Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 189

Search results for: rough set

189 Using Gene Expression Programming in Learning Process of Rough Neural Networks

Authors: Sanaa Rashed Abdallah, Yasser F. Hassan


The paper will introduce an approach where a rough sets, gene expression programming and rough neural networks are used cooperatively for learning and classification support. The Objective of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is to obtain new classified data with minimum error in training and testing process. Starting point of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is an information system and the output from this approach is a structure of rough neural networks which is including the weights and thresholds with minimum classification error.

Keywords: rough sets, gene expression programming, rough neural networks, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
188 Combination of Topology and Rough Set for Analysis of Power System Control

Authors: M. Kamel El-Sayed


In this research, we have linked the concept of rough set and topological structure to the creation of a new topological structure that assists in the analysis of the information systems of some electrical engineering issues. We used non-specific information whose boundaries do not have an empty set in the top topological structure is rough set. It is characterized by the fact that it does not contain a large number of elements and facilitates the establishment of rules. We used this structure in reducing the specifications of electrical information systems. We have provided a detailed example of this method illustrating the steps used. This method opens the door to obtaining multiple topologies, each of which uses one of the non-defined groups (rough set) in the overall information system.

Keywords: electrical engineering, information system, rough set, rough topology, topology

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
187 Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Rough Set and Its Application

Authors: K. M. Alsager, N. O. Alshehri


In this paper, we proposed the notion of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set, by combining single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set. The combination of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set is a powerful tool for dealing with uncertainty, granularity and incompleteness of knowledge in information systems. We presented both definition and some basic properties of the proposed model. Finally, we gave a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach by a numerical example.

Keywords: single valued neutrosophic fuzzy set, single valued neutrosophic fuzzy hesitant set, rough set, single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
186 Thermal Contact Resistance of Nanoscale Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ravi Prasher


In nanostructured material thermal transport is dominated by contact resistance. Theoretical models describing thermal transport at interfaces assume perfectly flat surface whereas in reality surfaces can be rough with roughness ranging from sub-nanoscale dimension to micron scale. Here we introduce a model which includes both nanoscale contact mechanics and nanoscale heat transfer for rough nanoscale surfaces. This comprehensive model accounts for the effect of phonon acoustic mismatch, mechanical properties, chemical properties and randomness of the rough surface.

Keywords: adhesion and contact resistance, Kaptiza resistance of rough surfaces, nanoscale thermal transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
185 Application of IF Rough Data on Knowledge Towards Malaria of Rural Tribal Communities in Tripura

Authors: Chhaya Gangwal, R. N. Bhaumik, Shishir Kumar


Handling uncertainty and impreciseness of knowledge appears to be a challenging task in Information Systems. Intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) and rough set theory enhances databases by allowing it for the management of uncertainty and impreciseness. This paper presents a new efficient query optimization technique for the multi-valued or imprecise IF rough database. The usefulness of this technique was illustrated on malaria knowledge from the rural tribal communities of Tripura where most of the information is multi-valued and imprecise. Then, the querying about knowledge on malaria is executed into SQL server to make the implementation of IF rough data querying simpler.

Keywords: intuitionistic fuzzy set, rough set, relational database, IF rough relational database

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
184 Rough Neural Networks in Adapting Cellular Automata Rule for Reducing Image Noise

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


The reduction or removal of noise in a color image is an essential part of image processing, whether the final information is used for human perception or for an automatic inspection and analysis. This paper describes the modeling system based on the rough neural network model to adaptive cellular automata for various image processing tasks and noise remover. In this paper, we consider the problem of object processing in colored image using rough neural networks to help deriving the rules which will be used in cellular automata for noise image. The proposed method is compared with some classical and recent methods. The results demonstrate that the new model is capable of being trained to perform many different tasks, and that the quality of these results is comparable or better than established specialized algorithms.

Keywords: rough sets, rough neural networks, cellular automata, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
183 Using Genetic Algorithms and Rough Set Based Fuzzy K-Modes to Improve Centroid Model Clustering Performance on Categorical Data

Authors: Rishabh Srivastav, Divyam Sharma


We propose an algorithm to cluster categorical data named as ‘Genetic algorithm initialized rough set based fuzzy K-Modes for categorical data’. We propose an amalgamation of the simple K-modes algorithm, the Rough and Fuzzy set based K-modes and the Genetic Algorithm to form a new algorithm,which we hypothesise, will provide better Centroid Model clustering results, than existing standard algorithms. In the proposed algorithm, the initialization and updation of modes is done by the use of genetic algorithms while the membership values are calculated using the rough set and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: categorical data, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, K modes clustering, rough sets

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
182 Application of Granular Computing Paradigm in Knowledge Induction

Authors: Iftikhar U. Sikder


This paper illustrates an application of granular computing approach, namely rough set theory in data mining. The paper outlines the formalism of granular computing and elucidates the mathematical underpinning of rough set theory, which has been widely used by the data mining and the machine learning community. A real-world application is illustrated, and the classification performance is compared with other contending machine learning algorithms. The predictive performance of the rough set rule induction model shows comparative success with respect to other contending algorithms.

Keywords: concept approximation, granular computing, reducts, rough set theory, rule induction

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
181 Rough Oscillatory Singular Integrals on Rⁿ

Authors: H. M. Al-Qassem, L. Cheng, Y. Pan


In this paper we establish sharp bounds for oscillatory singular integrals with an arbitrary real polynomial phase P. Our kernels are allowed to be rough both on the unit sphere and in the radial direction. We show that the bounds grow no faster than log(deg(P)), which is optimal and was first obtained by Parissis and Papadimitrakis for kernels without any radial roughness. Among key ingredients of our methods are an L¹→L² estimate and extrapolation.

Keywords: oscillatory singular integral, rough kernel, singular integral, Orlicz spaces, Block spaces, extrapolation, L^{p} boundedness

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
180 Saudi Teachers’ Perceptions of Rough and Tumble Play in Early Learning

Authors: Rana Alghamdi


This study explored teachers’ perceptions of rough-and-tumble (R&T) play in early childhood education in Saudi Arabia. The literature on rough-and-tumble play in Saudi Arabia is limited in scope, and more research is needed to explore teachers’ perceptions on this type of play for early learners. The pertinent literature reveals that R&T play, which includes running, jumping, fighting, wrestling, chasing, pulling, pushing, and climbing, among other rough playful activities, can positively impact learning and development across psychosocial, emotional, and cognitive domains. Teachers’ understanding of R & T play is key, and the attitudes of Saudi early childhood teachers who are responsible for implementing curriculum-based play have not been fully researched. Four early childhood teachers from an urban Saudi preschool participated in the study. The data collected in this study were interpreted through a sociocultural lens. Data sources included in-depth interviews, photo-elicitation interviews, and participant-generated drawings. Three overarching themes emerged: teachers’ concerns about rough-and-tumble play, teachers’ perceptions about the benefits of rough-and-tumble play, and teachers’ expression of gender roles in R & T play as contextualized within Saudi culture. Saudi teachers’ perceptions are discussed in detail, and implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are put forth.

Keywords: rough and tumble play, gender, culture, early childhood, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
179 Generalized Rough Sets Applied to Graphs Related to Urban Problems

Authors: Mihai Rebenciuc, Simona Mihaela Bibic


Branch of modern mathematics, graphs represent instruments for optimization and solving practical applications in various fields such as economic networks, engineering, network optimization, the geometry of social action, generally, complex systems including contemporary urban problems (path or transport efficiencies, biourbanism, & c.). In this paper is studied the interconnection of some urban network, which can lead to a simulation problem of a digraph through another digraph. The simulation is made univoc or more general multivoc. The concepts of fragment and atom are very useful in the study of connectivity in the digraph that is simulation - including an alternative evaluation of k- connectivity. Rough set approach in (bi)digraph which is proposed in premier in this paper contribute to improved significantly the evaluation of k-connectivity. This rough set approach is based on generalized rough sets - basic facts are presented in this paper.

Keywords: (bi)digraphs, rough set theory, systems of interacting agents, complex systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
178 Sharp Estimates of Oscillatory Singular Integrals with Rough Kernels

Authors: H. Al-Qassem, L. Cheng, Y. Pan


In this paper, we establish sharp bounds for oscillatory singular integrals with an arbitrary real polynomial phase P. Our kernels are allowed to be rough both on the unit sphere and in the radial direction. We show that the bounds grow no faster than log (deg(P)), which is optimal and was first obtained by Parissis and Papadimitrakis for kernels without any radial roughness. Our results substantially improve many previously known results. Among key ingredients of our methods are an L¹→L² sharp estimate and using extrapolation.

Keywords: oscillatory singular integral, rough kernel, singular integral, orlicz spaces, block spaces, extrapolation, L^{p} boundedness

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
177 Nano Generalized Topology

Authors: M. Y. Bakeir


Rough set theory is a recent approach for reasoning about data. It has achieved a large amount of applications in various real-life fields. The main idea of rough sets corresponds to the lower and upper set approximations. These two approximations are exactly the interior and the closure of the set with respect to a certain topology on a collection U of imprecise data acquired from any real-life field. The base of the topology is formed by equivalence classes of an equivalence relation E defined on U using the available information about data. The theory of generalized topology was studied by Cs´asz´ar. It is well known that generalized topology in the sense of Cs´asz´ar is a generalization of the topology on a set. On the other hand, many important collections of sets related with the topology on a set form a generalized topology. The notion of Nano topology was introduced by Lellis Thivagar, which was defined in terms of approximations and boundary region of a subset of an universe using an equivalence relation on it. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new generalized topology in terms of rough set called nano generalized topology

Keywords: rough sets, topological space, generalized topology, nano topology

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
176 Investigation of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in an Open Channel

Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed, Hany A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Omara, Mohamed F. Abdeen


Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer inside smooth and rough surfaces of vertical and inclined equilateral triangular channels of different inclination angles with a uniformly heated surface are performed. The inclination angle is changed from 15º to 90º. Smooth and rough surface of average roughness (0.02 mm) are used and their effect on the heat transfer characteristics are studied. The local and average heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number are obtained for smooth and rough channels at different heat flux values, different inclination angles and different Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 6.48 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.78 × 106. The results show that the local Nusselt number decreases with increase of axial distance from the lower end of the triangular channel to a point near the upper end of channel, and then, it slightly increases. Higher values of local Nusselt number for rough channel along the axial distance compared with the smooth channel. The average Nusselt number of rough channel is higher than that of smooth channel by about 8.1% for inclined case at θ = 45o and 10% for vertical case. The results obtained are correlated using dimensionless groups for both rough and smooth surfaces of the inclined and vertical triangular channels.

Keywords: natural heat transfer convection, constant heat flux, open channels, heat transfer

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175 Frequent Itemset Mining Using Rough-Sets

Authors: Usman Qamar, Younus Javed


Frequent pattern mining is the process of finding a pattern (a set of items, subsequences, substructures, etc.) that occurs frequently in a data set. It was proposed in the context of frequent itemsets and association rule mining. Frequent pattern mining is used to find inherent regularities in data. What products were often purchased together? Its applications include basket data analysis, cross-marketing, catalog design, sale campaign analysis, Web log (click stream) analysis, and DNA sequence analysis. However, one of the bottlenecks of frequent itemset mining is that as the data increase the amount of time and resources required to mining the data increases at an exponential rate. In this investigation a new algorithm is proposed which can be uses as a pre-processor for frequent itemset mining. FASTER (FeAture SelecTion using Entropy and Rough sets) is a hybrid pre-processor algorithm which utilizes entropy and rough-sets to carry out record reduction and feature (attribute) selection respectively. FASTER for frequent itemset mining can produce a speed up of 3.1 times when compared to original algorithm while maintaining an accuracy of 71%.

Keywords: rough-sets, classification, feature selection, entropy, outliers, frequent itemset mining

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174 Working Memory in Children: The Relationship with Father-Child Rough-and-Tumble Play

Authors: Robinson, E. L., Freeman, E. E.


Over the last few decades, the social movement of involved fatherhood has stimulated a research focus on fathers, leading to an increase in the body of evidence into the paternal contributions to child development. Past research has suggested that rough-and-tumble play, which involves wrestling, chasing and tumbling, is the preferred play type of western fathers. This type of play remains underutilized and underrepresented in child developmental research as it’s perceived to be dangerous or too aggressive. The limited research available has shown a relationship between high quality rough-and-tumble play interactions, lower childhood aggression and improved child emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to examine father-child rough-and-tumble play and assess the impact on cognitive development in children aged 4-7 years. Father-child dyads completed a 10-minute rough-and-tumble play interaction, which consisted of 2 games, at the University of Newcastle. Children then completed the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Fourth Edition Australian and New Zealand Standardized Edition (WPPSI-IV A&NZ). Fathers reported on their involvement in various caregiving activities and on their child’s development. Analyses revealed that fathers-child play quality was positively related to working memory outcomes in children. Furthermore, the amount of rough-and-tumble play father and child did together on a regular basis was also related to working memory outcomes. While father-child play interactions remain an understudied area of research, this study outlines the importance of examining the paternal play role in children’s cognitive development.

Keywords: children, development, father, executive function

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
173 Influence of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides on Growth of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri)

Authors: Raisibe V. Mathabatha, Phatu W. Mashela, Nehemiah M. Mokgalong


Occasional incidence of phytotoxicity in Nemarioc-BL and Nemafric-AL phytonematicides to crops raises credibility challenges that could negate their registration as commercial products. Responses of plants to phytonematicides are characterized by the existence of stimulation, neutral and inhibition phases, with the mid-point of the former being referred to as the Mean Concentration Stimulation Point (MSCP = Dm + Rh/2). The objective of this study was to determine the MCSP and the overall sensitivity (∑k) of Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides to rough lemon seedling rootstocks using the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Dosage (CARD) computer-based model. Two parallel greenhouse experiments were initiated, with seven dilutions of each phytonematicide arranged in a randomised complete block design, replicated nine times. Six-month-old rough lemon seedlings were transplanted into 20-cm-diameter plastic pots, filled with steam-pasteurised river sand (300°C for 3 h) and Hygromix-T growing mixture. Treatments at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 164% dilutions were applied weekly at 300 ml/plant. At 84 days after the treatments, analysis of variance-significant plant variables was subjected to the CARD model to generate appropriate biological indices. Computed MCSP values for Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides on rough lemon were 29 and 38%, respectively, whereas ∑k values were 1 and 0, respectively. At the applied concentrations, rough lemon seedlings were highly sensitive to Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides.

Keywords: crude extracts, cucurbitacins, effective microbes, fruit extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
172 Reusing of HSS Hacksaw Blades as Rough Machining Tool

Authors: Raja V., Chokkalingam B.


For rough cutting, in many industries and educational institutions using carbon steels or HSS single point cutting tools in center lathe machine. In power hacksaw blades, only the cutter teeth region used to parting off the given material. The portions other than the teeth can be used as a single point cutting tool for rough turning and facing on soft materials. The hardness and Tensile strength of this used Power hacksaw blade is almost same as conventional cutting tools. In this paper, the effect of power hacksaw blades over conventional tool has been compared. Thickness of the blade (1.6 mm) is very small compared to its length and width. Hence, a special tool holding device is designed to hold the tool.

Keywords: hardness, high speed steels, power hacksaw blade, tensile strength

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171 Nonlinear Flow Behavior and Validity of the Cubic Law in a Rough Fracture

Authors: Kunwar Mrityunjai Sharma, Trilok Nath Singh


The Navier-Stokes equation is used to study nonlinear fluid flow in rough 2D fractures. The major goal is to investigate the influence of inertial flow owing to fracture wall roughness on nonlinear flow behavior. Roughness profiles are developed using Barton's Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) and used as fracture walls to assess wall roughness. Four JRC profiles (5, 11, 15, and 19) are employed in the study, where a higher number indicates higher roughness. A parametric study has been performed using varying pressure gradients, and the corresponding Forchheimer number is calculated to observe the nonlinear behavior. The results indicate that the fracture roughness has a significant effect on the onset of nonlinearity. Additionally, the validity of the cubic law is evaluated and observed that it overestimates the flow in rough fractures and should be used with utmost care.

Keywords: fracture flow, nonlinear flow, cubic law, Navier-stokes equation

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170 Formulating Rough Approximations in Information Tables with Possibilistic Information

Authors: Michinori Nakata, Hiroshi Sakai


A rough set, which consists of lower and upper approximations, is formulated in information tables containing possibilistic information. First, lower and upper approximations on the basis of possible world semantics in the same way as Lipski did in the field of incomplete databases are shown in order to clarify fundamentals of rough sets under possibilistic information. Possibility and necessity measures are used, as is done in possibilistic databases. As a result, each object has certain and possible membership degrees to lower and upper approximations, which degrees are the lower and upper bounds. Therefore, the degree that the object belongs to lower and upper approximations is expressed by an interval value. And the complementary property linked with the lower and upper approximations holds, as is valid under complete information. Second, the approach based on indiscernibility relations, which is proposed by Dubois and Prade, are extended in three cases. The first case is that objects used to approximate a set of objects are characterized by possibilistic information. The second case is that objects used to approximate a set of objects with possibilistic information are characterized by complete information. The third case is that objects that are characterized by possibilistic information approximate a set of objects with possibilistic information. The extended approach create the same results as the approach based on possible world semantics. This justifies our extension.

Keywords: rough sets, possibilistic information, possible world semantics, indiscernibility relations, lower approximations, upper approximations

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169 Enhancement in Bactericidal Activity of Hydantoin Based Microsphere from Smooth to Rough

Authors: Rajani Kant Rai, Jayakrishnan Athipet


There have been several attempts to prepare polymers with antimicrobial properties by doping with various N-halamines. Hydantoins (Cyclic N-halamine) is of importance due to their stability rechargeable chloroamide function, broad-spectrum anti-microbial action and ability to prevent resistance to the organisms. Polymerizable hydantoins are synthesized by tethering vinyl moieties to 5,5,-dialkyl hydantoin sacrificing the imide hydrogen in the molecule thereby restricting the halogen capture only to the amide nitrogen that results in compromised antibacterial activity. In order to increase the activity of the antimicrobial polymer, we have developed a scheme to maximize the attachment of chlorine to the amide and the imide moieties of hydantoin. Vinyl hydantoin monomer, (Z)-5-(4-((3-methylbuta-1,3-dien-2-yl)oxy)benzylidene)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (MBBID) was synthesized and copolymerized with a commercially available monomer, methyl methacrylate, by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of hydantoin is strongly dependent on their surface area and hence their microbial activity increases when incorporated in microspheres or nanoparticles as compared to their bulk counterpart. In this regard, smooth and rough surface microsphere of the vinyl monomer (MBBID) with commercial monomer was synthesized. The oxidative chlorine content of the copolymer ranged from 1.5 to 2.45 %. Further, to demonstrate the water purification potential, the thin column was packed with smooth or rough microspheres and challenged with simulated contaminated water that exhibited 6 log kill (total kill) of the bacteria in 20 minutes of exposure with smooth (25 mg/ml) and rough microsphere (15.0 mg/ml).

Keywords: cyclic N-halamine, vinyl hydantoin monomer, rough surface microsphere, simulated contaminated water

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
168 Variation of Streamwise and Vertical Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Bed Open Channel Flow

Authors: M. Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar


An experimental study with four different types of bed conditions was carried out to understand the effect of roughness in open channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers. The bed conditions include a smooth surface and three different roughness conditions which were generated using sand grains with a median diameter of 2.46 mm. The three rough conditions include a surface with distributed roughness, a surface with continuously distributed roughness and a sand bed with a permeable interface. A commercial two-component fibre-optic LDA system was used to conduct the velocity measurements. The variables of interest include the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, the correlation between the streamwise and the wall normal turbulence, Reynolds shear stress and velocity triple products. Quadrant decomposition was used to extract the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress of the turbulent bursting events. The effect of roughness was evident throughout the flow depth. The results show that distributed roughness has the greatest roughness effect followed by the sand bed and the continuous roughness. Compared to the smooth bed, the streamwise turbulence intensity reduces but the vertical turbulence intensity increases at a location very close to the bed due to the introduction of roughness. Although the same sand grain is used to create the three different rough bed conditions, the difference in the turbulence intensity is an indication that the specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence structure.

Keywords: open channel flow, smooth and rough bed, Reynolds number, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
167 Effects of Substrate Roughness on E-Cadherin Junction of Oral Keratinocytes

Authors: Sungpyo Kim, Changseok Oh, Ga-Young Lee, Hyun-Man Kim


Intercellular junction of keratinocytes is crucial for epithelia to build an epithelial barrier. Junctional epithelium (JE) seals the interfaces between tooth and gingival tissue. Keratinocytes of JE attach to surfaces roughened by abrasion or erosion with aging. Thus behavior of oral keratinocytes on the rough substrates may help understand the epithelial seal of JE of which major intercellular junction is E-cadherin junction (ECJ). The present study investigated the influence of various substrate roughnesses on the development of ECJ between normal human gingival epithelial keratinocytes, HOK-16B cells. HOK-16B cells were slow in the development of ECJ on the rough substrates compared to on the smooth substrates. Furthermore, oral keratinocytes on the substrates of higher roughnesses were delayed in the development of E-cadherin junction than on the substrates of lower roughnesses. Delayed development of E-cadherin junction on the rough substrates was ascribed to the impaired spreading of cells and its higher JNK activity. Cells on the smooth substrates rapidly spread wide cytoplasmic extensions around cells. However, cells on the rough substrates slowly extended narrow cytoplasmic extensions of which number was limited due to the substrate irregularity. As these cytoplasmic extensions formed ECJ when met with the extensions of neighboring cells, thus, the present study demonstrated that a limited chance of contacts between cytoplasmic extensions due to the limited number of cytoplasmic extensions and slow development of cytoplasmic extensions brought about a delayed development of ECJ in oral keratinocytes on the rougher substrates. Sealing between cells was not complete because only part of cell membrane contributes to the formation of intercellular junction between cells on the substrates of higher roughnesses. Interestingly, inhibition of JNK activity promoted the development of ECJ on the rough substrates, of which mechanism remains to be studied further.

Keywords: substrate roughness, E-cadherin junction, oral keratinocyte, cell spreading, JNK

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166 A Fuzzy-Rough Feature Selection Based on Binary Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

Authors: Javad Rahimipour Anaraki, Saeed Samet, Mahdi Eftekhari, Chang Wook Ahn


Feature selection and attribute reduction are crucial problems, and widely used techniques in the field of machine learning, data mining and pattern recognition to overcome the well-known phenomenon of the Curse of Dimensionality. This paper presents a feature selection method that efficiently carries out attribute reduction, thereby selecting the most informative features of a dataset. It consists of two components: 1) a measure for feature subset evaluation, and 2) a search strategy. For the evaluation measure, we have employed the fuzzy-rough dependency degree (FRFDD) of the lower approximation-based fuzzy-rough feature selection (L-FRFS) due to its effectiveness in feature selection. As for the search strategy, a modified version of a binary shuffled frog leaping algorithm is proposed (B-SFLA). The proposed feature selection method is obtained by hybridizing the B-SFLA with the FRDD. Nine classifiers have been employed to compare the proposed approach with several existing methods over twenty two datasets, including nine high dimensional and large ones, from the UCI repository. The experimental results demonstrate that the B-SFLA approach significantly outperforms other metaheuristic methods in terms of the number of selected features and the classification accuracy.

Keywords: binary shuffled frog leaping algorithm, feature selection, fuzzy-rough set, minimal reduct

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165 Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar


Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.

Keywords: open channel flow, Reynolds Number, roughness, turbulence

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164 Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Armor Steel Plates

Authors: Taher El-Bitar, Maha El-Meligy, Eman El-Shenawy, Almosilhy Almosilhy, Nader Dawood


The steel contains 0.3% C and 0.004% B, beside Mn, Cr, Mo, and Ni. The alloy was processed by using 20-ton capacity electric arc furnace (EAF), and then refined by ladle furnace (LF). Liquid steel was cast as rectangular ingots. Dilatation test showed the critical transformation temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Mf as 716, 835, 356, and 218 °C. The ingots were austenitized and soaked and then rough rolled to thin slabs with 80 mm thickness. The thin slabs were then reheated and soaked for finish rolling to 6.0 mm thickness plates. During the rough rolling, the roll force increases as a result of rolling at temperatures less than recrystallization temperature. However, during finish rolling, the steel reflects initially continuous static recrystallization after which it shows strain hardening due to fall of temperature. It was concluded that, the steel plates were successfully heat treated by quenching-tempering at 250 ºC for 20 min.

Keywords: armor steel, austenitizing, critical transformation temperatures (CTTs), dilatation curve, martensite, quenching, rough and finish rolling processes, soaking, tempering, thermo-mechanical processing

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163 Effect of Genuine Missing Data Imputation on Prediction of Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Suzan Arslanturk, Mohammad-Reza Siadat, Theophilus Ogunyemi, Ananias Diokno


Missing data is a common challenge in statistical analyses of most clinical survey datasets. A variety of methods have been developed to enable analysis of survey data to deal with missing values. Imputation is the most commonly used among the above methods. However, in order to minimize the bias introduced due to imputation, one must choose the right imputation technique and apply it to the correct type of missing data. In this paper, we have identified different types of missing values: missing data due to skip pattern (SPMD), undetermined missing data (UMD), and genuine missing data (GMD) and applied rough set imputation on only the GMD portion of the missing data. We have used rough set imputation to evaluate the effect of such imputation on prediction by generating several simulation datasets based on an existing epidemiological dataset (MESA). To measure how well each dataset lends itself to the prediction model (logistic regression), we have used p-values from the Wald test. To evaluate the accuracy of the prediction, we have considered the width of 95% confidence interval for the probability of incontinence. Both imputed and non-imputed simulation datasets were fit to the prediction model, and they both turned out to be significant (p-value < 0.05). However, the Wald score shows a better fit for the imputed compared to non-imputed datasets (28.7 vs. 23.4). The average confidence interval width was decreased by 10.4% when the imputed dataset was used, meaning higher precision. The results show that using the rough set method for missing data imputation on GMD data improve the predictive capability of the logistic regression. Further studies are required to generalize this conclusion to other clinical survey datasets.

Keywords: rough set, imputation, clinical survey data simulation, genuine missing data, predictive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
162 Fuzzy Population-Based Meta-Heuristic Approaches for Attribute Reduction in Rough Set Theory

Authors: Mafarja Majdi, Salwani Abdullah, Najmeh S. Jaddi


One of the global combinatorial optimization problems in machine learning is feature selection. It concerned with removing the irrelevant, noisy, and redundant data, along with keeping the original meaning of the original data. Attribute reduction in rough set theory is an important feature selection method. Since attribute reduction is an NP-hard problem, it is necessary to investigate fast and effective approximate algorithms. In this paper, we proposed two feature selection mechanisms based on memetic algorithms (MAs) which combine the genetic algorithm with a fuzzy record to record travel algorithm and a fuzzy controlled great deluge algorithm to identify a good balance between local search and genetic search. In order to verify the proposed approaches, numerical experiments are carried out on thirteen datasets. The results show that the MAs approaches are efficient in solving attribute reduction problems when compared with other meta-heuristic approaches.

Keywords: rough set theory, attribute reduction, fuzzy logic, memetic algorithms, record to record algorithm, great deluge algorithm

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161 Diabetes Diagnosis Model Using Rough Set and K- Nearest Neighbor Classifier

Authors: Usiobaifo Agharese Rosemary, Osaseri Roseline Oghogho


Diabetes is a complex group of disease with a variety of causes; it is a disorder of the body metabolism in the digestion of carbohydrates food. The application of machine learning in the field of medical diagnosis has been the focus of many researchers and the use of recognition and classification model as a decision support tools has help the medical expert in diagnosis of diseases. Considering the large volume of medical data which require special techniques, experience, and high diagnostic skill in the diagnosis of diseases, the application of an artificial intelligent system to assist medical personnel in order to enhance their efficiency and accuracy in diagnosis will be an invaluable tool. In this study will propose a diabetes diagnosis model using rough set and K-nearest Neighbor classifier algorithm. The system consists of two modules: the feature extraction module and predictor module, rough data set is used to preprocess the attributes while K-nearest neighbor classifier is used to classify the given data. The dataset used for this model was taken for University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) database. Half of the data was used in the training while the other half was used in testing the system. The proposed model was able to achieve over 80% accuracy.

Keywords: classifier algorithm, diabetes, diagnostic model, machine learning

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160 Adhesive Connections in Timber: A Comparison between Rough and Smooth Wood Bonding Surfaces

Authors: Valentina Di Maria, Anton Ianakiev


The use of adhesive anchors for wooden constructions is an efficient technology to connect and design timber members in new timber structures and to rehabilitate the damaged structural members of historical buildings. Due to the lack of standard regulation in this specific area of structural design, designers’ choices are still supported by test analysis that enables knowledge, and the prediction, of the structural behavior of glued in rod joints. The paper outlines an experimental research activity aimed at identifying the tensile resistance capacity of several new adhesive joint prototypes made of epoxy resin, steel bar and timber, Oak and Douglas Fir species. The development of new adhesive connectors has been carried out by using epoxy to glue stainless steel bars into pre-drilled holes, characterized by smooth and rough internal surfaces, in timber samples. The realization of a threaded contact surface using a specific drill bit has led to an improved bond between wood and epoxy. The applied changes have also reduced the cost of the joints’ production. The paper presents the results of this parametric analysis and a Finite Element analysis that enables identification and study of the internal stress distribution in the proposed adhesive anchors.

Keywords: glued in rod joints, adhesive anchors, timber, epoxy, rough contact surface, threaded hole shape

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