Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6600

Search results for: Working single mother

6600 Study on the Work-Life Balance of Selected Working Single Mothers in the Coastal Community of La Huerta, Paranaque

Authors: Idette Sheirina Biyo, Rhodora Lynn C. Lintag

Abstract:

This paper explores how the work-life balance of selected working single mothers situated in a coastal community is affecting their well-being. Working single mothers carry the responsibility of earning for their family while simultaneously exercising their motherhood. This study utilized a purposeful qualitative research through semi-structured interviews among ten working single mothers living in the coastal community of La Huerta, Parañaque in order to identify the following: a) experiences of the working single mothers, b) problems usually encountered, and c) how these problems are affecting their well-being. Dorothy Smith’s Feminist Standpoint theory is used as a theoretical lens in order to explain their work-life balance. Results have shown that despite their dual roles as the main income earners and heads of the households, they are not neglecting to care for their well-being. They consider getting sufficient rest, eating well, and going to church as forms of caring for their well-being. Other factors that affect their work-life balance include living arrangements, work hours, type of work, and income.

Keywords: coastal community, well-being, work-life balance, Working single mother

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
6599 Formal Sector Employment, Economic Capital and Human Capacity Development: Voices of Single Mothers from South Africa and Germany

Authors: Tanusha Raniga, Michael Boecker, Maud Mthembu

Abstract:

This paper considers the formal employment sector, human capacity development and economic capital of single-mother households’ as they strive to sustain livelihoods. This paper advances empirical data in the field of economic and social development policy. The correlation between educational level, human capacity development and economic self-reliance of single-mother households is considered. This paper presents empirical evidence obtained from qualitative in-depth interviews conducted with twenty-five single mothers who were working in the formal work sector in Hagen, Germany and two provinces, namely KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng in South Africa. This is an underexplored research area as most of the international literature focuses on pathology and victimhood related to single-mother households. Instead, this paper presents the biographic profiles and discusses two key themes that emerged from the data analysis namely; formal and informal streams of income enhanced human capital development through access to further education and training opportunities. The women perceived these themes as facilitating factors which helped them sustain their households. The paper presents some suggestions for policymakers and social work practitioners to consider to improve support systems and avoid economic exclusion of single mothers who work within the first economy.

Keywords: single mothers, formal work sector, economic capital, human capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
6598 Importance of Women Education: Mother To Be Education in Order to Brighten Future Generation’s Foredoom

Authors: Ummi Sholihah Pertiwi Abidin, Eva Fadhilah

Abstract:

Social changes are more and more growing and having many different forms as the time passed and thought methods in the society. One of many forms of that social changes is the emancipation of women that is flourishing by the inception of gender equality perception between men and women in all aspects including education. It’s not anymore found the distinction between genders in learning and the education achieving right at this globalized era. But, it is still many perceptions which are against that equality of education achieving right, either come from the women’s selves or many external factors. They assumed that they are going to be a mother in the future, and a wife, someone with responsible for taking care of the household and everything inside, while the husband is the one who has the responsible for looking for the living. So comes from this kind of assumption, the perception against the education equality between genders, which means there is no need for them –women- to achieve the high education because they will still end up as housewives. Except those working or career women that need high education to support their works. These women are not aware that even a mother needs the high and capable education. Because, as the 'mother to be,' they surely need broad knowledge from the education to educate their children in the future. It is such a big fault to say the kind of thing, 'It is no matter that I am not educated, in case I’m just a housewife. The important thing is my children get a great education'. Unfortunately, it is still often found, saying 'A housewife job is not a big deal to do with high education.' This qualitative method paper raises a theme about the importance of education for women, no matter what will they be in the future. Because however, and whatever is the woman’s career outside the house, or even not working outside, she’s still a mother for her children, and 'educational provision' is a great need. And so forth, this educational provision is a big deal to do with future generation’s foredoom, regarding the first source of children’s knowledge and the first school for them is their mother.

Keywords: women education, mother to be, educational provision, first school, future generation’s foredoom

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
6597 Invisible and Visible Helpers in Negotiating Child Parenting by Single Mothers: A Comparative Analysis of South Africa and Germany

Authors: Maud Mthembu, Tanusha Raniga, Michael Boecker

Abstract:

In South Africa and Germany, countless number of children are raised by single mothers with little or no support from the biological fathers. As evidenced in literature, having an involved father living at home can have a positive influence in the life of a child and the mother can be supported in her role. Often single parenting is seen as a causative factor in numerous psychological and social challenges which are faced by children from single-parent households, which is an indication of a pathological lens of viewing single parenting. The empirical data from our study reveals that single mothers in formal employment experience social, economic and emotional hardships of parenting. However, a sense of determination to raise healthy and well-balanced children using economic and social capital accessible to them was one of the key findings. The participants reported visible and invisible sources of support which creates an enabling environment for them to negotiate the challenges of parenting without support from non-residence fathers. Using a qualitative paradigm, a total of twenty professional single mothers were interviewed in Germany and South Africa. Four key themes emerged from the data analysis namely; internal locus of control, positive new experiences, access to economic capital and dependable social support. This study suggests that single mothers who are economically self-reliant and have access to bonding social capital are able to cope with the demands of single parenting. Understanding this multi-dimensional experience of parenting by single parents in formal employment is important to advocate for supportive working conditions for mothers.

Keywords: child parenting, child protection, single parenting, social capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
6596 Mentorship and Feelings of Identify and Self-Efficacy in Women Returning to the Workforce after an Extended Child-Rearing Leave

Authors: Jacquelyn Irene Eidson

Abstract:

Women who leave the workforce due to motherhood and wish to return are a valuable, untapped resource for organizations. Levinson’s theory of adult development defines life as a sequence of transitions requiring difficult decisions that prompt humans to question their identity and their self-efficacy. The experience of being a working mother and the experience of workplace mentorship have received extensive research attention. Merging the two experiences and focusing on feelings of identity and self-efficacy provides a unique and focused opportunity for learning. Through one-on-one interviews and focus group discussion with working mothers that had previously left the workforce for an extended leave due to child-rearing, a meaningful description of their experiences will be obtained. Data is currently being collected via a collaboration with state banking associations in the United States. Results from the study will enable organizations worldwide to more effectively provide mentorship opportunities built around a culture of understanding while more effectively recruiting, supporting, developing, and retaining this valuable talent pool.

Keywords: identity, mentorship, self-efficacy, working mother

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
6595 Discourses in Mother Tongue-Based Classes: The Case of Hiligaynon Language

Authors: Kayla Marie Sarte

Abstract:

This study sought to describe mother tongue-based classes in the light of classroom interactional discourse using the Sinclair and Coulthard model. It specifically identified the exchanges, grouped into Teaching and Boundary types; moves, coded as Opening, Answering and Feedback; and the occurrence of the 13 acts (Bid, Cue, Nominate, Reply, React, Acknowledge, Clue, Accept, Evaluate, Loop, Comment, Starter, Conclusion, Aside and Silent Stress) in the classroom, and determined what these reveal about the teaching and learning processes in the MTB classroom. Being a qualitative study, using the Single Collective Case Within-Site (embedded) design, varied data collection procedures such as non-participant observations, audio-recordings and transcription of MTB classes, and semi-structured interviews were utilized. The results revealed the presence of all the codes in the model (except for the silent stress) which also implied that the Hiligaynon mother tongue-based class was eclectic, cultural and communicative, and had a healthy, analytical and focused environment which aligned with the aims of MTB-MLE, and affirmed the purported benefits of mother tongue teaching. Through the study, gaps in the mother tongue teaching and learning were also identified which involved the difficulty of children in memorizing Hiligaynon terms expressed in English in their homes and in the communities.

Keywords: discourse analysis, language teaching and learning, mother tongue-based education, multilingualism

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6594 Recycling of Sclareolide in the Crystallization Mother Liquid of Sclareolide by Adsorption and Chromatography

Authors: Xiang Li, Kui Chen, Bin Wu, Min Zhou

Abstract:

Sclareolide is made from sclareol by oxidiative synthesis and subsequent crystallization, while the crystallization mother liquor still contains 15%~30%wt of sclareolide to be reclaimed. With the reaction material of sclareol is provided as plant extract, many sorts of complex impurities exist in the mother liquor. Due to the difficulty in recycling sclareolide after solvent recovery, it is common practice for the factories to discard the mother liquor, which not only results in loss of sclareolide, but also contributes extra environmental burden. In this paper, a process based on adsorption and elution has been presented for recycling of sclareolide from mother liquor. After pretreatment of the crystallization mother liquor by HZ-845 resin to remove parts of impurities, sclareolide is adsorbed by HZ-816 resin. The HZ-816 resin loaded with sclareolide is then eluted by elution solvent. Finally, the eluent containing sclareolide is concentrated and fed into the crystallization step in the process. By adoption of the recycle from mother liquor, total yield of sclareolide increases from 86% to 90% with a stable purity of the final sclareolide products maintained.

Keywords: sclareolide, resin, adsorption, chromatography

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
6593 Rethinking Gender Roles within the Family: Single Fathers and the Domestic Sphere

Authors: Mohamad Chour

Abstract:

Nowadays, a record number of households are headed by single fathers in most of the European societies. Our research aims to explore how French single fathers experience the domestic sphere, a traditionally feminized field while accomplishing their role of fathers. We adopt a gender role and a parenting role construction theoretical perspectives. Indeed, the interior domestic sphere has been traditionally considered as related to the role of the mother. Moreover, according to the masculine domination theory of Bourdieu, men avoid caregiving and domestic practices that are economically and culturally undervalued. Hence, mothers are considered as more likely to handle the expressive dimension of duties whereas fathers’ role is represented as instrumental, functional and independent. Long interviews have been conducted with twenty French single fathers in order to investigate how the absence of the mother affects the practices of fatherhood. We combined the long interviews with projective techniques method in order to better understand their conception of the family and their family values. Seeking a qualitative diversity, our respondents are from various ages (between 30 and 60); they are coming from different regions in France; living in rural, semi-rural and urban areas. Based on the analysis of 427 pages of data, we identify three main categories of single fathers depending on their strategies to copy and/or delegate the role of the mother. 1) Nurturing fathers completely assume the role of the absent mother as well as her functions. Their discourse is characterized by abnegation and sacrifices reflecting a nurturing role. 2) Juggling fathers are those who take charge of a part of the household duties and delegate the other part to the market or to 'feminine resources' for lacking skills or time. 3) Resistant fathers are the very few respondents who refuse to assume any activities related to the domestic sphere that they perceive as feminine. For lacking competences and even for ideological reasons, they have tendency to delegate all the tasks that were assumed by their ex-spouses. Generally, the majority of fathers seem to experience the domestic sphere differently, and their domestic involvement has been underestimated and even misunderstood. Household duties such as cooking and housekeeping in addition to the nurturing role are experienced by many of the respondents as constructing elements of their fatherhood. Our respondents do not seem to accomplish house holding duties in a functional way. The domestic sphere is managed by those fathers with a strong dimension of abnegation. Thus, our research contributes to illustrating the evolution of gender roles and shows how being simultaneously 'a father and a mother' seems to be an emerging social norm in a French and European cultural context.

Keywords: fathering, gender roles, gender studies, identity construction, single fathers

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
6592 Associations between Parental Divorce Process Variables and Parent-Child Relationships Quality in Young Adulthood

Authors: Klara Smith-Etxeberria

Abstract:

main goal of this study was to analyze the predictive ability of some variables associated with the parental divorce process alongside attachment history with parents on both, mother-child and father-child relationship quality. Our sample consisted of 173 undergraduate and vocational school students from the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. All of them belonged to a divorced family. Results showed that adequate maternal strategies during the divorce process (e.g.: stable, continuous and positive role as a mother) was the variable with greater predictive ability on mother-child relationships quality. In addition, secure attachment history with mother also predicted positive mother-child relationships. On the other hand, father-child relationship quality was predicted by adequate paternal strategies during the divorce process, such as his stable, continuous and positive role as a father, along with not badmouthing the mother and promoting good mother-child relationships. Furthermore, paternal negative emotional state due to divorce was positively associated with father-child relationships quality, and both, history of attachment with mother and with father predicted father-child relationships quality. In conclusion, our data indicate that both, paternal and maternal strategies for children´s adequate adjustment during the divorce process influence on mother-child and father-child relationships quality. However, these results suggest that paternal strategies during the divorce process have a greater predictive ability on father-child relationships quality, whereas maternal positive strategies during divorce determine positive mother-child relationships among young adults.

Keywords: father-child relationships quality, mother-child relationships quality, parental divorce process, young adulthood

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
6591 Constructing a Co-Working Innovation Model for Multiple Art Integration: A Case Study of Children's Musical

Authors: Nai-Chia Chao, Meng-Chi Shih

Abstract:

Under today’s fast technology and massive data era, the working method start to change. In this study, based under literature meaning of “Co-working” we had implemented the new “Co-working innovation model”. Research concluded that co-working innovation model shall not be limited in co-working space but use under different field when applying multiple art integration stragies. Research show co-working should not be limited in special field or group, should be use or adapt whenever different though or ideas where found, it should be use under different field and plans.

Keywords: arts integration, co-working, children's musical

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
6590 Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability: Nigeria and Kenya

Authors: Lucian J. Pitt

Abstract:

The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for working capital management in each of these countries.

Keywords: working capital management, working capital investment, working capital finance, profitability, cash conversion cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
6589 Single Species vs Mixed Microbial Culture Degradation of Pesticide in a Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Srivats Gopalan, Kumudini V. Marathe

Abstract:

In the current work, the comparison of degradation of malathion by single species, Pseudomonas Stutzeri, and Activated Sludge/Mixed Microbial Culture is studied in a Membrane Bioreactor. Various parameters were considered to study the effect of single species degradation compared to degradation by activated sludge. The experimental results revealed 85-90% reduction in the COD of the Malathion containing synthetic wastewater. Complete reduction of malathion was observed within 24 hours in both the cases. The critical flux was 10 LMH for both the systems. Fouling propensity, Cake and Membrane resistances were calculated thus giving an insight regarding the working of Membrane Bioreactor-based on single species and activated sludge.

Keywords: fouling, membrane bioreactor, mixed microbial culture, single species

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
6588 Strategies and Problems of Teachers in Using Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education

Authors: Ezayra Dubria, Leonora Yambao

Abstract:

Mother Tongue–Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) is a salient part of the recent reform in the country’s Education system which is the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program. Its importance is highlighted by the passing of Republic Act 10523, otherwise known as the ‘Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013’. However, teachers, especially new teachers encounter problems in using mother tongue as medium of instruction. Fortunately, teachers are able to create strategies which address these problems. Specifically, this paper gathered the viewpoints of teachers in using mother tongue and analyzed the different problems and strategies used. The problems encountered by teachers are lack of instructional materials written in mother tongue, especially books, lack of vocabulary, lack of teacher training, and influences of social media to learners. The strategies which address these problems are translation of literary pieces and other instructional materials, vocabulary enrichment through the use of word-of-the-day and picture-word association, remedial class, storytelling, differentiated instruction, explicit teaching, individual and group activities, and utilization of multilingual teaching.

Keywords: mother tongue-based instruction, multilingualism, problems, strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
6587 The Recorded Interaction Task: A Validation Study of a New Observational Tool to Assess Mother-Infant Bonding

Authors: Hannah Edwards, Femke T. A. Buisman-Pijlman, Adrian Esterman, Craig Phillips, Sandra Orgeig, Andrea Gordon

Abstract:

Mother-infant bonding is a term which refers to the early emotional connectedness between a mother and her infant. Strong mother-infant bonding promotes higher quality mother and infant interactions including prolonged breastfeeding, secure attachment and increased sensitive parenting and maternal responsiveness. Strengthening of all such interactions leads to improved social behavior, and emotional and cognitive development throughout childhood, adolescence and adulthood. The positive outcomes observed following strong mother-infant bonding emphasize the need to screen new mothers for disrupted mother-infant bonding, and in turn the need for a robust, valid tool to assess mother-infant bonding. A recent scoping review conducted by the research team identified four tools to assess mother-infant bonding, all of which employed self-rating scales. Thus, whilst these tools demonstrated both adequate validity and reliability, they rely on self-reported information from the mother. As such this may reflect a mother’s perception of bonding with their infant, rather than their actual behavior. Therefore, a new tool to assess mother-infant bonding has been developed. The Recorded Interaction Task (RIT) addresses shortcomings of previous tools by employing observational methods to assess bonding. The RIT focusses on the common interaction between mother and infant of changing a nappy, at the target age of 2-6 months, which is visually recorded and then later assessed. Thirteen maternal and seven infant behaviors are scored on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet, and a final combined score of mother-infant bonding is determined. The aim of the current study was to assess the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the RIT. A panel of six experts with specialized expertise in bonding and infant behavior were consulted. Experts were provided with the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet, a visual recording of a nappy change interaction, and a feedback form. Experts scored the mother and infant interaction on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet and completed the feedback form which collected their opinions on the validity of each item on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet and the RIT as a whole. Twelve of the 20 items on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet were scored ‘Valid’ by all (n=6) or most (n=5) experts. Two items received a ‘Not valid’ score from one expert. The remainder of the items received a mixture of ‘Valid’ and ‘Potentially Valid’ scores. Few changes were made to the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet following expert feedback, including rewording of items for clarity and the exclusion of an item focusing on behavior deemed not relevant for the target infant age. The overall ICC for single rater absolute agreement was 0.48 (95% CI 0.28 – 0.71). Experts (n=6) ratings were less consistent for infant behavior (ICC 0.27 (-0.01 – 0.82)) compared to mother behavior (ICC 0.55 (0.28 – 0.80)). Whilst previous tools employ self-report methods to assess mother-infant bonding, the RIT utilizes observational methods. The current study highlights adequate content validity and moderate inter-rater reliability of the RIT, supporting its use in future research. A convergent validity study comparing the RIT against an existing tool is currently being undertaken to confirm these results.

Keywords: content validity, inter-rater reliability, mother-infant bonding, observational tool, recorded interaction task

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
6586 Association between Maternal Personality and Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Bonding

Authors: Tessa Sellis, Marike A. Wierda, Elke Tichelman, Mirjam T. Van Lohuizen, Marjolein Berger, François Schellevis, Claudi Bockting, Lilian Peters, Huib Burger

Abstract:

Introduction: Most women develop a healthy bond with their children, however, adequate mother-to-infant bonding cannot be taken for granted. Mother-to-infant bonding refers to the feelings and emotions experienced by the mother towards her child. It is an ongoing process that starts during pregnancy and develops during the first year postpartum and likely throughout early childhood. The prevalence of inadequate bonding ranges from 7 to 11% in the first weeks postpartum. An impaired mother-to-infant bond can cause long-term complications for both mother and child. Very little research has been conducted on the direct relationship between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. This study explores the associations between maternal personality and postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. The main hypothesis is that there is a relationship between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding. Methods: Data for this study were used from the Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression Study (2010-2014), which examined symptoms of and risk factors for anxiety or depression during pregnancy and the first year postpartum of 6220 pregnant women who received primary, secondary or tertiary care in the Netherlands. The study was expanded in 2015 to investigate postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. For the current research 3836 participants were included. During the first trimester of gestation, baseline characteristics, as well as personality, were measured through online questionnaires. Personality was measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which covers the big five of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, altruism and conscientiousness). Mother-to-infant bonding was measured postpartum by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations. Results: 5% of the PBQ-respondents reported impaired bonding. A statistically significant association was found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding (p < .001): mothers scoring higher on neuroticism, reported a lower score on mother-to-infant bonding. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the personality traits extraversion (b: -.081), openness (b: -.014), altruism (b: -.067), conscientiousness (b: -.060) and mother-to-infant bonding. Discussion: This study is one of the first to demonstrate a direct association between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. A statistically significant relationship has been found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding, however, the percentage of variance predictable by a personality dimension is very small. This study has examined one part of the multi-factorial topic of mother-to-infant bonding and offers more insight into the rarely investigated and complex matter of mother-to-infant bonding. For midwives, it is important recognize the risks for impaired bonding and subsequently improve policy for women at risk.

Keywords: mother-to-infant bonding, personality, postpartum, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
6585 Working Women and Leave in India

Authors: Ankita Verma

Abstract:

Women transform the group of people into a family and a house into a home. When a woman embraces motherhood, she undergoes several stresses – both physical and mental. Therefore, to be supportive of women during this critical stage is a societal responsibility. India is in the league of many developed nations in formulating women-friendly policies. One such initiative is the Maternity Benefits Act; first passed in 1961 and later amended from time to time with the latest amended Act of 2017. This review paper critically analyzes provisions of the Act, its implementation, and the legal issues arising out of implementation of the Act. The review suggests that the Act has made a positive impact and the judiciary also has played its role in streamlining the process of implementation of the Act. However, at the same time, it is also felt that employers often hesitate in hiring a mother or an expectant mother.

Keywords: maternity benefits, maternity benefits act 1961 & 2017, motherhood, maternity and paternity leave, medical bonus, work environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
6584 Narrative Family Therapy and the Treatment of Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Authors: Jamie E. Banker

Abstract:

For many families, pregnancy and the postpartum time are filled with both anticipation and change. For some pregnant or postpartum women, this time is marked by the onset of a mood or anxiety disorder. Experiencing a mood or anxiety disorders during this time of life differs from depression or anxiety at other times of life. Not only because of the physical changes occurring in the mother’s body but also the mental and physical preparation necessary to redefine family roles, responsibilities, and develop new identities in the life transition. The presence of a mood or anxiety disorder can influence the way in which a mother defines herself and can complicate her understanding of her abilities and competencies as a mother. The complexity of experiencing a mood or anxiety disorder in the midst of these changes necessitates specific treatment interventions to match both the symptomatology and psychological adjustments. This study explores the use of narrative family therapy techniques when treating a mother who is experiencing postpartum depression. Externalization is a common technique used in narrative family therapy and can help client’s separate their identity from the problems they are experiencing. This is crucial to a new mom who is in the middle of defining her identity during her transition to parenthood. The goal of this study is to examine how the use of externalization techniques help postpartum women separate their mood and anxiety symptoms from their identity as a mother. An exploratory case study design was conducted in a single setting, private practice therapy office, and explored how a narrative family therapy approach can be used to treat perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The therapy sessions were audio recorded and transcribed. Constructivism and narrative theory are used as theoretical frameworks and data from the therapy sessions, and a follow-up survey was triangulated and analyzed. During the course of the treatment, the participant reports using the new externalizing labels for her symptoms. Within one month of treatment, the participant reports that she could stop herself from thinking the harmful thoughts faster, and within three months, the harmful thoughts went away. The main themes in this study were building courage and less self-blame. This case highlights the role narrative family therapy can play in the treatment of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders and the importance of separating a women’s mood from her identity as a mother. This conceptual framework was beneficial to the postpartum mother when treating perinatal mood and anxiety disorder symptoms.

Keywords: externalizing techniques, narrative family therapy, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, postpartum depression

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
6583 Optimal Mother Wavelet Function for Shoulder Muscles of Upper Limb Amputees

Authors: Amanpreet Kaur

Abstract:

Wavelet transform (WT) is a powerful statistical tool used in applied mathematics for signal and image processing. The different mother, wavelet basis function, has been compared to select the optimal wavelet function that represents the electromyogram signal characteristics of upper limb amputees. Four different EMG electrode has placed on different location of shoulder muscles. Twenty one wavelet functions from different wavelet families were investigated. These functions included Daubechies (db1-db10), Symlets (sym1-sym5), Coiflets (coif1-coif5) and Discrete Meyer. Using mean square error value, the significance of the mother wavelet functions has been determined for teres, pectorals, and infraspinatus around shoulder muscles. The results show that the best mother wavelet is the db3 from the Daubechies family for efficient classification of the signal.

Keywords: Daubechies, upper limb amputation, shoulder muscles, Symlets, Coiflets

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
6582 Mother as Troubles Teller: A Discourse Analytic Case Study of Mother-Adolescent Daughter Interaction

Authors: Domenica L. DelPrete

Abstract:

Viewed as a type of rapport-talk, troubles telling is a common conversational practice among female friends who wish to establish connection, show empathy, or share a disconcerting experience. This study shows how troubles talk between a mother and her adolescent daughter has a different interactional outcome. Specifically, it reveals how discursive interaction with an adolescent daughter becomes increasingly volatile when the mother steps out of the role of nurturer and into the role of troubles teller. Naturally occurring interactions between a mother and her 15-year-old daughter were videotaped in their family home over a two-week period. The data were primarily analyzed from an interactional sociolinguistic perspective, using conversation analytic techniques for transcriptions and discursive analysis. The following questions guided this research: (1) How are troubles telling discursively accomplished in the everyday talk of a mother and her adolescent daughter? and (2) What topic prompts the mother to engage in troubles talk? The data show that the mother engages her daughter in troubles to talk on issues related to body image and physical appearance and does so by (1) repeated questioning, (2) not accepting the daughter’s response as adequate, and (3) proffering self-deprecation. Findings reveal that engaging an adolescent daughter in a conversational practice reserved for female friendship groups creates a negative connection and relational disharmony. Since 'telling one’s troubles' assumes an egalitarian relationship between individuals, mother’s trouble telling creates a peer-like interaction that the adolescent daughter repeatedly resists. This study also proposes a discursive consciousness raising, which hopes to enhance communication between mothers and daughters by revealing the signals that show an adolescent daughter’s unwillingness to participate in troubles talk. Being in tune to these cues may prompt mothers to hesitate before pursuing a topic that will not garner the positive interactional outcome they seek.

Keywords: discursive interaction, maternal roles, mother-daughter interaction, troubles telling

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
6581 The Views of Teachers over the Father Involvement to Preschool Education Programs

Authors: Fatma Tezel Sahin, Zeynep Nur Aydin Kilic, Aysegul Akinci Cosgun

Abstract:

Family involvement activities are a significant place in increasing the success in preschool education and maintaining the education. It is necessary that both of the parents be in the family involvement activities. However, while mother involvement is obtained in the family involvement activities, father involvement is neglected. For that reason, the current study aims at determining the views of teachers with regard to father involvement in the preschool education programs. The working group of the study consisted of 23 preschool teachers. The study is a descriptive survey. The data were obtained through individual interviews. As a data collection instrument, “Teacher Interview Form” was used. The data were analysed through content analysis method. The data regarding the views of the teachers were given as frequency and percentage values. At the end of the research, a great majority of the teachers stated that they were proficient in applying family involvement studies. They also pointed out that they held more family meetings in order to obtain family involvement and then they implemented involvement activities both in the class and out of the class for parents. They expressed that they observed more mother involvement in these activities that fathers. Parents expressed that the reasons why fathers involved in these activities less compared to mothers were the working conditions of fathers and that it was regarded as a task of mothers. Depending on the results of the research, it is likely to recommend that fathers should be informed about the involvement in family activities and that some applications and opportunities should be supplied for the fathers in preschool education institutions in order to encourage them.

Keywords: preschool education, parent involvement, father involvement, teacher views

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
6580 Neurophysiology of Domain Specific Execution Costs of Grasping in Working Memory Phases

Authors: Rumeysa Gunduz, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack

Abstract:

Previous behavioral studies have shown that working memory (WM) and manual actions share limited capacity cognitive resources, which in turn results in execution costs of manual actions in WM. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs. The current study aims to fill this research gap investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs of grasping in WM phases (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) considering verbal and visuospatial domains of WM. A WM-grasping dual task paradigm was implemented to examine execution costs. Baseline single task required performing verbal or visuospatial version of a WM task. Dual task required performing the WM task embedded in a high precision grasp to place task. 30 participants were tested in a 2 (single vs. dual task) x 2 (visuo-spatial vs. verbal WM) within subject design. Event related potentials (ERPs) were extracted for each WM phase separately in the single and dual tasks. Memory performance for visuospatial WM, but not for verbal WM, was significantly lower in the dual task compared to the single task. Encoding related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral anterior sites and right posterior site. In the dual task, bilateral anterior difference disappeared due to bilaterally increased anterior negativities for visuospatial WM. Maintenance related ERPs in the dual task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. There was also anterior negativity for visuospatial WM. Retrieval related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. In the dual task, there was no difference between verbal WM and visuospatial WM. Behavioral and ERP findings suggest that execution of grasping shares cognitive resources only with visuospatial WM, which in turn results in domain specific execution costs. Moreover, ERP findings suggest unique patterns of costs in each WM phase, which supports the idea that each WM phase reflects a separate cognitive process. This study not only contributes to the understanding of cognitive principles of manual action control, but also contributes to the understanding of WM as an entity consisting of separate modalities and cognitive processes.

Keywords: dual task, grasping execution, neurophysiology, working memory domains, working memory phases

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6579 Working Mode and Key Technology of Thermal Vacuum Test Software for Spacecraft Test

Authors: Zhang Lei, Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao

Abstract:

A universal software platform is developed for improving the defects in the practical one. This software platform has distinct advantages in modularization, information management, and the interfaces. Several technologies such as computer technology, virtualization technology, network technology, etc. are combined together in this software platform, and four working modes are introduced in this article including single mode, distributed mode, cloud mode, and the centralized mode. The application area of the software platform is extended through the switch between these working modes. The software platform can arrange the thermal vacuum test process automatically. This function can improve the reliability of thermal vacuum test.

Keywords: software platform, thermal vacuum test, control and measurement, work mode

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6578 Working Hours of Nurses in Public Hospitals: An Analyse Based on Working Schedules

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Arzu K. Harmanci Seren

Abstract:

The problems about the working hours of nursing personnel, such as overworking, numbers of night or daytime shifts, is stated one of the most complained issues by nurses. Otherwise, besides of nursing shortage, absenteeism of nurses because of sickness, some other health problems, or other reasons enforces nurse managers to make working schedules. In this study, it was aimed to analyse and evaluate the working schedules of nurses working in public hospitals. Working schedule lists of nursing personnel for the months of October and November in two public hospitals were analysed and evaluated. Approvals were acquired from the head nurse managers. Descriptive and comparative analyses were used. Totally 36 lists were analysed from two hospitals. There were totally 416 nurses (manager nurse: 25, nurse: 391) and 6-28 (12.6, SD=5.34) nurses in each list. It was found that nurses were working 8 (42.5%), 12 (27.9%) and 16 (20%) hours, in inpatient clinics (74.8%). Totally 20.2% of the nurses were absent during analysing time due to the annual, paid or unpaid leaves. Nurses were generally working 20-112 hours (80.27, SD=11.92). Most of the nurses over worked 1.5-443 hours (47.436, SD=60.78) the year before that year. It was determined that 11.8% of the nurses (n: 49) were working only night shifts and 42.1% (n: 175) of the nurses were working only daytime shifts. It was found that there were inequities in the working hours of nurses.

Keywords: nurse, public hospitals, working conditions, working schedules

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6577 Family Living with Adolescent Mother: The Consequential Effects of Adolescent Pregnancy

Authors: Somsakhool Neelasmith, Darunee Jongudomkarn, Rutja Phuphaibul

Abstract:

Adolescent pregnancy is a major global concern including Thailand, which has long adopted policies and solutions to prevent such problem. Family is one of the key strategies to drive policy achievement whereas the various families and regional differences will be challenges. This article reports a preliminary study finding using qualitative case study methods, aiming to explore the situation of families living with adolescent mother in the North Eastern of Thailand or ISAN. Data were collected by in-depth interview with six key informants; five adolescent mothers age 14- 19 years and one mother in law of adolescent mother during November to December of 2017. The preliminary suggests that firstly, the adolescent pregnancy was found to be one of the significant issues among most of the families and that adolescent mothers and their family perceived other families were also faced with this problem with despite different conditions. Secondly, the parents assumed simultaneous roles as both parents and grandparents when one of their adolescent girls became an adolescent mother. Lastly, when perceiving that their adolescent daughter became pregnant, families addressed this issue by compromise with the related parties to maintain family and social relationship. This situation can be a potential intractable problem to adolescents and their families. Families may suffer from adolescent pregnancy with respect to health, economy and other family burdens. Moreover, the national development may be affected or delayed since this group of people is considered promising human resource. It is therefore required to further conduct in-depth research to cope with this issue particularly about the policies related to adolescent pregnancy.

Keywords: adolescent mother, adolescent pregnancy, consequential effect, family living with adolescent mother

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6576 Predictions of Thermo-Hydrodynamic State for Single and Three Pads Gas Foil Bearings Operating at Steady-State Based on Multi-Physics Coupling Computer Aided Engineering Simulations

Authors: Tai Yuan Yu, Pei-Jen Wang

Abstract:

Oil-free turbomachinery is considered one of the critical technologies for future green power generation systems as rotor machinery systems. Oil-free technology allows clean, compact, and maintenance-free working, and gas foil bearings, abbreviated as GFBs, are important for the technology. Since the first applications in the auxiliary power units and air cycle machines in the 1970s, obvious improvement has been created to the computational models for dynamic rotor behavior. However, many technical issues are still poorly understood or remain unsolved, and some of those are thermal management and the pattern of how pressure will be distributed in bearing clearance. This paper presents a three-dimensional, abbreviated as 3D, fluid-structure interaction model of single pad foil bearings and three pad foil bearings to predict bearing working behavior that researchers could compare characteristics of those. The coupling analysis model involves dynamic working characteristics applied to all the gas film and mechanical structures. Therefore, the elastic deformation of foil structure and the hydrodynamic pressure of gas film can both be calculated by a finite element method program. As a result, the temperature distribution pattern could also be iteratively solved by coupling analysis. In conclusion, the working fluid state in a gas film of various pad forms of bearings working characteristic at constant rotational speed for both can be solved for comparisons with the experimental results.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, multi-physics simulations, gas foil bearing, oil-free, transient thermo-hydrodynamic

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6575 Emotion Regulation in Young Adult Relationships in Relation to Parenting Styles

Authors: Taylor Brown

Abstract:

The parent-child attachment bond begins early, often before the birth of the child. Both father and mother begin to form a bond with their child by selecting a name, preparing for the birth, etc. The biological mother carries the child and often breastfeeds the infant after birth. While fathers play an important role in caring for the child as well, the mother is traditionally seen as the caregiver with the primary role of caring for her baby. These core ideas could include how to form bonds, how to communicate emotions, and even how to create and maintain relationships. Mothers tend to shape their children’s minds based on their own. Studies have even shown that when mothers stroke their children’s bodies with their fingers, the child does calm down more than most other methods. The bond between mother and child is one that happens immediately and strengthens over time. This attachment affects the child’s overall development. The mother-child attachment style is directly linked to a multitude of patterns in adolescents, and later on, adults. The researcher believes that the subsequent patterns of communication in romantic relationships are included in the multitude. Awareness of these patterns and their effects could improve experiences in romantic relationships during young adulthood.

Keywords: emotion regulation, parenting, maternal, attachment, romantic

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6574 Household Food Insecurity, Maternal Mental Health and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Nahid Salarkia, Nasrin Omidvar, Erfan Ghassemi, Vahideh Arab-Salari, Tirang Reza Neyestani

Abstract:

Background: Household food insecurity has an adverse impact on the maternal mental health. This study was carried out to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, maternal depression and mother’s self-efficacy in Varamin, Iran, in 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 423 mothers with children under 2 years old, with mean age 28.1±5.2 year; weight 66.3±13.4 kg; height 160.3± 5.7 cm and BMI 25.7±4.8 kg/m2 were selected by a multistage random sampling scheme. The instruments were: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-III) and mother’s self-efficacy questionnaire. Data was analyzed using χ2 test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: Mildly, moderately and severely food insecure households were 39.5, 9.7 and 3.1%, respectively. Mild, moderate and sever depression was: 18.7, 13.9 and 5.7%. Mean score of depression in moderate and severe food insecure (8.6±5.3) was more than mild food insecure (4.8±4.7) and food secure (3.1±3.6) mothers. Frequency of very good, good and low mother’s self-efficacy were 62.8, 36.5, and 0.7%, respectively. Very good mother’s self-efficacy in food secure mothers (33.4%) was more than mild (25.4%) and moderate-sever food insecure groups (4%). There was a negative significant association between household food insecurity and mother’s self-efficacy (r= -0.297, p<0.01), and between mother’s depression and self-efficacy (r= -0.309, p=0.001). Conclusion: Empowerment of mothers with educational programs and social support can decrease mothers’ depression and increase self-efficacy that lead to improve maternal practices in food insecure households.

Keywords: Household food insecurity, Iran, mothers, physiological characteristics, self-efficacy

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6573 Mother-Child Attachment and Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood: Differences in Levels of Attachment Security

Authors: Simran Sharda

Abstract:

There is increasing evidence that leads psychologists today to believe that the attachment formed between a mother and child plays a much more profound role in later-life outcomes than previously expected. Particularly, the fact that a link may exist between maternal attachment and the development in addition to the severity of social anxiety in middle childhood seems to be gaining ground. This research will examine and address a myriad of major issues related to the impact of mother-child attachment: behaviors of children with different levels of secure attachment, various aspects of anxiety in relation to attachment security as well as other styles of mother-child attachments, especially avoidant attachment and over-attachment. This analysis serves to compile previous literature on the subject and touch light upon a logical extension of the research. Moreover, researchers have identified links between attachment and the externalization of problem behaviors: these behaviors may later manifest as social anxiety as well as increased severity and likelihood of PTSD diagnosis (an anxiety disorder). Furthermore, secure attachment has been linked to increased health benefits, cognitive skills, emotive socialization, and developmental psychopathology.

Keywords: child development, anxiety, cognition, developmental psychopathology, mother-child relationships, maternal, cognitive development

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6572 Reading the Memoirs of American Caregiving Daughters: A Care-Focused Feminist Approach

Authors: Su-Lin Yu

Abstract:

This paper will explore how gender and care discourse are intersected, reformulated and contested in American daughters’ caregiving memoirs. In particular, it will attempt to show how gender structure has worked to regulate a daughter’s response to her mother’s illness. In other words, how do certain cultural notions and class difference affect the ways in which the daughter enacts her caregiving response to her mother’s illness? What is the interrelation of female subjectivity and care practice? To understand care and gender politics in the memoirs, this paper will engage in close readings of five texts: Sandra Bullock Simith’s Trading Places: Becoming My Mother’s Mother: A Daughter’s Memoir (2015),Martha Stettinius’s Inside the Dementia Epidemic: A Daughter’s Memoir (2012), Patricia Thompson Collamer’s Grace on the Ledge: a Caregiver's Memoir, Judith Henry’s The Dutiful Daughter's Guide to Caregiving: A Practical Memoir (2015), and The Daughter's Dilemma: A Survival Guide to Caring for an Aging, Abusive Parent by Emily Wanderer Cohen (2018). By analyzing these texts, this paper will show why adult daughters become the primary caregivers, how gender norms and care practices influence a daughter’s thoughts and actions, and how it affects her self-understanding. Taken as a whole, then, the paper will provide an important examination not only of care and gender politics, but also a contribution to the intersecting discourses of illness, death, and mother-daughter relationship.

Keywords: care ethics, daughter-mother relationship, gender politics, memoirs

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6571 Motherhood in the Poetry of Rosario Castellanos: Other Face of Womanhood

Authors: Dovile Kuzminskaite

Abstract:

Rosario Castellanos is one of the most important Mexican writers; in her poetry and essays, she demythologizes social stereotypes about womanhood that were deeply present in Mexican society of the XXth century. In her extent poetic work, Rosario Castellanos demythologizes such concepts as romance, marriage, and motherhood, showing them in a way which did not agree with the norms of the catholic based society of her times. The aim of this research is to analyze the poetry of Rosario Castellanos working on sematic and structural levels and to investigate closely how she represents motherhood, what is the role of mother and the relationship of mother and child in her poems. Also, it is of interest to observe what are the elements used in the process of creating a different concept of motherhood. In order to reflect on this subject, this research will be based on semiotics, queer studies, and the philosophy of Michel Foucault, who introduces the concept of power when reflecting on gender and society. Rosario Castellanos turned into an example of disobedience and otherness for a generation of intellectuals in Spanish speaking countries, and because of this reason, it is of great importance to understand the politic and social statements that are represented by her poetry.

Keywords: motherhood, women, poetry, Mexico

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