Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

Search results for: entropy

264 On q-Non-extensive Statistics with Non-Tsallisian Entropy

Authors: Petr Jizba, Jan Korbel

Abstract:

We combine an axiomatics of Rényi with the q-deformed version of Khinchin axioms to obtain a measure of information (i.e., entropy) which accounts both for systems with embedded self-similarity and non-extensivity. We show that the entropy thus obtained is uniquely solved in terms of a one-parameter family of information measures. The ensuing maximal-entropy distribution is phrased in terms of a special function known as the Lambert W-function. We analyze the corresponding ‘high’ and ‘low-temperature’ asymptotics and reveal a non-trivial structure of the parameter space.

Keywords: multifractals, Rényi information entropy, THC entropy, MaxEnt, heavy-tailed distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
263 Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani

Abstract:

The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.

Keywords: entropy measure, Hausdorff distance, neutrosophic set, soft set

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
262 On the Topological Entropy of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Graziano Chesi

Abstract:

The topological entropy plays a key role in linear dynamical systems, allowing one to establish the existence of stabilizing feedback controllers for linear systems in the presence of communications constraints. This paper addresses the determination of a robust value of the topological entropy in nonlinear dynamical systems, specifically the largest value of the topological entropy over all linearized models in a region of interest of the state space. It is shown that a sufficient condition for establishing upper bounds of the sought robust value of the topological entropy can be given in terms of a semidefinite program (SDP), which belongs to the class of convex optimization problems.

Keywords: non-linear system, communication constraint, topological entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
261 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir

Abstract:

History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
260 Reasons for Non-Applicability of Software Entropy Metrics for Bug Prediction in Android

Authors: Arvinder Kaur, Deepti Chopra

Abstract:

Software Entropy Metrics for bug prediction have been validated on various software systems by different researchers. In our previous research, we have validated that Software Entropy Metrics calculated for Mozilla subsystem’s predict the future bugs reasonably well. In this study, the Software Entropy metrics are calculated for a subsystem of Android and it is noticed that these metrics are not suitable for bug prediction. The results are compared with a subsystem of Mozilla and a comparison is made between the two software systems to determine the reasons why Software Entropy metrics are not applicable for Android.

Keywords: android, bug prediction, mining software repositories, software entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
259 Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients

Authors: Subha D. Puthankattil, Paul K. Joseph

Abstract:

Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.

Keywords: EEG, depression, wavelet entropy, approximate entropy, relative wavelet energy, multiresolution decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
258 Entropy Analysis of a Thermo-Acoustic Stack

Authors: Ahmadali Shirazytabar, Hamidreza Namazi

Abstract:

The inherent irreversibility of thermo-acoustics primarily in the stack region causes poor efficiency of thermo-acoustic engines which is the major weakness of these devices. In view of the above, this study examines entropy generation in the stack of a thermo-acoustic system. For this purpose two parallel plates representative of the stack is considered. A general equation for entropy generation is derived based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. Assumptions such as Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation, boundary layer type flow, etc. are made to simplify the governing continuity, momentum and energy equations to achieve analytical solutions for velocity and temperature. The entropy generation equation is also simplified based on the same assumptions and then is converted to dimensionless form by using characteristic entropy generation. A time averaged entropy generation rate followed by a global entropy generation rate are calculated and graphically represented for further analysis and inspecting the effect of different parameters on the entropy generation.

Keywords: thermo-acoustics, entropy, second law of thermodynamics, Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
257 Econophysics: The Use of Entropy Measures in Finance

Authors: Muhammad Sheraz, Vasile Preda, Silvia Dedu

Abstract:

Concepts of econophysics are usually used to solve problems related to uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics. In the theory of option pricing the risk neutral probabilities play very important role. The application of entropy in finance can be regarded as the extension of both information entropy and the probability entropy. It can be an important tool in various financial methods such as measure of risk, portfolio selection, option pricing and asset pricing. Gulko applied Entropy Pricing Theory (EPT) for pricing stock options and introduced an alternative framework of Black-Scholes model for pricing European stock option. In this article, we present solutions to maximum entropy problems based on Tsallis, Weighted-Tsallis, Kaniadakis, Weighted-Kaniadakies entropies, to obtain risk-neutral densities. We have also obtained the value of European call and put in this framework.

Keywords: option pricing, Black-Scholes model, Tsallis entropy, Kaniadakis entropy, weighted entropy, risk-neutral density

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
256 Closed-Form Sharma-Mittal Entropy Rate for Gaussian Processes

Authors: Septimia Sarbu

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The entropy rate of a stochastic process is a fundamental concept in information theory. It provides a limit to the amount of information that can be transmitted reliably over a communication channel, as stated by Shannon's coding theorems. Recently, researchers have focused on developing new measures of information that generalize Shannon's classical theory. The aim is to design more efficient information encoding and transmission schemes. This paper continues the study of generalized entropy rates, by deriving a closed-form solution to the Sharma-Mittal entropy rate for Gaussian processes. Using the squeeze theorem, we solve the limit in the definition of the entropy rate, for different values of alpha and beta, which are the parameters of the Sharma-Mittal entropy. In the end, we compare it with Shannon and Rényi's entropy rates for Gaussian processes.

Keywords: generalized entropies, Sharma-Mittal entropy rate, Gaussian processes, eigenvalues of the covariance matrix, squeeze theorem

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
255 Entropy Risk Factor Model of Exchange Rate Prediction

Authors: Darrol Stanley, Levan Efremidze, Jannie Rossouw

Abstract:

We investigate the predictability of the USD/ZAR (South African Rand) exchange rate with sample entropy analytics for the period of 2004-2015. We calculate sample entropy based on the daily data of the exchange rate and conduct empirical implementation of several market timing rules based on these entropy signals. The dynamic investment portfolio based on entropy signals produces better risk adjusted performance than a buy and hold strategy. The returns are estimated on the portfolio values in U.S. dollars. These results are preliminary and do not yet account for reasonable transactions costs, although these are very small in currency markets.

Keywords: currency trading, entropy, market timing, risk factor model

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
254 An Alternative Proof for the Topological Entropy of the Motzkin Shift

Authors: Fahad Alsharari, Mohd Salmi Md. Noorani

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A Motzkin shift is a mathematical model for constraints on genetic sequences. In terms of the theory of symbolic dynamics, the Motzkin shift is nonsofic, and therefore, we cannot use the Perron-Frobenius theory to calculate its topological entropy. The Motzkin shift M(M,N) which comes from language theory, is defined to be the shift system over an alphabet A that consists of N negative symbols, N positive symbols and M neutral symbols. For an x in the full shift AZ, x is in M(M,N) if and only if every finite block appearing in x has a non-zero reduced form. Therefore, the constraint for x cannot be bounded in length. K. Inoue has shown that the entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) is log(M + N + 1). In this paper, we find a new method of calculating the topological entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) without any measure theoretical discussion.

Keywords: entropy, Motzkin shift, mathematical model, theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
253 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam

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Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi, and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: shannon, maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
252 Entropy Generation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Cavity Using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: M. Alipanah, A. Ranjbar, E. Farnad, F. Alipanah

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Entropy generation of an Al2O3-water nanofluid due to heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility has been investigated in a square cavity subject to different side wall temperatures using a nanofluid for natural convection flow. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number between 104 to 107 and volume fraction between 0 to 0.05. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation, average entropy generation and average Bejan number are determined. The results are compared for a pure fluid and a nanofluid. It is totally found that the heat transfer and entropy generation of the nanofluid is more than the pure fluid and minimum entropy generation and Nusselt number occur in the pure fluid at any Rayleigh number. Results depict that the addition of nanoparticles to the pure fluid has more effect on the entropy generation as the Rayleigh number goes up.

Keywords: entropy generation, natural convection, bejan number, nuselt number, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
251 Religion: The Human Entropy

Authors: Abul Kayum Zarzis Alam

Abstract:

Death is not a terminal; it is just a junction. From Agamas to Vedas, from Buddhism to Judaism, all the major scriptures and religions of the world always do converge to this hypothesis of death. Death is the ultimate catastrophe of life and it is the genesis of every religion on this Earth. Several hundred thousand years ago, the Homo Sapiens in Paleolithic age introduced the notion of religion on this Earth in its most primitive form just to escape from death and natural catastrophes through their belief in supernatural things which created the sense of superstition among the Homo Sapiens which has only increased over time. This sense of superstition and belief in supernatural things are building blocks of religion. Religion is like entropy, a degree of disorder. Entropy for an irreversible system like our own Universe always increases. Same is happening to our human civilization where the disorder had been increasing over time. The degree of this disorder of human civilization is religion divides and conquers over the human civilization of Earth. Religion is the human entropy which had been governing and will govern us. Just like entropy, religion is also an essential intrinsic property of the system which makes the system evolved. We have to optimize this ambivalence of the human entropy to make our civilization an inclusive and sustainable one.

Keywords: death, earth, entropy, Homo sapiens, religion and human entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
250 Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.

Keywords: bubble column, gas holdup fluctuations, modified Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy

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249 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

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By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
248 Time's Arrow and Entropy: Violations to the Second Law of Thermodynamics Disrupt Time Perception

Authors: Jason Clarke, Michaela Porubanova, Angela Mazzoli, Gulsah Kut

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What accounts for our perception that time inexorably passes in one direction, from the past to the future, the so-called arrow of time, given that the laws of physics permit motion in one temporal direction to also happen in the reverse temporal direction? Modern physics says that the reason for time’s unidirectional physical arrow is the relationship between time and entropy, the degree of disorder in the universe, which is evolving from low entropy (high order; thermal disequilibrium) toward high entropy (high disorder; thermal equilibrium), the second law of thermodynamics. Accordingly, our perception of the direction of time, from past to future, is believed to emanate as a result of the natural evolution of entropy from low to high, with low entropy defining our notion of ‘before’ and high entropy defining our notion of ‘after’. Here we explored this proposed relationship between entropy and the perception of time’s arrow. We predicted that if the brain has some mechanism for detecting entropy, whose output feeds into processes involved in constructing our perception of the direction of time, presentation of violations to the expectation that low entropy defines ‘before’ and high entropy defines ‘after’ would alert this mechanism, leading to measurable behavioral effects, namely a disruption in duration perception. To test this hypothesis, participants were shown briefly-presented (1000 ms or 500 ms) computer-generated visual dynamic events: novel 3D shapes that were seen either to evolve from whole figures into parts (low to high entropy condition) or were seen in the reverse direction: parts that coalesced into whole figures (high to low entropy condition). On each trial, participants were instructed to reproduce the duration of their visual experience of the stimulus by pressing and releasing the space bar. To ensure that attention was being deployed to the stimuli, a secondary task was to report the direction of the visual event (forward or reverse motion). Participants completed 60 trials. As predicted, we found that duration reproduction was significantly longer for the high to low entropy condition compared to the low to high entropy condition (p=.03). This preliminary data suggests the presence of a neural mechanism that detects entropy, which is used by other processes to construct our perception of the direction of time or time’s arrow.

Keywords: time perception, entropy, temporal illusions, duration perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
247 Entropy Production in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Porous Channel Using Darcy-Brinkman Formulation

Authors: Amel Tayari, Atef Eljerry, Mourad Magherbi

Abstract:

The paper reports a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to mixed convection in laminar flow through a channel filled with porous media. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to investigate the entropy generation rate. The Darcy-Brinkman Model is employed. The entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction dissipations has been determined in mixed convection by solving numerically the continuity, momentum and energy equations, using a control volume finite element method. The effects of Darcy number, modified Brinkman number and the Rayleigh number on averaged entropy generation and averaged Nusselt number are investigated. The Rayleigh number varied between 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105 and the modified Brinkman number ranges between 10-5 ≤ Br≤ 10-1 with fixed values of porosity and Reynolds number at 0.5 and 10 respectively. The Darcy number varied between 10-6 ≤ Da ≤10.

Keywords: entropy generation, porous media, heat transfer, mixed convection, numerical methods, darcy, brinkman

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
246 A Modified Shannon Entropy Measure for Improved Image Segmentation

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Omar A. Kittaneh, M. Akbar, Tariq M. Khan, Husam A. Bayoud

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The Shannon Entropy measure has been widely used for measuring uncertainty. However, in partial settings, the histogram is used to estimate the underlying distribution. The histogram is dependent on the number of bins used. In this paper, a modification is proposed that makes the Shannon entropy based on histogram consistent. For providing the benefits, two application are picked in medical image processing applications. The simulations are carried out to show the superiority of this modified measure for image segmentation problem. The improvement may be contributed to robustness shown to uneven background in images.

Keywords: Shannon entropy, medical image processing, image segmentation, modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
245 Complete Enumeration Approach for Calculation of Residual Entropy for Diluted Spin Ice

Authors: Yuriy A. Shevchenko, Konstantin V. Nefedev

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We consider the antiferromagnetic systems of Ising spins located at the sites of the hexagonal, triangular and pyrochlore lattices. Such systems can be diluted to a certain concentration level by randomly replacing the magnetic spins with nonmagnetic ones. Quite recently we studied density of states (DOS) was calculated by the Wang-Landau method. Based on the obtained data, we calculated the dependence of the residual entropy (entropy at a temperature tending to zero) on the dilution concentration for quite large systems (more than 2000 spins). In the current study, we obtained the same data for small systems (less than 20 spins) by a complete search of all possible magnetic configurations and compared the result with the result for large systems. The shape of the curve remains unchanged in both cases, but the specific values of the residual entropy are different because of the finite size effect.

Keywords: entropy, pyrochlore, spin ice, Wang-Landau algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
244 Automatic Seizure Detection Using Weighted Permutation Entropy and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Noha Seddik, Sherine Youssef, Mohamed Kholeif

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The automated epileptic seizure detection research field has emerged in the recent years; this involves analyzing the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals instead of the traditional visual inspection performed by expert neurologists. In this study, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) that uses Weighted Permutation Entropy (WPE) as the input feature is proposed for classifying normal and seizure EEG records. WPE is a modified statistical parameter of the permutation entropy (PE) that measures the complexity and irregularity of a time series. It incorporates both the mapped ordinal pattern of the time series and the information contained in the amplitude of its sample points. The proposed system utilizes the fact that entropy based measures for the EEG segments during epileptic seizure are lower than in normal EEG.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), epileptic seizure detection, weighted permutation entropy (WPE), support vector machine (SVM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
243 Numerical Prediction of Entropy Generation in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Nadia Allouache

Abstract:

The concept of second law is assumed to be important to optimize the energy losses in heat exchangers. The present study is devoted to the numerical prediction of entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction in a double tube heat exchanger partly or fully filled with a porous medium. The goal of this work is to find the optimal conditions that allow minimizing entropy generation. For this purpose, numerical modeling based on the control volume method is used to describe the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the fluid and the porous medium. Effects of the porous layer thickness, its permeability, and the effective thermal conductivity have been investigated. Unexpectedly, the fully porous heat exchanger yields a lower entropy generation than the partly porous case or the fluid case even if the friction increases the entropy generation.

Keywords: heat exchangers, porous medium, second law approach, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
242 Application of Entropy Concept for Discharge Estimation: An Experimental Investigation in a Laboratory Flume

Authors: Gurpinder Singh, Manoj K. Jain

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River flow measurement is an essential practice in hydraulic engineering for water resources planning and management, water availability analysis, flood forecasting. However, conventional methods (Prandtl-Von Karman law and power-law) of discharge measurement are costly, time-consuming, cumbersome, dangerous during high floods and rough weather. These laws are valid for wide-open channels only. Considering the limitations of traditional methods, Chiu (1987) presented the probability approach for finding velocity distribution at a river section with the help of the principle of maximum entropy, which provides better results in numerous situations like sediment-laden flows. The entropy theory relies on an entropy parameter which remains constant in different conditions of flow. Hence, it can be surmised as an intrinsic parameter. Experimental investigations on laboratory flume under controlled conditions were conducted to collect precise data at different discharge rates to record corresponding velocity distribution data, which was used to apply the concept of entropy theory for estimating the entropy parameter and discharge. Analysis of the collected data depicts that the entropy parameter remains constant with varying discharge rates. Results obtained based on analysis of collected data revealed that the two-dimensional entropy model was a quick and accurate technique for estimation of mean cross-sectional velocity and discharge.

Keywords: information theory, river, POME, Shannon entropy

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241 Non-linear Analysis of Spontaneous EEG After Spinal Cord Injury: An Experimental Study

Authors: Jiangbo Pu, Hanhui Xu, Yazhou Wang, Hongyan Cui, Yong Hu

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Spinal cord injury (SCI) brings great negative influence to the patients and society. Neurological loss in human after SCI is a major challenge in clinical. Instead, neural regeneration could have been seen in animals after SCI, and such regeneration could be retarded by blocking neural plasticity pathways, showing the importance of neural plasticity in functional recovery. Here we used sample entropy as an indicator of nonlinear dynamical in the brain to quantify plasticity changes in spontaneous EEG recordings of rats before and after SCI. The results showed that the entropy values were increased after the injury during the recovery in one week. The increasing tendency of sample entropy values is consistent with that of behavioral evaluation scores. It is indicated the potential application of sample entropy analysis for the evaluation of neural plasticity in spinal cord injury rat model.

Keywords: spinal cord injury (SCI), sample entropy, nonlinear, complex system, firing pattern, EEG, spontaneous activity, Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) score

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
240 Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Peter Ahlström, Tobias Richards

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Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%  C 95.1%, 0.0%  H  14.3%, 0.0%  O  71.1%, 0.0  N  66.7%, 0.0%  S  42.1%, 0.0%  Cl  89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

Keywords: absolute entropy, irreversibility, municipal solid waste, waste-to-energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
239 Minimization Entropic Applied to Rotary Dryers to Reduce the Energy Consumption

Authors: I. O. Nascimento, J. T. Manzi

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The drying process is an important operation in the chemical industry and it is widely used in the food, grain industry and fertilizer industry. However, for demanding a considerable consumption of energy, such a process requires a deep energetic analysis in order to reduce operating costs. This paper deals with thermodynamic optimization applied to rotary dryers based on the entropy production minimization, aiming at to reduce the energy consumption. To do this, the mass, energy and entropy balance was used for developing a relationship that represents the rate of entropy production. The use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential because it takes into account constraints of nature. Since the entropy production rate is minimized, optimals conditions of operations can be established and the process can obtain a substantial gain in energy saving. The minimization strategy had been led using classical methods such as Lagrange multipliers and implemented in the MATLAB platform. As expected, the preliminary results reveal a significant energy saving by the application of the optimal parameters found by the procedure of the entropy minimization It is important to say that this method has shown easy implementation and low cost.

Keywords: thermodynamic optimization, drying, entropy minimization, modeling dryers

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238 Numerical and Analytical Approach for Film Condensation on Different Forms of Surfaces

Authors: A. Kazemi Jouybari, A. Mirabdolah Lavasani

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This paper seeks to the solution of condensation around of a flat plate, circular and elliptical tube in way of numerical and analytical methods. Also, it calculates the entropy production rates. The first, problem was solved by using mesh dynamic and rational assumptions, next it was compared with the numerical solution that the result had acceptable errors. An additional supporting relation was applied based on a characteristic of condensation phenomenon for condensing elements. As it has been shown here, due to higher rates of heat transfer for elliptical tubes, they have more entropy production rates, in comparison to circular ones. Findings showed that two methods were efficient. Furthermore, analytical methods can be used to optimize the problem and reduce the entropy production rate.

Keywords: condensation, numerical solution, analytical solution, entropy rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
237 Max-Entropy Feed-Forward Clustering Neural Network

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

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The outputs of non-linear feed-forward neural network are positive, which could be treated as probability when they are normalized to one. If we take Entropy-Based Principle into consideration, the outputs for each sample could be represented as the distribution of this sample for different clusters. Entropy-Based Principle is the principle with which we could estimate the unknown distribution under some limited conditions. As this paper defines two processes in Feed-Forward Neural Network, our limited condition is the abstracted features of samples which are worked out in the abstraction process. And the final outputs are the probability distribution for different clusters in the clustering process. As Entropy-Based Principle is considered into the feed-forward neural network, a clustering method is born. We have conducted some experiments on six open UCI data sets, comparing with a few baselines and applied purity as the measurement. The results illustrate that our method outperforms all the other baselines that are most popular clustering methods.

Keywords: feed-forward neural network, clustering, max-entropy principle, probabilistic models

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
236 Entropy Generation of Unsteady Reactive Hydromagnetic Generalized Couette Fluid Flow of a Two-Step Exothermic Chemical Reaction Through a Channel

Authors: Rasaq Kareem, Jacob Gbadeyan

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In this study, analysis of the entropy generation of an unsteady reactive hydromagnetic generalized couette fluid flow of a two-step exothermic chemical reaction through a channel with isothermal wall temperature under the influence of different chemical kinetics namely: Sensitized, Arrhenius and Bimolecular kinetics was investigated. The modelled nonlinear dimensionless equations governing the fluid flow were simplified and solved using the combined Laplace Differential Transform Method (LDTM). The effects of fluid parameters associated with the problem on the fluid temperature, entropy generation rate and Bejan number were discussed and presented through graphs.

Keywords: couette, entropy, exothermic, unsteady

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
235 Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Partial Porous Channel Using LTNE and Exothermicity/Endothermicity Features

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Nader Karimi, Kaili Zhang

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This work aims to provide a comprehensive study on the heat transfer and entropy generation rates of a horizontal channel partially filled with a porous medium which experiences internal heat generation or consumption due to exothermic or endothermic chemical reaction. The focus has been given to the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model. The LTNE approach helps us to deliver more accurate data regarding temperature distribution within the system and accordingly to provide more accurate Nusselt number and entropy generation rates. Darcy-Brinkman model is used for the momentum equations, and constant heat flux is assumed for boundary conditions for both upper and lower surfaces. Analytical solutions have been provided for both velocity and temperature fields. By incorporating the investigated velocity and temperature formulas into the provided fundamental equations for the entropy generation, both local and total entropy generation rates are plotted for a number of cases. Bifurcation phenomena regarding temperature distribution and interface heat flux ratio are observed. It has been found that the exothermicity or endothermicity characteristic of the channel does have a considerable impact on the temperature fields and entropy generation rates.

Keywords: entropy generation, exothermicity or endothermicity, forced convection, local thermal non-equilibrium, analytical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 312