Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: reusing

58 Applying an Application-Based Knowledge Capturing and Reusing for Construction Consultant Organizations Applying

Authors: Phan Nghiem Vu, Le Tuan Vu, Ta Quang Tai

Abstract:

Knowledge Management effectively is critical to the survival and advance of a company, especially in company-based industries such as construction. Knowledge management practice is crucial to the survival and progress of a company, especially company-based knowledge such as construction consultancy. Effective knowledge management practices are very significant to the competitive and development of a consulting organization. Hence, the success of knowledge management implementation depends on knowledge capturing and reusing effectively. In this paper, a survey was carried out of engineers and managers with experience in seven construction consulting organizations that provide services on the north-central coast of Vietnam. The main objectives of the survey to finding out how these organizations capture and reuse knowledge and significant barriers to the implementation of knowledge management. A conceptual framework based-on Trello application is proposed to formalize the knowledge-capturing and reusing process within construction consulting companies. It is showed that the conceptual framework could be used to manage both implicit and explicit knowledge effectively in construction consultant organizations.

Keywords: knowledge management, construction consultant organization, knowledge capturing, reusing knowledge, application-based technology

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57 Formulation of Aggregates Based on Dredged Sand and Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Ilyas Ennahal, Abdeljalil Zri, Mahfoud Benzerzour

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Nord Pas de Calais is one of the French regions that records a large volume of dredged sediment in harbors and waterways. To ensure navigation within ports and waterways, harbor and river managers are forced to find solutions to remove sediment that contamination levels exceed levels established by regulations. Therefore, this non- submersible sediment must be managed on land and will be subject to the waste regulation. In this paper, some examples of concrete achievements and experiments of reusing dredged sediment in civil engineering and sector will be illustrated. These achievements are alternative solutions to sediment landfilling and guarantee the reuse of this material in a logic of circular economy and ecological transition. It permits to preserve the natural resources increasingly scarce and resolve issues related to the accumulation of sediments in the harbor basins, rivers, dams, and lakes, etc. Examples of beneficial use of dredged material illustrated in this paper are the result of different projects reusing harbor and waterways sediments in several applications. These projects were funded under the national SEDIMATERIAUX approach. Thus the technical and environmental feasibility of the reuse of dredged sediment is demonstrated and verified; the dredged sediment reusing would meet multiple challenges of sustainable development in relation to environmental, economic, social and societal.

Keywords: circular economy, sediment, SEDIMATERIAUX, waterways

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56 XRD and Image Analysis of Low Carbon Type Recycled Cement Using Waste Cementitious Powder

Authors: Hyeonuk Shin, Hun Song, Yongsik Chu, Jongkyu Lee, Dongcheon Park

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Although much current research has been devoted to reusing concrete in the form of recycled aggregate, insufficient attention has been given to researching the utilization of waste concrete powder, which constitutes 20 % or more of waste concrete and therefore the majority of waste cementitious powder is currently being discarded or buried in landfills. This study consists of foundational research for the purpose of reusing waste cementitious powder in the form of recycled cement that can answer the need for low carbon green growth. Progressing beyond the conventional practice of using the waste cementitious powder as inert filler material, this study contributes to the aim of manufacturing high value added materials that exploits the chemical properties of the waste cementitious powder, by presenting a pre-treatment method for the material and an optimal method of proportioning the mix of materials to develop a low carbon type of recycled cement.

Keywords: Low carbon type cement, Waste cementitious powder, Waste recycling

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55 Sustainability in Space: Implementation of Circular Economy and Material Efficiency Strategies in Space Missions

Authors: Hamda M. Al-Ali

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The ultimate aim of space exploration has been centralized around the possibility of life on other planets in the solar system. This aim is driven by the detrimental effects that climate change could potentially have on human survival on Earth in the future. This drives humans to search for feasible solutions to increase environmental and economical sustainability on Earth and to evaluate and explore the ability of human survival on other planets such as Mars. To do that, frequent space missions are required to meet the ambitious human goals. This means that reliable and affordable access to space is required, which could be largely achieved through the use of reusable spacecrafts. Therefore, materials and resources must be used wisely to meet the increasing demand. Space missions are currently extremely expensive to operate. However, reusing materials hence spacecrafts, can potentially reduce overall mission costs as well as the negative impact on both space and Earth environments. This is because reusing materials leads to less waste generated per mission, and therefore fewer landfill sites are required. Reusing materials reduces resource consumption, material production, and the need for processing new and replacement spacecraft and launch vehicle parts. Consequently, this will ease and facilitate human access to outer space as it will reduce the demand for scarce resources, which will boost material efficiency in the space industry. Material efficiency expresses the extent to which resources are consumed in the production cycle and how the waste produced by the industrial process is minimized. The strategies proposed in this paper to boost material efficiency in the space sector are the introduction of key performance indicators that are able to measure material efficiency as well as the introduction of clearly defined policies and legislation that can be easily implemented within the general practices in the space industry. Another strategy to improve material efficiency is by amplifying energy and resource efficiency through reusing materials. The circularity of various spacecraft materials such as Kevlar, steel, and aluminum alloys could be maximized through reusing them directly or after galvanizing them with another layer of material to act as a protective coat. This research paper has an aim to investigate and discuss how to improve material efficiency in space missions considering circular economy concepts so that space and Earth become more economically and environmentally sustainable. The circular economy is a transition from a make-use-waste linear model to a closed-loop socio-economic model, which is regenerative and restorative in nature. The implementation of a circular economy will reduce waste and pollution through maximizing material efficiency, ensuring that businesses can thrive and sustain. Further research into the extent to which reusable launch vehicles reduce space mission costs have been discussed, along with the environmental and economic implications it could have on the space sector and the environment. This has been examined through research and in-depth literature review of published reports, books, scientific articles, and journals. Keywords such as material efficiency, circular economy, reusable launch vehicles and spacecraft materials were used to search for relevant literature.

Keywords: circular economy, key performance indicator, material efficiency, reusable launch vehicles, spacecraft materials

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54 Area-Efficient FPGA Implementation of an FFT Processor by Reusing Butterfly Units

Authors: Atin Mukherjee, Amitabha Sinha, Debesh Choudhury

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Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of large-number of samples requires larger hardware resources of field programmable gate arrays and it asks for more area as well as power. In this paper, an area efficient architecture of FFT processor is proposed, that reuses the butterfly units more than once. The FFT processor is emulated and the results are validated on Virtex-6 FPGA. The proposed architecture outperforms the conventional architecture of a N-point FFT processor in terms of area which is reduced by a factor of log_N(2) with the negligible increase of processing time.

Keywords: FFT, FPGA, resource optimization, butterfly units

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53 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu

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Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

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52 Input-Output Analysis in Laptop Computer Manufacturing

Authors: H. Z. Ulukan, E. Demircioğlu, M. Erol Genevois

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The scope of this paper and the aim of proposed model were to apply monetary Input –Output (I-O) analysis to point out the importance of reusing know-how and other requirements in order to reduce the production costs in a manufacturing process for a laptop computer. I-O approach using the monetary input-output model is employed to demonstrate the impacts of different factors in a manufacturing process. A sensitivity analysis showing the correlation between these different factors is also presented. It is expected that the recommended model would have an advantageous effect in the cost minimization process.

Keywords: input-output analysis, monetary input-output model, manufacturing process, laptop computer

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51 Factors Affecting Aluminum Dissolve from Acidified Water Purification Sludge

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chi Hua Fu, Ping Hung Chen, Ruey Fang Yu

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Recovering resources from water purification sludge (WPS) have been gradually stipulated in environmental protection laws and regulations in many nations. Hence, reusing the WPS is becoming an important topic, and recovering alum from WPS is one of the many practical alternatives. Most previous research efforts have been conducted on studying the amphoteric characteristic of aluminum hydroxide for investigating the optimum pH range to dissolve the Al(III) species from WPS, but it has been lack of reaction kinetics or mechanisms related discussion. Therefore, in this investigation, water purification sludge (WPS) solution was broken by ultrasound to make particle size of reactants smaller, specific surface area larger. According to the reaction kinetics, these phenomena let the dissolved aluminum salt quantity increased and the reaction rate go faster.

Keywords: aluminum, acidification, sludge, recovery

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50 Recycling Strategies of Construction Waste in Egypt

Authors: Hanan Anwar

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All systems recycle. The construction industry has not only become a major consumer of natural materials along with a source of pollution. Environmental integrated production, reusing and recycling is of great importance in Egypt nowadays. Governments should ensure that the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of alternative systems is considered and is taken into account before construction starts. Hereby this paper focuses on the recycle of building materials as a way for environment protection and sustainable development. Environmental management integrates the requirements of sustainable development. There are many methods used to reduce waste and increase profits through salvage, reuse, and the recycling of construction waste. Sustainable development as a tool to continual improvement cycle processes innovations to save money.

Keywords: environment, management, reuse, recycling, sustainable development

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49 Reusing of HSS Hacksaw Blades as Rough Machining Tool

Authors: Raja V., Chokkalingam B.

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For rough cutting, in many industries and educational institutions using carbon steels or HSS single point cutting tools in center lathe machine. In power hacksaw blades, only the cutter teeth region used to parting off the given material. The portions other than the teeth can be used as a single point cutting tool for rough turning and facing on soft materials. The hardness and Tensile strength of this used Power hacksaw blade is almost same as conventional cutting tools. In this paper, the effect of power hacksaw blades over conventional tool has been compared. Thickness of the blade (1.6 mm) is very small compared to its length and width. Hence, a special tool holding device is designed to hold the tool.

Keywords: hardness, high speed steels, power hacksaw blade, tensile strength

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48 Processing of Flexible Dielectric Nanocomposites Using Nanocellulose and Recycled Alum Sludge for Wearable Technology Applications

Authors: D. Sun, L. Saw, A. Onyianta, D. O’Rourke, Z. Lu, C. See, C. Wilson, C. Popescu, M. Dorris

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With the rapid development of wearable technology (e.g., smartwatch, activity trackers and health monitor devices), flexible dielectric materials with environmental-friendly, low-cost and high-energy efficiency characteristics are in increasing demand. In this work, a flexible dielectric nanocomposite was processed by incorporating two components: cellulose nanofibrils and alum sludge in a polymer matrix. The two components were used in the reinforcement phase as well as for enhancing the dielectric properties; they were processed using waste materials that would otherwise be disposed to landfills. Alum sludge is a by-product of the water treatment process in which aluminum sulfate is prevalently used as the primary coagulant. According to the data from a project partner-Scottish Water: there are approximately 10k tons of alum sludge generated as a waste from the water treatment work to be landfilled every year in Scotland. The industry has been facing escalating financial and environmental pressure to develop more sustainable strategies to deal with alum sludge wastes. In the available literature, some work on reusing alum sludge has been reported (e.g., aluminum recovery or agriculture and land reclamation). However, little work can be found in applying it to processing energy materials (e.g., dielectrics) for enhanced energy density and efficiency. The alum sludge was collected directly from a water treatment plant of Scottish Water and heat-treated and refined before being used in preparing composites. Cellulose nanofibrils were derived from water hyacinth, an invasive aquatic weed that causes significant ecological issues in tropical regions. The harvested water hyacinth was dried and processed using a cost-effective method, including a chemical extraction followed by a homogenization process in order to extract cellulose nanofibrils. Biodegradable elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the polymer matrix and the nanocomposites were processed by casting raw materials in Petri dishes. The processed composites were characterized using various methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), rheological analysis, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction analysis. The SEM result showed that cellulose nanofibrils of approximately 20nm in diameter and 100nm in length were obtained and the alum sludge particles were of approximately 200um in diameters. The TGA/DSC analysis result showed that a weight loss of up to 48% can be seen in the raw material of alum sludge and its crystallization process has been started at approximately 800°C. This observation coincides with the XRD result. Other experiments also showed that the composites exhibit comprehensive mechanical and dielectric performances. This work depicts that it is a sustainable practice of reusing such waste materials in preparing flexible, lightweight and miniature dielectric materials for wearable technology applications.

Keywords: cellulose, biodegradable, sustainable, alum sludge, nanocomposite, wearable technology, dielectric

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47 Retail Managers’ Perception on Coca-Cola Company’s Success of Glass Package Recovery and Recycling in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Brigitte Wabuyabo-Okonga

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Little research has been done to establish the level of success of Coca Cola Company in recycling and reusing their glass bottles. This paper attempts to establish retail managers’ perception of the company’s self acclaimed success. Retail managers of supermarkets in the CBD of Nairobi, Kenya were considered for the study. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive (mean, frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (correlation analysis) were used to analyze the data. The study found out that there is relative success although a lot needs to be done. For example, improving in communicating policy issues and in practice enhance the actual collection of broken and/or non-broken Coca Cola Company glass bottles through providing drop-off points in open areas such as on the streets and in parks.

Keywords: Coca Cola Company glass bottles, Kenya, Nairobi, packaging, retail manager

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46 Business Process Mashup

Authors: Fethia Zenak, Salima Benbernou, Linda Zaoui

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Recently, many companies are based on process development from scratch to achieve their business goals. The process development is not trivial and the main objective of enterprise managing processes is to decrease the software development time. Several concepts have been proposed in the field of business process-based reused development, known as BP Mashup. This concept consists of reusing existing business processes which have been modeled in order to respond to a particular goal. To meet user process requirements, our contribution is to mix parts of processes as 'processes fragments' components to build a new process (i.e. process mashup). The main idea of our paper is to offer graphical framework tool for both creating and running processes mashup. Allow users to perform a mixture of fragments, using a simple interface with set of graphical mixture operators based on a proposed formal model. A process mashup and mixture behavior are described within a new specification of a high-level language, language for process mashup (BPML).

Keywords: business process, mashup, fragments, bp mashup

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45 Material Research for Sustainable Design: An Exploration Towards the Application of Foam into Textile and Fashion Design

Authors: Jichi Wu

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Though fast fashion and consumption do boost the economy and push the progress of the industry, they have also caused a mass of waste, which has led to great pressure on the environment. This project mainly focuses on how to develop new sustainable textile and fashion design through recycling, upcycling, and reusing. Substantial field researches were implemented from the very beginning, including collecting reusable material from recycling centers. Hot-pressed composite materials, hand-cutting, and weaving were finally selected as the core material/method of this project after attempts and experiments. Four pieces of menswear, as well as hats and other decorative products made from wasted foams and fabrics, were successfully manufactured. Results show that foam is not only possible for furniture but also for clothing. It helps people to realize that foam is warm, heatproof, anti-slippery, and crease-resistant. So, all advantages could inspire people that even common materials could have new usage and are worthy of upcycling.

Keywords: sustainable design, foam, upcycling, life cycle, textile design

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44 Influence of Partially-Replaced Coarse Aggregates with Date Palm Seeds on the Concrete Properties

Authors: Fahed Alrshoudi

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Saudi Arabia is ranked the third of the largest suppliers of Dates worldwide (about 28.5 million palm trees), producing more than 2 million tons of dates yearly. These trees produce large quantity of dates palm seeds (DPS) which can be considered literally as a waste. The date seeds are stiff, therefore, it is possible to utilize DPS as coarse aggregates in lightweight concrete for certain structural applications and to participate at reusing the waste. The use of DPS as coarse aggregate in concrete can be an alternative choice as a partial replacement of the stone aggregates (SA). This paper reports the influence of partially replaced stone aggregates with DPS on the hardened properties of concrete performance. Based on the experimental results, the DPS has the potential use as an acceptable alternative aggregates in producing structural lightweight concrete members, instead of stone aggregates.

Keywords: compressive strength, tensile Strength, date palm seeds, aggregate

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43 Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Grand Challenges in Construction Recovery Process

Authors: Abioye A. Oyenuga, Rao Bhamidiarri

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Hurling a successful Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) recycling operation around the globe is a challenge today, predominantly because secondary materials markets are yet to be integrated. Reducing, Reusing and recycling of (C&DW) have been employed over the years, and various techniques have been investigated. However, the economic and environmental viability of its application seems limited. This paper discusses the costs and benefits in using secondary materials and focus on investigating reuse and recycling process for five major types of construction materials: concrete, metal, wood, cardboard/paper, and plasterboard. Data obtained from demolition specialist and contractors are considered and evaluated. With the date source, the research paper found that construction material recovery process fully incorporate the 3R’s process and shows how energy recovery by means of 3R's principles can be evaluated. This scrutiny leads to the empathy of grand challenges in construction material recovery process. Recommendations to deepen material recovery process are also discussed.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste (C&DW), 3R concept, recycling, reuse, waste management, UK

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42 Reuse of Huge Industrial Areas

Authors: Martina Perinkova, Lenka Kolarcikova, Marketa Twrda

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Brownfields are one of the most important problems that must be solved by today's cities. The topic of this article is description of developing a comprehensive transformation of post-industrial area of the former iron factory national cultural heritage Lower Vítkovice. City of Ostrava used to be industrial superpower of the Czechoslovak Republic, especially in the area of coal mining and iron production, after declining industrial production and mining in the 80s left many unused areas of former factories generally brownfields and backfields. Since the late 90s we are observing how the city officials or private entities seeking to remedy this situation. Regeneration of brownfields is a very expensive and long-term process. The area is now rebuilt for tourists and residents of the city in the entertainment, cultural, and social center. It was necessary do the reconstruction of the industrial monuments. Equally important was the construction of new buildings, which helped reusing of the entire complex. This is a unique example of transformation of technical monuments and completion of necessary new objects, so that the area could start working again and reintegrate back into the urban system.

Keywords: brown fields, conversion, historical and industrial buildings, reconstruction

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41 The Effects of Agricultural Waste Compost Applications on Soil Properties

Authors: Ilker Sönmez, Mustafa Kaplan

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The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly and always by burning. Agricultural wastes have a great volume and agricultural wastes cause environmental pollution. Spent mushroom compost and cut flower carnation wastes have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya. One of the best evaluation methods of agricultural wastes is composting methods and so agricultural wastes transformed for a new product. In this study, agricultural wastes were evaluated the effects of compost and organic material on soil pH, EC, soil organic matter, and macro-micro nutrient contents of soil that it growth carnation. The effects of compost applications on soils were found to be statistically significant. Organic material applications have caused an increase in all physical and chemical parameters except for pH that pH decreased with compost added in soils. The best results among the compost applications were determined R1 compost that R1 compost included %75 Carnation Wastes + %25 Spent Mushroom Compost. The structural properties of soils can be improved with reusing of agricultural wastes by composting so it can be provided that decreasing the harmful effects of organic wastes on the environment.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carnation wastes, composting, organic material, spent mushroom compost

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40 A Collaborative Teaching and Learning Model between Academy and Industry for Multidisciplinary Engineering Education

Authors: Moon-Soo Kim

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In order to cope with the increasing demand for multidisciplinary learning between academy and industry, a collaborative teaching and learning model and related operational tools enabling applications to engineering education are essential. This study proposes a web-based collaborative framework for interactive teaching and learning between academy and industry as an initial step for the development of a web- and mobile-based integrated system for both engineering students and industrial practitioners. The proposed web-based collaborative teaching and learning framework defines several entities such as learner, solver and supporter or sponsor for industrial problems, and also has a systematic architecture to build information system including diverse functions enabling effective interaction among the defined entities regardless of time and places. Furthermore, the framework, which includes knowledge and information self-reinforcing mechanism, focuses on the previous problem-solving records as well as subsequent learners’ creative reusing in solving process of new problems.

Keywords: collaborative teaching and learning model, academy and industry, web-based collaborative framework, self-reinforcing mechanism

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39 Reusing Assessments Tests by Generating Arborescent Test Groups Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ovidiu Domşa, Nicolae Bold

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Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) notions in education and three basic processes of education (teaching, learning and assessment) can bring benefits to the pupils and the professional development of teachers. In this matter, we refer to these notions as concepts taken from the informatics area and apply them to the domain of education. These notions refer to genetic algorithms and arborescent structures, used in the specific process of assessment or evaluation. This paper uses these kinds of notions to generate subtrees from a main tree of tests related between them by their degree of difficulty. These subtrees must contain the highest number of connections between the nodes and the lowest number of missing edges (which are subtrees of the main tree) and, in the particular case of the non-existence of a subtree with no missing edges, the subtrees which have the lowest (minimal) number of missing edges between the nodes, where a node is a test and an edge is a direct connection between two tests which differs by one degree of difficulty. The subtrees are represented as sequences. The tests are the same (a number coding a test represents that test in every sequence) and they are reused for each sequence of tests.

Keywords: chromosome, genetic algorithm, subtree, test

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38 Optimization and Retrofitting for an Egyptian Refinery Water Network

Authors: Mohamed Mousa

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Sacristies in the supply of freshwater, strict regulations on discharging wastewater and the support to encourage sustainable development by water minimization techniques leads to raise the interest of water reusing, regeneration, and recycling. Water is considered a vital element in chemical industries. In this study, an optimization model will be developed to determine the optimal design of refinery’s water network system via source interceptor sink that involves several network alternatives, then a Mixed-Integer Non-Linear programming (MINLP) was used to obtain the optimal network superstructure based on flowrates, the concentration of contaminants, etc. The main objective of the model is to reduce the fixed cost of piping installation interconnections, reducing the operating cots of all streams within the refiner’s water network, and minimize the concentration of pollutants to comply with the environmental regulations. A real case study for one of the Egyptian refineries was studied by GAMS / BARON global optimization platform, and the water network had been retrofitted and optimized, leading to saving around 195 m³/ hr. of freshwater with a total reduction reaches to 26 %.

Keywords: freshwater minimization, modelling, GAMS, BARON, water network design, wastewater reudction

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37 An Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Techno-Economic Optimization in the Supply Chains

Authors: Yohanes Kristianto

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The objective of this paper is to compose a sustainable supply chain that integrates product, process and networks design. An integrated life cycle assessment and techno-economic optimization is proposed that might deliver more economically feasible operations, minimizes environmental impacts and maximizes social contributions. Closed loop economy of the supply chain is achieved by reusing waste to be raw material of final products. Societal benefit is given by the supply chain by absorbing waste as source of raw material and opening new work opportunities. A case study of ethanol supply chain from rice straws is considered. The modeling results show that optimization within the scope of LCA is capable of minimizing both CO₂ emissions and energy and utility consumptions and thus enhancing raw materials utilization. Furthermore, the supply chain is capable of contributing to local economy through jobs creation. While the model is quite comprehensive, the future research recommendation on energy integration and global sustainability is proposed.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, techno-economic optimization, sustainable supply chains, closed loop economy

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36 Template Design Packages for Repetitive Construction Projects

Authors: Ali Youniss Aidbaiss, G. Unnikrishnan, Anoob Hakim

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Scope changes, scope creeps, cost and time overruns have become common in projects in the oil and gas sector. Even in repetitive projects, failure to implement lessons learnt and correct past mistakes have resulted in various setbacks. This paper describes the concept of reusing successfully implemented design packages as templates for repetitive projects, and thereby lowering the instances of project failures. Units or systems successfully installed in projects can be identified and taken up for preparing template design packages. Standardization of units and systems helps to develop templates from successful designs which can be repeatedly used with confidence. These packages can be used with minimum modifications for developing FEED packages faster, saving cost and other valuable resources. Lessons learnt from the completed project incorporated in the templates avoid repeating past mistakes during detailed design, procurement and execution. With template packages, consistent quality can be maintained for similar projects, avoiding scope creep and scope changes which will ultimately result in cost and time savings.

Keywords: engineering work package, repetitive construction, template design package, time saving in projects

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35 Intelligent Rainwater Reuse System for Irrigation

Authors: Maria M. S. Pires, Andre F. X. Gloria, Pedro J. A. Sebastiao

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The technological advances in the area of Internet of Things have been creating more and more solutions in the area of agriculture. These solutions are quite important for life, as they lead to the saving of the most precious resource, water, being this need to save water a concern worldwide. The paper proposes the creation of an Internet of Things system based on a network of sensors and interconnected actuators that automatically monitors the quality of the rainwater that is stored inside a tank in order to be used for irrigation. The main objective is to promote sustainability by reusing rainwater for irrigation systems instead of water that is usually available for other functions, such as other productions or even domestic tasks. A mobile application was developed for Android so that the user can control and monitor his system in real time. In the application, it is possible to visualize the data that translate the quality of the water inserted in the tank, as well as perform some actions on the implemented actuators, such as start/stop the irrigation system and pour the water in case of poor water quality. The implemented system translates a simple solution with a high level of efficiency and tests and results obtained within the possible environment.

Keywords: internet of things, irrigation system, wireless sensor and actuator network, ESP32, sustainability, water reuse, water efficiency

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34 Recycling Construction Waste Materials to Reduce the Environmental Pollutants

Authors: Mehrdad Abkenari, Alireza Rezaei, Naghmeh Pournayeb

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There have recently been many studies and investments in developed and developing countries regarding the possibility of recycling construction waste, which are still ongoing. Since the term 'construction waste' covers a vast spectrum of materials in constructing buildings, roads and etc., many investigations are required to measure their technical performance in use as well as their time and place of use. Concrete is among the major and fundamental materials used in current construction industry. Along with the rise of population in developing countries, it is desperately required to meet the people's primary need in construction industry and on the other hand, dispose existing wastes for reducing the amount of environmental pollutants. Restrictions of natural resources and environmental pollution are the most important problems encountered by civil engineers. Reusing construction waste is an important and economic approach that not only assists the preservation of environment but also, provides us with primary raw materials. In line with consistent municipal development in disposal and reuse of construction waste, several approaches including, management of construction waste and materials, materials recycling and innovation and new inventions in materials have been predicted. This article has accordingly attempted to study the activities related to recycling of construction wastes and then, stated the economic, quantitative, qualitative and environmental results obtained.

Keywords: civil engineering, environment, recycling, construction waste

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33 Repeated Reuse of Insulin Injection Syringes and Incidence of Bacterial Contamination among Diabetic Patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia

Authors: Muluneh Ademe, Zeleke Mekonnen

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Objective: to determine the level of bacterial contamination of reused insulin syringes among diabetic patients. Method: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among diabetic patients. Data on socio-demographic variables, history of injection syringe reuse, and frequency of reuse of syringes were collected using predesigned questionnaire. Finally, the samples from the syringes were cultured according to standard microbiological techniques. Result: Eighteen diabetic patients at Jimma University Hospital participated. A total of 83.3% of participants reused a single injection syringe for >30 consecutive injections, while 16.7% reused for >30 injections. Our results showed 22.2% of syringes were contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aures. Conclusion: We conclude reuse of syringe is associated with microbial contamination. The findings that 4/18 syringes being contaminated with bacteria is an alarming situation. A mechanism should be designed for patients to get injection syringes with affordable price. If reusing is not avoidable, reducing number of injections per a single syringe and avoiding needle touching with hand or other non-sterile material may be an alternative to reduce the risk of contamination.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Ethiopia, subcutaneous insulin injection, syringe reuse

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32 Marble Powder’s Effect on Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Khan Shahzada, Bashir Alam, Fawad Bilal, Mushtaq Zeb, Faizan Akbar

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Marble industry contributes its fair share in environmental deterioration, producing voluminous amounts of mud and other excess residues obtained from marble and granite processing, polluting soil, water and air. Reusing these products in other products will not just prevent our environment from polluting but also help with economy. In this research, an attempt has been made to study the expediency of waste Marble Powder (MP) in concrete production. Various laboratory tests were performed to investigate permeability, physical and mechanical properties, such as slump, compressive strength, split tensile test, etc. Concrete test samples were fabricated with varying MP content (replacing 5-30% cement), furnished from two different sources. 5% replacement of marble dust caused 6% and 12% decrease in compressive and tensile strength respectively. These parameters gradually decreased with increasing MP content up to 30%. Most optimum results were obtained with 10% replacement. Improvement in consistency and permeability were noticed. The permeability was improved with increasing MP proportion up to 10% without substantial decrease in compressive strength. Obtained results revealed that MP as an alternative to cement in concrete production is a viable option considering its economic and environment friendly implications.

Keywords: marble powder, strength, permeability, consistency, environment

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31 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed

Abstract:

Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: ceramic membranes, filtration, greywater, wastewater treatment

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30 Performance Assessment of Recycled Alum Sludge in the Treatment of Textile Industry Effluent in South Africa

Authors: Tony Ngoy Mbodi, Christophe Muanda

Abstract:

Textile industry is considered as one of the most polluting sectors in terms of effluent volume of discharge and wastewater composition, such as dye, which represents an environmental hazard when discharged without any proper treatment. A study was conducted to investigate the capability of the use of recycled alum sludge (RAS) as an alternative treatment for the reduction of colour, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH adjustment from dye based synthetic textile industry wastewater. The coagulation/flocculation process was studied for coagulants of Alum:RAS ratio of, 1:1, 2:1, 1:2 and 0:1. Experiments on treating the synthetic wastewater using membrane filtration and adsorption with corn cobs were also conducted. Results from the coagulation experiment were compared to those from adsorption with corn cobs and membrane filtration experiments conducted on the same synthetic wastewater. The results of the RAS experiments were also evaluated against standard guidelines for industrial effluents treated for discharge purposes in order to establish its level of compliance. Based on current results, it can be concluded that reusing the alum sludge as a low-cost material pretreatment method into the coagulation/flocculation process can offer some advantages such as high removal efficiency for disperse dye and economic savings on overall treatment of the industry wastewater.

Keywords: alum, coagulation/flocculation, dye, recycled alum sludge, textile wastewater

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29 Integrating Microcontroller-Based Projects in a Human-Computer Interaction Course

Authors: Miguel Angel Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro Cesar Santana-Mancilla, Laura Sanely Gaytan-Lugo

Abstract:

This paper describes the design and application of a short in-class project conducted in Algoma University’s Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) course taught at the Bachelor of Computer Science. The project was based on the Maker Movement (people using and reusing electronic components and everyday materials to tinker with technology and make interactive applications), where students applied low-cost and easy-to-use electronic components, the Arduino Uno microcontroller board, software tools, and everyday objects. Students collaborated in small teams by completing hands-on activities with them, making an interactive walking cane for blind people. At the end of the course, students filled out a Technology Acceptance Model version 2 (TAM2) questionnaire where they evaluated microcontroller boards’ applications in HCI classes. We also asked them about applying the Maker Movement in HCI classes. Results showed overall students’ positive opinions and response about using microcontroller boards in HCI classes. We strongly suggest that every HCI course should include practical activities related to tinkering with technology such as applying microcontroller boards, where students actively and constructively participate in teams for achieving learning objectives.

Keywords: maker movement, microcontrollers, learning, projects, course, technology acceptance

Procedia PDF Downloads 90