspect, there has been an increase in mangrove forest areas, especially at Bang Ya Prak, Samut Sakhon Province. Average tree density was found to be about 4,167 trees per square meter. Additionally, an increase in production of fisheries was observed. Presently, the change in the evaluated physical features tends to increase in every aspect, including the satisfaction of people in community toward the process of solving the erosion problem. People in the community are involved in the preparatory, operation, monitoring and evaluation process to resolve the problem in the medium levels.

Keywords: bamboo sticks, coastal erosion, rehabilitate, Thailand sustainable development approach

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3842 Architectural Approaches to a Sustainable Community with Floating Housing Units Adapting to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thu Trang

Abstract:

Climate change and sea level rise is one of the greatest challenges facing human beings in the 21st century. Because of sea level rise, several low-lying coastal areas around the globe are at risk of being completely submerged, disappearing under water. Particularly in Viet Nam, the rise in sea level is predicted to result in more frequent and even permanently inundated coastal plains. As a result, land reserving fund of coastal cities is going to be narrowed in near future, while construction ground is becoming increasingly limited due to a rapid growth in population. Faced with this reality, the solutions are being discussed not only in tradition view such as accommodation is raised or moved to higher areas, or “living with the water”, but also forwards to “living on the water”. Therefore, the concept of a sustainable floating community with floating houses based on the precious value of long term historical tradition of water dwellings in Viet Nam would be a sustainable solution for adaptation of climate change and sea level rise in the coastal areas. The sustainable floating community is comprised of sustainability in four components: architecture, environment, socio-economic and living quality. This research paper is focused on sustainability in architectural component of floating community. Through detailed architectural analysis of current floating houses and floating communities in Viet Nam, this research not only accumulates precious values of traditional architecture that need to be preserved and developed in the proposed concept, but also illustrates its weaknesses that need to address for optimal design of the future sustainable floating communities. Based on these studies the research would provide guidelines with appropriate architectural solutions for the concept of sustainable floating community with floating housing units that are adapted to climate change and sea level rise in Viet Nam.

Keywords: guidelines, sustainable floating community, floating houses, Vietnam

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3841 Effects of Coastal Structure Construction on Ecosystem

Authors: Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Shatirah Akib, Keyvan Kimiaei, Hossein Basser

Abstract:

Coastal defense structures were built to protect part of shore from beach erosion and flooding by sea water. Effects of coastal defense structures can be negative or positive. Some of the effects are beneficial in socioeconomic aspect, but environment matters should be given more concerns because it can bring bad consequences to the earth landscape and make the ecosystem be unbalanced. This study concerns on the negative impacts as they are dominant. Coastal structures can extremely impact the shoreline configuration. Artificial structures can influence sediment transport, split the coastal space, etc. This can result in habitats loss and lead to noise and visual disturbance of birds. There are two types of coastal defense structures, hard coastal structure and soft coastal structure. Both coastal structures have their own impacts. The impacts are induced during the construction, maintaining, and operation of the structures.

Keywords: ecosystem, environmental impact, hard coastal structures, soft coastal structures

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3840 Destruction of Coastal Wetlands in Harper City-Liberia: Setting Nature against the Future Society

Authors: Richard Adu Antwako

Abstract:

Coastal wetland destruction and its consequences have recently taken the center stage of global discussions. This phenomenon is no gray area to humanity as coastal wetland-human interaction seems inevitably ingrained in the earliest civilizations, amidst the demanding use of its resources to meet their necessities. The severity of coastal wetland destruction parallels with growing civilizations, and it is against this backdrop that, this paper interrogated the causes of coastal wetland destruction in Harper City in Liberia, compared the degree of coastal wetland stressors to the non-equilibrium thermodynamic scale as well as suggested an integrated coastal zone management to address the problems. Literature complemented the primary data gleaned via global positioning system devices, field observation, questionnaire, and interviews. Multi-sampling techniques were used to generate data from the sand miners, institutional heads, fisherfolk, community-based groups, and other stakeholders. Non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory remains vibrant in discerning the ecological stability, and it would be employed to further understand the coastal wetland destruction in Harper City, Liberia and to measure the coastal wetland stresses-amplitude and elasticity. The non-equilibrium thermodynamics postulates that the coastal wetlands are capable of assimilating resources (inputs), as well as discharging products (outputs). However, the input-output relationship exceedingly stretches beyond the thresholds of the coastal wetlands, leading to coastal wetland disequilibrium. Findings revealed that the sand mining, mangrove removal, and crude dumping have transformed the coastal wetlands, resulting in water pollution, flooding, habitat loss and disfigured beaches in Harper City in Liberia. This paper demonstrates that the coastal wetlands are converted into developmental projects and agricultural fields, thus, endangering the future society against nature.

Keywords: amplitude, crude dumping, elasticity, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, wetland destruction

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3839 Adaptation to Climate Change: An Anthropological Study on Changing Livelihood Strategies in South-West Coastal Bangladesh

Authors: Ashik Sarder

Abstract:

Bangladesh is a disaster-prone and one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. The country has a long coastal area which is frequently being affected by several types of natural disasters due to climate change. The disasters have impacts on the life and livelihood of different natural resources depending on communities living in the coastal areas. The Malo is a Hindu religious traditional fishing community living at Sarafpur Union of Dumuria Upazila of Khulna district of south-west coastal Bangladesh. Fishing is the only means of their livelihood and the community has been engaged in fishing practices inherently in rivers, estuaries, and sea for more than 300 years. and they are totally dependent on this traditional occupation. But, in recent year’s climate change has negative impacts on their only livelihood option. The study aims to examine the impacts of climate change on the livelihood of Malo fishing community in south-west coastal Bangladesh, identify the adaptation strategies undertaken and practiced by Malo fishing community to cope with climate change and sustain their livelihood and explore the changing adaptation strategies undertaken by Malo fishing community and others. The study has been conducted from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Data has been collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data has been collected in the participatory observation approach following both qualitative and quantitative method. The primary source of data includes village census, face-to-face interview and in-depth case studies using structured questionnaire. The secondary source of the literature includes different national and international documents, policy papers, books and articles; related websites and peer-viewed documents on climate change, vulnerability, adaptation, livelihood, and fisheries. The study has identified different practices of adaption to climate change by Malo fishing community and others in the selected area. Three types of adaption practices have been identified. Firstly, the indigenous adaptation practices by Malo fishing community to cope with climate change have been identified. These identified adaptation practices by Malo fishing community include; ensuring drinking water and sanitation facilities, planting trees to tackle impacts of cyclone, excavating dumps to preserve the valuable assets, growing vegetables and rearing domestic livestock to earn surplus money, taking loans for ensuring continuation of present livelihood and migrating to near city or towns for better livelihood options. Secondly, adaptation initiatives undertaken by the government have provided limited facility to this vulnerable fishing community and made them benefited. And thirdly, some adaptation initiatives commenced by few non-government and community-based organizations have also made the Malo fishing community as beneficiaries. The study has suggested recommendations for Malo fishing community to overcome the challenges and impacts of climate change for retaining their traditional fishing livelihood. The accumulated recommendations would be very useful for the researchers, academicians, policy-makers of Government and non-government organizations to conduct more researches and take initiatives for Malo fishing community to make them more capable to sustain their fishing livelihood.

Keywords: climate change, livelihood, adaptation, anthropology, vulnerability

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3838 Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change: A Review of EU Tools, Legislation, National Strategies and Projects in the Mediterranean Basin

Authors: Dimitris Kokkinos, Panagiotis Prinos

Abstract:

In the last three decades, climate change has been studied extensively from scientific community, and its consequences are more than clear all around the world. Most countries have carried out a great effort to reduce global warming rates with the ratification and implementation of several international treaties. Moreover, many of them have already adopted national plans in order to adapt to climate change effects and mitigate human and economic losses. Coastal environments, with their inherent physical sensitivity, will face important challenges as a result of projected changes in climate conditions and hundreds of millions of people will be affected. Coastal zones are of high social and economic value and this research focuses on the Mediterranean basin, which is a densely populated and highly urbanized area. With 40% of its land used for human activity and the inevitability of the impacts of the climate change, it is obvious that some form of adaptation measures will be necessary. In this regard, the EU tools, policies and legislation concerning adaptation to climate change are presented. Additionally, the National Adaptation Strategies of State members of the Mediterranean basin are compared and analyzed concerning the coastal areas, along with an overview of projects and programs results focused on coastal issues at different spatial scales. The purpose of this research is to stress the differences between Mediterranean State members at methodologies implemented, to highlight the possible gaps in co-ordination and to emphasize on research initiatives that EU can build upon moving towards an integrated adaptation planning on a region-wide basis.

Keywords: coastal adaptation, Mediterranean Basin, climate change, coastal environments

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3837 Social Movements of Yogyakarta South Coastal Area Community against the Ferruginous Sand Quarry Construction

Authors: Muhammad Alhada Fuadilah Habib, Ayla Karina Budita, Cut Rizka Al Usrah, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Kanita Khoirun Nisa, Siti Muslihatul Mukaromah

Abstract:

In this contemporary era, the term of development often emphasised merely on the economic growth aspect. Development of a program often considered as superior by the government, in fact, it often raises various problems. The problems occur because the development policies determined by the government tend to favor private entrepreneurs and impose on the oppression toward the community. The development promised to prosper the community's life, turn out in fact of harming the community, threatening the survival of the community and damaging the ecosystem of nature where the community hangs their life to it. Nowadays many natural resources should be used for the community’s life prosperity. However, the prosperity is conquered by the private entrepreneurs that are regulated through the free market mechanism and wrapped in democratization. This condition actually is a form of neoliberalism that builds new administration order system which is far from the meaning of the word democracy. The government should play more role in protecting community's life and prosperity, but in fact, the government sides with the private entrepreneurs for the sake of the economic benefits regardless of other aspects of the community’s life. This unjustified condition presents a wide range of social movements from the community in response to the neoliberalis policy that actually eliminates the doctrine of community sovereignty. Social movements performed by Yogyakarta south coastal area community, as the focus of the discussion in this paper, is one of the community’s response toward the government policies related to the construction of the ferruginous sand quarry which is tend to favor on private entrepreneurs and highly prejudicing or even threatening the survival of Yogyakarta south coastal area community. The data collection in this study uses qualitative research methods with in-depth interview data collection techniques and purposive informant determination techniques. This method was chosen in order to obtain the insightful data and detailed information to uncover the injustice policies committed by the government-private entrepreneurs toward Yogyakarta south coastal area community. The brief results of this study show that the conflicts between the community and government-private entrepreneurs occurred because of the differences of interests and paradigm of natural resource management. The resistance movements done by the community to fight back the government-private entrepreneurs was conducted by forming an organization called Paguyupan Petani Lahan Pantai Kulon Progo (PPLP-KP). This organization do the resistances through two ways; firstly, quiet action done through various actions such as; refusing against the socialization, performing discussion to deliberate their argument with the government-private entrepreneurs, complaining the problems to the central government, creating banners or billboards which contain the writing of rejection, performing pray rituals to invoke the justice from the God, as well as instill the resistance ideology to their young generation. Secondly, the rough action also is done through various actions such as; doing roadblocks, conducting rallies, as well as doing clash with the government apparatus. In case the resistances done by the community are seen from the pattern. Actually, the resistances are reaction toward the aggression carried out by the government-private entrepreneurs.

Keywords: community resistance, conflict, ferruginous sand quarry construction, social movement

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3836 Impacts and Management of Oil Spill Pollution along the Chabahar Bay by ESI Mapping, Iran

Authors: M. Sanjarani, A. Danehkar, A. Mashincheyan, A. H. Javid, S. M. R. Fatemi

Abstract:

The oil spill in marine water has direct impact on coastal resources and community. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map is the first step to assess the potential impact of an oil spill and minimize the damage of coastal resources. In order to create Environmental Sensitivity Maps for the Chabahar bay (Iran), information has been collected in three different layers (Shoreline Classification, Biological and Human- uses resources) by means of field observations and measurements of beach morphology, personal interviews with professionals of different areas and the collection of bibliographic information. In this paper an attempt made to prepare an ESI map for sensitivity to oil spills of Chabahar bay coast. The Chabahar bay is subjected to high threaten to oil spill because of port, dense mangrove forest,only coral spot in Oman Sea and many industrial activities. Mapping the coastal resources, shoreline and coastal structures was carried out using Satellite images and GIS technology. The coastal features classified into three major categories as: Shoreline Classification, Biological and Human uses resources. The important resources classified into mangrove, Exposed tidal flats, sandy beach, etc. The sensitivity of shore was ranked as low to high (1 = low sensitivity,10 = high sensitivity) based on geomorphology of Chabahar bay coast using NOAA standards (sensitivity to oil, ease of clean up, etc). Eight ESI types were found in the area namely; ESI 1A, 1C, 3A, 6B, 7, 8B,9A and 10D. Therefore, in the study area, 50% were defined as High sensitivity, less than 1% as Medium, and 49% as low sensitivity areas. The ESI maps are useful to the oil spill responders, coastal managers and contingency planners. The overall ESI mapping product can provide a valuable management tool not only for oil spill response but for better integrated coastal zone management.

Keywords: ESI, oil spill, GIS, Chabahar Bay, Iran

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3835 Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low-lying areas: Coastal Evolution and Impact of Future Sea Level Rise Scenarios in Mirabello Gulf - NE Crete

Authors: Maria Kazantzaki, Evangelos Tsakalos, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos

Abstract:

Mediterranean areas are characterized by intense seismic and volcanic activity as well as eustatic changes, the result of which is the creation of particularly vulnerable coastal zones. The most vulnerable are low-lying coastal areas, the geomorphological evolution of which are highly affected by natural processes and anthropogenic interventions. Therefore, assessing changes that take place along coastal zones is of great importance in order to enable the development of integrated coastal management plans. A characteristic case is the gulf of Mirabello in N.E Crete, where intense coastal erosion, in combination with the tectonic subsidence of the area, threatens a large part of the coastal zone, resulting in direct socio-economic impacts. The present study assesses the temporal geomorphological changes that have taken place in the coastal zone of Mirabello gulf to provide a clear frame of the coastal zone evolution over time and performs a vulnerability assessment based on the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range in the area. In light of this, an impact assessment, based on three different sea level rise scenarios, is also performed and presented.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, GIS, sea level rise

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3834 Tsunami Disasters Preparedness among the Coastal Residence in Penang, Malaysia

Authors: A. R. Shakura, A. B. Elistina, M. S. Aini, S. Norhasmah, A. Fakhru’l-Razi

Abstract:

Tsunami 2004 was an unforeseeable event that caught Malaysia of guard resulting with 68 losses of lives and with an estimated economic loss of about 55.15billion US dollar. Scientists predict that if the earthquake epicentre originates from the Andaman-Nicobar region, the coastal population of Penang will have about 30 minutes to evacuate to safety. Thus, a study was conducted to enhance resiliency of Penang community as the area was the worst affected region during 2004 tsunami disaster. This paper is intended to examine the factors that influence intention to prepare for future tsunami among the coastal residence in Penang. The differences in the level of intention to prepare were also examined between those who experience and did not experience the 2004 tsunami. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design using a survey method. A total of 503 respondents were chosen systematically and data gathered were analysed using SPSS. Both genders, male and female were equally represented with a mean age of 44 years. Data indicated that the level of intention to prepare for tsunami disaster was moderate (M=3.72) with no significant difference in intention to prepare between those who had experienced or had not experienced the 2004 tsunami. Subsequently, results from a multiple regression analysis found that sense of community to be the most influential factor followed by subjective norm, trust, positive outcome expectancy and risk perception, explaining the 57% variance in intention to prepare. These factors reflect the influence of the collectivistic culture in Malaysia whereby households plus communities have a central role in encouraging each other. Therefore, the findings highlights the potential of adopting a community based disaster risk management as recommended by the United Nations International Strategy Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) which encompasses the cooperation between the local community and relevant stakeholders in preparing for future tsunami disaster.

Keywords: disaster management, experience, intention to prepare, tsunami

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3833 Forecasting Impacts on Vulnerable Shorelines: Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coastal Zone of Messologi Area - Western Greece

Authors: Evangelos Tsakalos, Maria Kazantzaki, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos

Abstract:

The coastal areas of the Mediterranean have been extensively affected by the transgressive event that followed the Last Glacial Maximum, with many studies conducted regarding the stratigraphic configuration of coastal sediments around the Mediterranean. The coastal zone of the Messologi area, western Greece, consists of low relief beaches containing low cliffs and eroded dunes, a fact which, in combination with the rising sea level and tectonic subsidence of the area, has led to substantial coastal. Coastal vulnerability assessment is a useful means of identifying areas of coastline that are vulnerable to impacts of climate change and coastal processes, highlighting potential problem areas. Commonly, coastal vulnerability assessment takes the form of an ‘index’ that quantifies the relative vulnerability along a coastline. Here we make use of the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, by considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates, and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range to assess the present-day vulnerability of the coastal zone of Messologi area. In light of this, an impact assessment is performed under three different sea level rise scenarios, and adaptation measures to control climate change events are proposed. This study contributes toward coastal zone management practices in low-lying areas that have little data information, assisting decision-makers in adopting best adaptations options to overcome sea level rise impact on vulnerable areas similar to the coastal zone of Messologi.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, sea level rise, GIS

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3832 Seasonal Variability of Picoeukaryotes Community Structure Under Coastal Environmental Disturbances

Authors: Benjamin Glasner, Carlos Henriquez, Fernando Alfaro, Nicole Trefault, Santiago Andrade, Rodrigo De La Iglesia

Abstract:

A central question in ecology refers to the relative importance that local-scale variables have over community composition, when compared with regional-scale variables. In coastal environments, strong seasonal abiotic influence dominates these systems, weakening the impact of other parameters like micronutrients. After the industrial revolution, micronutrients like trace metals have increased in ocean as pollutants, with strong effects upon biotic entities and biological processes in coastal regions. Coastal picoplankton communities had been characterized as a cyanobacterial dominated fraction, but in recent years the eukaryotic component of this size fraction has gained relevance due to their high influence in carbon cycle, although, diversity patterns and responses to disturbances are poorly understood. South Pacific upwelling coastal environments represent an excellent model to study seasonal changes due to a strong influence in the availability of macro- and micronutrients between seasons. In addition, some well constrained coastal bays of this region have been subjected to strong disturbances due to trace metal inputs. In this study, we aim to compare the influence of seasonality and trace metals concentrations, on the community structure of planktonic picoeukaryotes. To describe seasonal patterns in the study area, satellite data in a 6 years time series and in-situ measurements with a traditional oceanographic approach such as CTDO equipment were performed. In addition, trace metal concentrations were analyzed trough ICP-MS analysis, for the same region. For biological data collection, field campaigns were performed in 2011-2012 and the picoplankton community was described by flow cytometry and taxonomical characterization with next-generation sequencing of ribosomal genes. The relation between the abiotic and biotic components was finally determined by multivariate statistical analysis. Our data show strong seasonal fluctuations in abiotic parameters such as photosynthetic active radiation and superficial sea temperature, with a clear differentiation of seasons. However, trace metal analysis allows identifying strong differentiation within the study area, dividing it into two zones based on trace metals concentration. Biological data indicate that there are no major changes in diversity but a significant fluctuation in evenness and community structure. These changes are related mainly with regional parameters, like temperature, but by analyzing the metal influence in picoplankton community structure, we identify a differential response of some plankton taxa to metal pollution. We propose that some picoeukaryotic plankton groups respond differentially to metal inputs, by changing their nutritional status and/or requirements under disturbances as a derived outcome of toxic effects and tolerance.

Keywords: Picoeukaryotes, plankton communities, trace metals, seasonal patterns

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3831 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan

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The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-community

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3830 Integrated Imaging Management System: An Approach in the Collaborative Coastal Resource Management of Bagac, Bataan

Authors: Aljon Pangan

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The Philippines being an archipelagic country, is surrounded by coastlines (36,289 km), coastal waters (226,000 km²), oceanic waters (1.93 million km²) and territorial waters (2.2 million km²). Studies show that the Philippine coastal ecosystems are the most productive and biologically diverse in the world, however, plagued by degradation problems due to over-exploitation and illegal activities. The existence of coastal degradation issues in the country led to the emergence of Coastal Resource Management (CRM) as an approach to both national and local government in providing solutions for sustainable coastal resource utilization. CRM applies the idea of planning, implementing and monitoring through the lens of collaborative governance. It utilizes collective action and decision-making to achieve sustainable use of coastal resources. The Municipality of Bagac in Bataan is one of the coastal municipalities in the country who crafts its own CRM Program as a solution to coastal resource degradation and problems. Information and Communications Technology (ICT), particularly Integrated Imaging Management System (IIMS) is one approach that can be applied in the formula of collaborative governance which entails the Government, Private Sector, and Civil Society. IIMS can help policymakers, managers, and citizens in managing coastal resources through analyzed spatial data describing the physical, biological, and socioeconomic characteristics of the coastal areas. Moreover, this study will apply the qualitative approach in deciphering possible impacts of the application of IIMS in the Coastal Resource Management policy making and implementation of the Municipality of Bagac.

Keywords: coastal resource management, collaborative governance, integrated imaging management system, information and communication technology

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3829 Ama de Casa: Gender Division of Labor the Response to Environmental and Economic Constraints, Ecuador

Authors: Tyrus C. Torres, Michael Harris

Abstract:

In a coastal town of Ecuador, the role of women is commonly defined as an ama de casa, a woman who works in the house, raises children, and contributes to the community. This project, under the guidance of Dr. Michael Harris from the Florida Atlantic University, seeks to understand how the role of an ama de casa provides a secure environment for men and women, coexists with economic and environmental constraints that explain the origins of how this environment has been formed. The coastal community aspects of familia (family), trabajo (work), relación (relationships), machismo (masculinity), feminista (femininity), and the culture of Ecuador define the ways of life in a coastal setting. This ethnographic research project included the following methodologies: environment mapping, conducting interviews, surveys, participant observation, direct and indirect observations, and integration into daily life. Immersion into the daily life and building relationships with the local people allowed the documentation of intricacies of both the cultural and social spheres. The findings of this research offer insight on how culture, economics, and environment can form female and male agency. Our investigation shows that occupations such as fishermen, laborers, ama de casas, and even students utilize occupational routes to create social agency in the face of economic and environmental constraints in Ecuador.

Keywords: Ecuador, ethnography, gender division of labor, gender roles

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3828 Evaluation of Settlement of Coastal Embankments Using Finite Elements Method

Authors: Sina Fadaie, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

Abstract:

Coastal embankments play an important role in coastal structures by reducing the effect of the wave forces and controlling the movement of sediments. Many coastal areas are underlain by weak and compressible soils. Estimation of during construction settlement of coastal embankments is highly important in design and safety control of embankments and appurtenant structures. Accordingly, selecting and establishing of an appropriate model with a reasonable level of complication is one of the challenges for engineers. Although there are advanced models in the literature regarding design of embankments, there is not enough information on the prediction of their associated settlement, particularly in coastal areas having considerable soft soils. Marine engineering study in Iran is important due to the existence of two important coastal areas located in the northern and southern parts of the country. In the present study, the validity of Terzaghi’s consolidation theory has been investigated. In addition, the settlement of these coastal embankments during construction is predicted by using special methods in PLAXIS software by the help of appropriate boundary conditions and soil layers. The results indicate that, for the existing soil condition at the site, some parameters are important to be considered in analysis. Consequently, a model is introduced to estimate the settlement of the embankments in such geotechnical conditions.

Keywords: consolidation, settlement, coastal embankments, numerical methods, finite elements method

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3827 Research on Building Urban Sustainability along the Coastal Area in China

Authors: Sun Jiaojiao, Fu Jiayan

Abstract:

At present, in China, the research about the urban sustainability construction is still in the exploratory stage. The ecological problems of the coastal area are more sensitive and complicated. In the background of global warming with serious ecological damage, this paper deeply researches on the main characteristics of urban sustainability and measures how to build urban sustainability. Through combination with regional environmental and economic ability along the coastal area, we put forward the system planning framework, construction strategy and the evaluation index system in order to seek the way of building urban sustainability along coastal area in China.

Keywords: urban sustainability, coastal areas, construction strategy, evaluation index system

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3826 Planning for Enviromental and Social Sustainability in Coastal Areas: A Case of Alappad

Authors: K. Vrinda

Abstract:

Coastal ecosystems across the world are facing a lot of challenges due to natural phenomena as well as from uncontrolled human interventions. Here, Alappad, a coastal island situated in Kerala, India is undergoing significant damage and is gradually losing its environmental and social sustainability. The area is blessed with very rare and precious black mineral sand deposits. Sand mining for these minerals started in 1911 and is still continuing. But, unfortunately all the problems that Alappad faces now, have its root on mining of this mineral sand. The land area is continuously diminishing due to sea erosion. The mining has also caused displacement of people and environmental degradation. Marine life also is getting affected by mining on beach and pollution. The inhabitants are fishermen who are largely dependent on the eco-system for a living. So loss of environmental sustainability subsequently affects social sustainability too. Now the damage has reached a point beyond which our actions may not be able to make any impact. This was one of the most affected areas of the 2004 tsunami and the environmental degradation has further increased the vulnerability. So this study focuses on understanding the concerns related to the resource utilization, environment and the indigenous community staying there, and on formulating suitable strategies to restore the sustainability of the area. An extensive study was conducted on site, to find out the physical, social, and economical characteristics of the area. A focus group discussion with the inhabitants shed light on different issues they face in their day-to-day life. The analysis of all these data, led to the formation of a new development vision for the area which focuses on environmental restoration and socio-economic development while allowing controlled exploitation of resources. A participatory approach is formulated which enables these three aspects through community based programs.

Keywords: Community development, Disaster resilience, Ecological restoration, Environmental sustainability, Social-environmental planning, Social Sustainability

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3825 Demand for Domestic Marine and Coastal Tourism and Day Trips on an Island Nation

Authors: John Deely, Stephen Hynes, Mary Cawley, Sarah Hogan

Abstract:

Domestic marine and coastal tourism have increased in importance over the last number of years due to the impacts of international travel, environmental concerns, associated health benefits and COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Consequently, this paper conceptualizes domestic marine and coastal tourism within an economic framework. Two logit models examine the factors that influence participation in the coastal day trips and overnight stays markets, respectively. Two truncated travel cost models are employed to explore trip duration, one analyzing the number of day trips taken and the other examining the number of nights spent in marine and coastal areas. Although a range of variables predicts participation, no one variable had a significant and consistent effect on every model. A division in access to domestic marine and coastal tourism is also observed based on variation in household income. The results also indicate a vibrant day trip market and large consumer surpluses.

Keywords: domestic marine and coastal tourism, day tripper, participation models, truncated travel cost model

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3824 Coastline Change at Koh Tao Island, Thailand

Authors: Cherdvong Saengsupavanich

Abstract:

Human utilizes coastal resources as well as deteriorates them. Coastal tourism may degrade the environment if poorly managed. This research investigated the shoreline change at Koa Toa Island, one of the most famous tourist destinations. Aerial photographs and satellite images from three different periods were collected and analyzed. The results showed that the noticeable shoreline change before and after the tourism on the island had expanded. Between 1995 and 2002 when the tourism on Koh Toa Island was not intensive, sediment deposition occurred along most of the coastline. However, after the tourism had grown during 2002 to 2015, the coast evidently experienced less deposition and more erosion. The erosion resulted from less land-based sediment being provided to the littoral system. If the coastline of Koh Toa Island is not carefully sustained, the tourism will disappear along with the beautiful beach.  

Keywords: coastal engineering and management, coastal erosion, coastal tourism, Koh Toa Island, Thailand

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3823 Phytoplankton Community Composition in Laguna de Terminos, Mexico, and Its Relationship to Environmental Variables

Authors: Enrique Nunez L., Maria Cortes L., Sandra Laffon L., Ana M. Cupul V.

Abstract:

The phytoplankton community composition was studied in a tropical coastal lagoon of Mexico and relationships with environmental variables were evaluated. Six sites inside the tropical Terminos Lagoon were sampled in order to determine abundances and ecological indexes for phytoplankton from May to December 2017. Water samples were also collected to determine the values of pigments, nutrients, and water solids. Results showed that the composition and abundance of the phytoplankton community were influenced by physicochemical factors, nutrients, water solids, and climate seasons. Sixty-six species were identified as potential HAB producers (44.29% from total). However, abundances were not related to the occurrence of HAB during the study. Multidimensional ANOVA indicated no significant differences between sites while some months revealed significant differences. The canonical analysis suggested that environmental variables explained 49% of community variation of potential phytoplankton species producers of HAB.

Keywords: phytoplankton, environment, lagoon, biodiversity

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3822 Land Use Changes in Two Mediterranean Coastal Regions: Do Urban Areas Matter?

Authors: L. Salvati, D. Smiraglia, S. Bajocco, M. Munafò

Abstract:

This paper focuses on Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LULCC) occurred in the urban coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin in the last thirty years. LULCC were assessed diachronically (1975-2006) in two urban areas, Rome (Italy) and Athens (Greece), by using CORINE land cover maps. In strictly coastal territories a persistent growth of built-up areas at the expenses of both agricultural and forest land uses was found. On the contrary, a different pattern was observed in the surrounding inland areas, where a high conversion rate of the agricultural land uses to both urban and forest land uses was recorded. The impact of city growth on the complex pattern of coastal LULCC is finally discussed.

Keywords: land use changes, coastal region, Rome prefecture, Attica, southern Europe

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3821 Historical Analysis of the Landscape Changes and the Eco-Environment Effects on the Coastal Zone of Bohai Bay, China

Authors: Juan Zhou, Lusan Liu, Yanzhong Zhu, Kuixuan Lin, Wenqian Cai, Yu Wang, Xing Wang

Abstract:

During the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of coastal land reclamation projects for residential, commercial and industrial purposes in more and more coastal cities of China, which led to the destruction of the wetlands and loss of the sensitive marine habitats. Meanwhile, the influences and nature of these projects attract widespread public and academic concern. For identifying the trend of landscape (esp. Coastal reclamation) and ecological environment changes, understanding of which interacted, and offering a general science for the development of regional plans. In the paper, a case study was carried out in Bohai Bay area, based on the analysis of remote sensing data. Land use maps were created for 1954, 1970, 1981, 1990, 2000 and 2010. Landscape metrics were calculated and illustrated that the degree of reclamation changes was linked to the hydrodynamic environment and macrobenthos community. The results indicated that the worst of the loss of initial areas occurred during 1954-1970, with 65.6% lost mostly to salt field; to 2010, Coastal reclamation area increased more than 200km² as artificial landscape. The numerical simulation of tidal current field in 2003 and 2010 respectively showed that the flow velocity in offshore became faster (from 2-5 cm/s to 10-20 cm/s), and the flow direction seem to go astray. These significant changes of coastline were not conducive to the spread of pollutants and degradation. Additionally, the dominant macrobenthos analysis from 1958 to 2012 showed that Musculus senhousei (Benson, 1842) spread very fast and had been the predominant species in the recent years, which was a disturbance tolerant species.

Keywords: Bohai Bay, coastal reclamation, landscape change, spatial patterns

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3820 Ecotype Hybrids and Ecotype Mixture of Spantina alterniflora Loisel. in Coastal China

Authors: Lu Xia, Nasreen Jeelani, Shuqing An

Abstract:

Spartina alterniflora, a species native to the east coast of North America, is currently the focus of increasing management concern due to its rapid expansion in coastal China. A total of 60 individuals and hundreds of seeds of S. alterniflora collected from three states in the United States representing three ecotypes (F-, G- and N-), i. e., Tampa Bay of Florida, Altamaha estuary of Georgia and Morehead City of North Carolina, were introduced into China in 1979 for ecological engineering purposes. To better understand the plant traits associated with the success of invasion, we examined distribution of ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures of the species in China. We collected and analyzed 144 samples from seven populations throughout coastal China (21.6º-38.6ºN; 109.7º-121.8ºE) using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers. Results of assignment show that both ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures exist in coastal China, especially in southern populations. Therefore, the species’ success in coastal China may be attributable largely to the coexistence of various ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures.

Keywords: ecotype hybrids, ecotype mixtures, Spartina alterniflora, coastal China

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3819 Community Level Vulnerabilities to Climate Change in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Coastal Area of Bangladesh

Authors: Pronob Kumar Mozumder, M. Abdur Rob Mollah

Abstract:

This research was conducted in two coastal locations of Bangladesh from February, 2013 to January, 2014.The objective of this research was to assess the potential vulnerabilities of climate change on local ecosystem and people and to identify and recommend local level adaptation strategies to climate change. Focus group discussions, participatory rural appraisal, interviewing local elderly people were conducted. Perceptions about climate change indicate that local people are experiencing impacts of climate change. According to local people, temperature, cyclone, rain, water-logging, siltation, salinity, erosion, and flash flood are increasing. Vulnerability assessment revealed that local people are variously affected by abnormal climate related disasters. This is jeopardizing their livelihoods, risking their lives, health, and their assets. This prevailing climatic situation in the area is also impacting their environmental conditions, biodiversity and natural resources, and their economic activities. The existing adaptation includes using traditional boat and mobile phone while fishing and making house on high land and lower height. Proposed adaptation for fishing boat are using more than 60 feet length with good timber, putting at least 3 longitudinal bar along upper side, using enough vertical side bars. The homestead measures include use of cross bracing of wall frame, roof tying with extra-post by ropes and plantation of timber tree against wind.

Keywords: community level vulnerabilities, climate change, Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Coastal Area, Bangladesh

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