Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1264

Search results for: solar distillation

1264 A Technical-Economical Study of a New Solar Tray Distillator

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Assia Cherfa, Lamia Karadaniz

Abstract:

Multiple tray solar distillation offers an interesting alternative for small-scale desalination and production high quality distilled water at a competitive cost using solar energy. In this work, we present indoor/outdoor trial performance data of our multiple tray solar distillation as well as the results of cost estimation analysis.

Keywords: solar desalination, tray distillation, multi-étages solaire, solar distillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
1263 Performance Evaluation of Single Basin Solar Still

Authors: Prem Singh, Jagdeep Singh

Abstract:

In an attempt to investigate the performance of single basin solar still for climate conditions of Ludhiana a single basin solar still was designed, fabricated and tested. The energy balance equations for various parts of the still are solved by Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer model was made and experimentally validated. The validated computer model was used to estimate the annual distillation yield and performance ratio of the still for Ludhiana. The Theoretical and experimental distillation yield were 4318.79 ml and 3850 ml, respectively for the typical day. The predicted distillation yield was 12.5% higher than the experimental yield. The annual distillation yield per square meter aperture area and annual performance ratio for single basin solar still is 1095 liters and 0.43 liters, respectively. The payback period for micro-stepped solar still is 2.5 years.

Keywords: solar distillation, solar still, single basin, still

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
1262 Stand Alone Multiple Trough Solar Desalination with Heat Storage

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Kamel Benabdellaziz

Abstract:

Remote arid areas of the vast expanses of the African deserts hold huge subterranean reserves of brackish water resources waiting for economic development. This work presents design guidelines as well as initial performance data of new autonomous solar desalination equipment which could help local communities produce their own fresh water using solar energy only and, why not, contribute to transforming desert lands into lush gardens. The output of solar distillation equipment is typically low and in the range of 3 l/m2/day on the average. This new design with an integrated, water-based, environmentally-friendly solar heat storage system produced 5 l/m2/day in early spring weather. Equipment output during summer exceeded 9 liters per m2 per day.

Keywords: multiple trough distillation, solar desalination, solar distillation with heat storage, water based heat storage system

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1261 Experimental Study of a Solar Still with Four Glass Cover

Authors: Zakaria Haddad, Azzedine Nahoui, Mohamed Salmi, Ali Djagham

Abstract:

Solar distillation is an effective and practical method for the production of drinking water in arid and semi-arid areas; however, this production is very limited. The aim of this work is to increase the latter by means of single slope solar still with four glass cover without augmenting volume and surface of a conventional solar still, using local materials and simple design. The equipment was tested under the climatic condition of Msila city (35°70′ N, 4°54′ E), Algeria. Performance of the use of four glass cover was studied, and exhaustive data were collected, analyzed, and presented. To show the effectiveness of the system, its performance was compared with that of the conventional solar still. The experimental study shows that the production of the proposed system achieves 5.3 l/m²/day and 5.8 l/m²/day respectively for the months of April and May, with an increase of 10% and 17% compared to the conventional solar still.

Keywords: drinking water, four glass cover, production, solar distillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
1260 Study of Some Factors Effecting on Productivity of Solar Distillers

Authors: Keshek M.H, Mohamed M.A, El-Shafey M.A

Abstract:

The aim of this research was increasing the productivity of solar distillation. In order to reach this aim, a solar distiller was created with three glass sides sloping 30o at the horizontal level, and the experiments were carried out on the solar distillation unit during the period from 24th August, 2016 till 24th May, 2017 at the Agricultural Engineering and Bio Systems Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University. Three gap lengths were used between the water level and the inner glass cover, those were 3, 6, and 9 cm. As the result of change the gap length between the water level and the inner glass cover the total volume of basins were changed from 15.5, 13, and 11 L, respectively. The total basin volume was divided to three sections, to investigate the effect of water volume. The three water volumes were 100%, 75%, and 50%. Every section was supplied with one, two, or three heaters. The one heater power was 15 W. The results showed that, by increasing the distance between the basins edge and the inner edge of the glass cover, an increase occurs in the percentage of temperature difference with maximum value was 52% at distance 9 cm from each edge, an increase occurs in the productivity with maximum productivity was 3.3 L/m2 at distance 9 cm from each edge and an increase occurs in the efficiency with maximum efficiency was 70% at distance 9 cm from each edge.

Keywords: distillation, solar energy, still productivity, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
1259 Solar Energy Applications in Seawater Distillation

Authors: Yousef Abdulaziz Almolhem

Abstract:

Geographically, the most Arabic countries locate in areas confined to arid or semiarid regions. For this reason, most of our countries have adopted the seawater desalination as a strategy to overcome this problem. For example, the water supply of AUE, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia is almost 100% from the seawater desalination plants. Many areas in Saudia Arabia and other countries in the world suffer from lack of fresh water which hinders the development of these areas, despite the availability of saline water and high solar radiation intensity. Furthermore, most developing countries do not have sufficient meteorological data to evaluate if the solar radiation is enough to meet the solar desalination. A mathematical model was developed to simulate and predict the thermal behavior of the solar still which used direct solar energy for distillation of seawater. Measurement data were measured in the Environment and Natural Resources Department, Faculty of Agricultural and Food sciences, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, in order to evaluate the present model. The simulation results obtained from this model were compared with the measured data. The main results of this research showed that there are slight differences between the measured and predicted values of the elements studied, which is resultant from the change of some factors considered constants in the model such as the sky clearance, wind velocity and the salt concentration in the water in the basin of the solar still. It can be concluded that the present model can be used to estimate the average total solar radiation and the thermal behavior of the solar still in any area with consideration to the geographical location.

Keywords: mathematical model, sea water, distillation, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1258 Feasibility of Solar Distillation as Household Water Supply in Saline Zones of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Rezaul Karim, Md. Ashikur Rahman, Dewan Mahmud Mim

Abstract:

Scarcity of potable water as the result of rapid climate change and saltwater intrusion in groundwater has been a major problem in the coastal regions over the world. In equinoctial countries like Bangladesh, where sunlight is available for more than 10 hours a day, Solar Distillation provides a promising sustainable way for safe drinking water supply in coastal poor households with negligible major cost and difficulty of construction and maintenance. In this paper, two passive type solar stills- a Conventional Single Slope Solar still (CSS) and a Pyramid Solar Sill (PSS) is used and relationship is established between distill water output corresponding to four different factors- temperature, solar intensity, relative humidity and wind speed for Gazipur, Bangladesh. Comparison is analyzed between the two different still outputs for nine months period (January- September) and efficiency is calculated. Later a thermal mathematical model is developed and the distilled water output for Khulna, Bangladesh is computed. Again, difference between the output of the two cities- Gazipur and Khulna is demonstrated and finally an economic analysis is prepared. The distillation output has a positive correlation with temperature and solar intensity, inverse relation with relative humidity and wind speed has nugatory consequence. The maximum output of Conventional Solar Still is obtained 3.8 L/m2/day and Pyramid still is 4.3 L/m2/day for Gazipur and almost 15% more efficiency is found for Pyramid still. Productivity in Khulna is found almost 20% more than Gazipur. Based on economic analysis, taking 10 BDT, per liter, the net profit, benefit cost ratio, payback period all indicates that both stills are feasible but pyramid still is more feasible than Conventional Still. Finally, for a 3-4 member family, area of 4 m2 is suggested for Conventional Still and 3m2 for Pyramid Solar Still.

Keywords: solar distillation, household water supply, saline zones, Bangladesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1257 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1256 Effect of the Distance Between the Cold Surface and the Hot Surface on the Production of a Simple Solar Still

Authors: Hiba Akrout, Khaoula Hidouri, Béchir Chaouachi, Romdhane Ben Slama

Abstract:

A simple solar distiller has been constructed in order to desalt water via the solar distillation process. An experimental study has been conducted in June. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the distance between the cold condensing surface and the hot steam generation surface in order to optimize the geometric characteristics of a simple solar still. To do this, we have developed a mathematical model based on thermal and mass equations system. Subsequently, the equations system resolution has been made through a program developed on MATLAB software, which allowed us to evaluate the production of this system as a function of the distance separating the two surfaces. In addition, this model allowed us to determine the evolution of the humid air temperature inside the solar still as well as the humidity ratio profile all over the day. Simulations results show that the solar distiller production, as well as the humid air temperature, are proportional to the global solar radiation. It was also found that the air humidity ratio inside the solar still has a similar evolution of that of solar radiation. Moreover, the solar distiller average height augmentation, for constant water depth, induces the diminution of the production. However, increasing the water depth for a fixed average height of solar distiller reduces the production.

Keywords: distillation, solar energy, heat transfer, mass transfer, average height

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1255 Experimental Evaluation of Stand Alone Solar Driven Membrane Distillation System

Authors: Mejbri Sami, Zhani Khalifa, Zarzoum Kamel, Ben Bacha Habib, Koschikowski Joachim, Pfeifle Daniel

Abstract:

Many places worldwide, especially arid and semi-arid remote regions, are suffering from the lack of drinkable water and the situation will be aggravated in the near future. Furthermore, remote areas are characterised by lack of conventional energy sources, skilled personnel and maintenance facilities. Therefore, the development of small to medium size, stand-alone and robust solar desalination systems is needed to provide independent fresh water supply in remote areas. This paper is focused on experimental studies on compact membrane distillation (MD) solar desalination prototype located at the Mechanical Engineering Department site, Kairouan University, Kairouan, Tunisia. The pilot system is designed and manufactured as a part of a research and development project funded by the MESRS/BMBF. The pilot system is totally autonomous. The electrical energy required to operate the unit is generated through a field of 4 m² of photovoltaic panels, and the heating of feed water is provided by a field of 6 m² of solar collectors. The Kairouan plant performance of the first few months of operation is presented. The highest freshwater production of 150 L/d is obtained on a sunny day in July of 633 W/m²d.

Keywords: experimental, membrane distillation, solar desalination, Permeat gap

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1254 A Performance Analysis Study of an Active Solar Still Integrating Fin at the Basin Plate

Authors: O. Ansari, H. Hafs, A. Bah, M. Asbik, M. Malha, M. Bakhouya

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important and vulnerable natural resources due to human activities and climate change. Water-level continues declining year after year and it is primarily caused by sustained, extensive, and traditional usage methods. Improving water utilization becomes an urgent issue in order satisfy the increasing population needs. Desalination of seawater or brackish water could help in increasing water potential. However, a cost-effective desalination process is required. The most appropriate method for performing this desalination is solar-driven distillation, given its simplicity, low cost and especially the availability of the solar energy source. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of coupling integrated basin plate by fins with preheating by solar collector on the performance of solar still. The energy balance equations for the various elements of the solar still are introduced. A numerical example is used to show the efficiency of the proposed solution.

Keywords: active solar still, desalination, fins, solar collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
1253 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira

Abstract:

True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
1252 Experimental Study on Modified Double Slope Solar Still and Modified Basin Type Double Slope Multiwick Solar Still

Authors: Piyush Pal, Rahul Dev

Abstract:

Water is essential for life and fresh water is a finite resource that is becoming scarce day by day even though it is recycled by hydrological cycle. The fresh water reserves are being polluted due to expanding irrigation, industries, urban population and its development. Contaminated water leads to several health problems. With the increasing demand of fresh water, solar distillation is an alternate solution which uses solar energy to evaporate water and then to condense it, thereby collecting distilled water within or outside the same system to use it as potable water. The structure that houses the process is known as a 'solar still'. In this paper, ‘Modified double slope solar still (MDSSS)’ & 'Modified double slope basin type multiwick solar still (MDSBMSS)' have been designed to convert saline, brackish water into drinking water. In this work two different modified solar stills are fabricated to study the performance of these solar stills. For modification of solar stills, Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and Acrylic sheets are used. The experiments in MDSBMSS and MDSSS was carried on 10 September 2015 & 5 November 2015 respectively. Performances of the stills were investigated. The amount of distillate has been found 3624 Ml/day in MDSBMSS on 10 September 2015 and 2400 Ml/day in MDSSS on 5 November 2015.

Keywords: contaminated water, conventional solar still, modified solar still, wick

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1251 Reduction of Energy Consumption of Distillation Process by Recovering the Heat from Exit Streams

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Pawit Tangviroon

Abstract:

Distillation consumes enormous quantity of energy. This work proposed a process to recover the energy from exit streams during the distillation process of three consecutive columns. There are several novel techniques to recover the heat with the distillation system; however, a complex control system is required. This work proposed a simpler technique by exchanging the heat between streams without interrupting the internal distillation process that might cause a serious control problem. The proposed process is executed by using heat exchanger network with pinch analysis to maximize the process heat recovery. The test model is the distillation of butane, pentane, hexane, and heptanes, which is a common mixture in the petroleum refinery. This proposed process saved the energy consumption for hot and cold utilities of 29 and 27%, which is considered significant. Therefore, the recovery of heat from exit streams from distillation process is proved to be effective for energy saving.

Keywords: distillation, heat exchanger, network pinch analysis, chemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1250 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali

Abstract:

The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
1249 Recovery of Acetonitrile from Aqueous Solutions by Extractive Distillation: The Effect of Entrainer

Authors: Aleksandra Y. Sazonova, Valentina M. Raeva

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to apply extractive distillation for acetonitrile removal from water solutions, to validate thermodynamic criterion based on excess Gibbs energy to entrainer selection process for acetonitrile – water mixture separation and show its potential efficiency at isothermal conditions as well as at isobaric (conditions of real distillation process), to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process with chosen entrainers: optimize amount of trays and feeds, entrainer/original mixture and reflux ratios. Equimolar composition of the feed stream was chosen for the process, comparison of the energy consumptions was carried out. Glycerol was suggested as the most energetically and ecologically suitable entrainer.

Keywords: acetonitrile, entrainer, extractive distillation, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
1248 Modelling and Control of Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Narava Manose

Abstract:

Distillation is a very old separation technology for separating liquid mixtures that can be traced back to the chemists in Alexandria in the first century A. D. Today distillation is the most important industrial separation technology. By the eleventh century, distillation was being used in Italy to produce alcoholic beverages. At that time, distillation was probably a batch process based on the use of just a single stage, the boiler. The word distillation is derived from the Latin word destillare, which means dripping or trickling down. By at least the sixteenth century, it was known that the extent of separation could be improved by providing multiple vapor-liquid contacts (stages) in a so called Rectifactorium. The term rectification is derived from the Latin words rectefacere, meaning to improve. Modern distillation derives its ability to produce almost pure products from the use of multi-stage contacting. Throughout the twentieth century, multistage distillation was by far the most widely used industrial method for separating liquid mixtures of chemical components.The basic principle behind this technique relies on the different boiling temperatures for the various components of the mixture, allowing the separation between the vapor from the most volatile component and the liquid of other(s) component(s). •Developed a simple non-linear model of a binary distillation column using Skogestad equations in Simulink. •We have computed the steady-state operating point around which to base our analysis and controller design. However, the model contains two integrators because the condenser and reboiler levels are not controlled. One particular way of stabilizing the column is the LV-configuration where we use D to control M_D, and B to control M_B; such a model is given in cola_lv.m where we have used two P-controllers with gains equal to 10.

Keywords: modelling, distillation column, control, binary distillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1247 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn

Abstract:

The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: absorption, distillation, heat pump, Unisim design

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1246 Performance Evaluation of Hemispherical Basin Type Solar Still

Authors: Husham Mahmood Ahmed

Abstract:

For so many reasons, fresh water scarcity is one of major problems facing the world and in particularly in the third world in the Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Southwest of Asia, and many other desert areas. Solar distillation offers one of the most promising solutions of renewable energy to this aggravated situation. The main obstacle hindering the spread of the use of solar technology for fresh water production is its low efficiency. Therefore, enhancing the solar stills performances by studying the parameters affecting their productivity and implementing new ideas and a different design are the main goals of the investigators in recent years. The present research is experimental work that tests a new design of solar still with a hemispherical top cover for water desalination with and without external reflectors under the climate of the Kingdom of Bahrain during the autumn season. The hemispherical cover has a base diameter of 1m and a depth of 0.4m, die cast from a 6 mm thick Lexan plastic sheet. The net effective area was 0.785 m2. It has been found that the average daily production rate obtained from the hemispherical top cover solar still is 3.610 liter/day. This yield is 11.1% higher than the yield of a conventional simple type single slope solar still having 20ᴼ slope glass cover and a larger effective area of 1 m2 obtained in previous research under similar climatic conditions. It has also been found that adding 1.2m long by 0.15 curved reflectors increased the yield of the hemispherical solar still by 5.5 %, while the 1.2 long by 0.3m curved reflector increased the yield by about 8%.

Keywords: hemispherical solar still, solar desalination, solar energy, the Northern Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1245 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah

Abstract:

Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1244 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak

Abstract:

Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
1243 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees

Abstract:

Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
1242 An Experimental Investigation on Productivity and Performance of an Improved Design of Basin Type Solar Still

Authors: Mahmoud S. El-Sebaey, Asko Ellman, Ahmed Hegazy, Tarek Ghonim

Abstract:

Due to population growth, the need for drinkable healthy water is highly increased. Consequently, and since the conventional sources of water are limited, researchers devoted their efforts to oceans and seas for obtaining fresh drinkable water by thermal distillation. The current work is dedicated to the design and fabrication of modified solar still model, as well as conventional solar still for the sake of comparison. The modified still is single slope double basin solar still. The still consists of a lower basin with a dimension of 1000 mm x 1000 mm which contains the sea water, as well as the top basin that made with 4 mm acrylic, was temporarily kept on the supporting strips permanently fixed with the side walls. Equally ten spaced vertical glass strips of 50 mm height and 3 mm thickness were provided at the upper basin for the stagnancy of the water. Window glass of 3 mm was used as the transparent cover with 23° inclination at the top of the still. Furthermore, the performance evaluation and comparison of these two models in converting salty seawater into drinkable freshwater are introduced, analyzed and discussed. The experiments were performed during the period from June to July 2018 at seawater depths of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Additionally, the solar still models were operated simultaneously in the same climatic conditions to analyze the influence of the modifications on the freshwater output. It can be concluded that the modified design of double basin single slope solar still shows the maximum freshwater output at all water depths tested. The results showed that the daily productivity for modified and conventional solar still was 2.9 and 1.8 dm³/m² day, indicating an increase of 60% in fresh water production.

Keywords: freshwater output, solar still, solar energy, thermal desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
1241 Design, Construction, Technical and Economic Evaluation of a Solar Water Desalination Device with Two Heat Exchangers and a Photovoltaic System

Authors: Mehdi Bakhtiarzadeh, Reza Efatnejad, Kambiz Rezapour Rezapour

Abstract:

Due to the limited resources of fossil fuels and their harmful effects on the environment and human health, research on renewable energy applications in industrial and scientific communities has become particularly important. Only one percent of freshwater resources are available for use in the domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors. On the other hand, the rapid growth of industry and the increase of population in most countries of the world, including Iran, have led to an increase in demand for freshwater. Among renewable energies, there is the potential of solar energy in Iran. As a result, solar distillation systems can be used as a solution to supply fresh water in remote rural areas. Therefore, in the present study, a solar water desalination device was designed and manufactured using two heat exchangers and a photovoltaic system. Its evaluation was done during September and October of 2020. During the evaluation of the device, environmental variables such as total solar radiation, ambient temperature and cooling tower temperature were recorded at intervals of one hour from 9 am to 5 pm. The effect of these variables on solar concentrator performance, heat exchanger, and daily freshwater production was evaluated. The results showed that using two heat exchangers and a photovoltaic system has led to the daily production of 5 liters of fresh water and 46% economic efficiency.

Keywords: solar water desalination, heat exchanger, photovoltaic system, technical and economic evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1240 Efficiency Enhancement in Solar Panel

Authors: R. S. Arun Raj

Abstract:

In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is the solar energy. The SUN provides every hour as much energy as mankind consumes in one year. This paper clearly explains about the solar panel design and new models and methodologies that can be implemented for better utilization of solar energy. Minimisation of losses in solar panel as heat is my innovative idea revolves around. The pay back calculations by implementation of solar panels is also quoted.

Keywords: on-grid and off-grid systems, pyro-electric effect, pay-back calculations, solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
1239 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid

Abstract:

Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
1238 Modification of Underwood's Equation to Calculate Minimum Reflux Ratio for Column with One Side Stream Upper Than Feed

Authors: S. Mousavian, A. Abedianpour, A. Khanmohammadi, S. Hematian, Gh. Eidi Veisi

Abstract:

Distillation is one of the most important and utilized separation methods in the industrial practice. There are different ways to design of distillation column. One of these ways is short cut method. In short cut method, material balance and equilibrium are employed to calculate number of tray in distillation column. There are different methods that are classified in short cut method. One of these methods is Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland method. In this method, minimum reflux ratio should be calculated by underwood equation. Underwood proposed an equation that is useful for simple distillation column with one feed and one top and bottom product. In this study, underwood method is developed to predict minimum reflux ratio for column with one side stream upper than feed. The result of this model compared with McCabe-Thiele method. The result shows that proposed method able to calculate minimum reflux ratio with very small error.

Keywords: minimum reflux ratio, side stream, distillation, Underwood’s method

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1237 Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Essential Oils: A Clean Chemical Processing in the Teaching and Research Laboratory

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat

Abstract:

Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). MAD and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with MAD was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by MAD and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MAD, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: clevenger, microwave, extraction; hydro-distillation, essential oil, orange peel

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1236 Technical and Economical Feasibility Analysis of Solar Water Pumping System - Case Study in Iran

Authors: A. Gharib, M. Moradi

Abstract:

The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate. Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with a storage battery, AC solar water pumping with a storage tank, and DC direct solar water pumping.

Keywords: technical and economic feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, solar water pumping system

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
1235 Models to Estimate Monthly Mean Daily Global Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface in Alexandria

Authors: Ahmed R. Abdelaziz, Zaki M. I. Osha

Abstract:

Solar radiation data are of great significance for solar energy system design. This study aims at developing and calibrating new empirical models for estimating monthly mean daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in Alexandria, Egypt. Day length hours, sun height, day number, and declination angle calculated data are used for this purpose. A comparison between measured and calculated values of solar radiation is carried out. It is shown that all the proposed correlations are able to predict the global solar radiation with excellent accuracy in Alexandria.

Keywords: solar energy, global solar radiation, model, regression coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 264