Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2051

Search results for: gender discrimination

2051 Equality at Home and Equality at Work: The Effect of European Court of Human Rights Jurisprudence on Turkish Gender Policy

Authors: Olgun Akbulut

Abstract:

Turkey has entered in the European human rights monitoring in the early 1990s. Since then many improvements have been observed in domestic law. However, one area stays the least developed one: gender discrimination. Although the country is proud of the fact that electoral rights for women were recognized in Turkey even before many developed countries in the west, interestingly the first Turkish case where the European Court of Human Rights (ECrtHR) found discrimination concerned gender discrimination. With the proposed paper, the author is willing to determine and analyze the findings of the ECrtHR in cases decided against Turkey concerning gender discrimination, identify whether Turkish public institutions display coordination in engagement or disengagement in implementing the judgments where the ECrtHR found discrimination on the basis of gender and evaluate the effectiveness of the Court's jurisprudence on Turkish gender policy.

Keywords: equality, gender discrimination, human rights, Turkey

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2050 Inquiry of Gender Discrimination in Contrast Emotions: A Study on Perception of Gender of Youth University

Authors: Duygu Alptekin

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Patriarchal social structure is based on a gender-based discrimination. Due to confrontational nature of discrimination; in a patriarchal society men and women exists in a based on contrasts and inequalities interaction patterns and this situation continues as socio-cultural with dominant gender perception in society. In this context gender perception of youth is a required vision tool for multidimensional understanding and resolving of gender discrimination problem and making projections about future. The aim of the study is explaining the gender discrimination by helping of Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and hostile benevolent sexism which are subdimensions of (ASI). Additionally the sexism perception of youth will be try to analyse ın the context of conflict of conventionalism and modernism. For that purpose survey have carried aout with the participation of students at the Selcuk University and the conclusions revealed that reached ampirically Young people's perceptions about the hierarchy of power revealed between men and women; sexual, economic and occupational segregation by pointing to statements about male-female relationships commitment, guardianship, gratitude, expressions containing highlights the superiority of socio-psychological (ASI) where results are determined by the application. The results of the factor analysis performed in this direction with the detection of the previous studies were evaluated by blending.

Keywords: ambivalent sexism inventory, gender discrimination, youth, conventionalism

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2049 Patriarchy and Gender Discrimination as seen in the Novels of Ahdaf Soueif’s In the Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002)

Authors: Nagwa Soliman

Abstract:

Women for centuries have undergone gender discrimination under the pretext of patriarchy which is engraved in the culture and tradition of some societies. It is important to highlight that this condition has been encoded by the male gender to dominate and manipulate women. It is therefore necessary to draw attention to this important obstacle that stands in the way of women’s achievement of their full potential and humanity in the face of these cultural traditions. The appropriate style that was chosen for this literary analysis is a qualitative research method that relies on the feminist technique using Freud’s psychological theories. This article explores patriarchy and gender discrimination as portrayed in Ahdaf Soueif’s In The Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002). It could be argued that those two novels describe a society that is feminist, patriarchal, and gender discriminatory. Moreover, it is important to assert that patriarchy and gender discrimination are part of the system’s social order which compels the female characters to adjust to society’s norms and conventions. This social order is supported by traditional and cultural masculine attitudes and results in sustaining gender inequality, female stereo typing and patriarchy which suppress women’s beliefs and dreams.

Keywords: gender discrimination, patriarchy, feminism, stereotype

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2048 Gender Discrimination and Pay Gap on Tourism Labor Market

Authors: Alka Obadić

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The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in core tourism activities. Women's gross hourly earnings in accommodation and food services were below those of men in the European Union and only countries who recorded increase of gender pay gap from the beginning of crisis are Bulgaria and Croatia. Women in tourism industry are still overrepresented in lower status jobs with fewer opportunities for career progression and are often treated unequally.

Keywords: employment, gender discrimination, tourism, women’s participation

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2047 Dowry System and Gender Discrimination

Authors: Vanitha Dapparabail

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Dowry is a system attached to Indian marriage system, it is practice of exchanging the goods and articles in a majority of Indian weddings. Although its practice became illegal in 1961, dowry flourishes among all social classes. Families of the bride and groom negotiate transfer of assets to the groom and his family in exchange for marrying the bride, often within the context of an arranged marriage. Dissatisfaction with the amount of dowry may result in abuse of the bride. In extreme cases “dowry deaths” or the murder of the bride by her husband and his family take place. This article conducts a feminist psychological analysis of the dowry phenomenon, its link to domestic violence against women, and the role of the perpetrators. Existing and new explanations of the dowry system and its ramifications are explored. Psychologically dowry system is greater mental stress for the Indian women and it is a really a part of gender discrimination. This part of the study can explore the amount of gender discrimination in Indian society.

Keywords: Dowry system, violence, gender discrimination, India

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2046 Case Study of Gender Mainstreaming in Rand Water: A Journey of Transformation

Authors: Saki Makume

Abstract:

Misogyny is a serious problem in the world that is predominantly patriarchal. South Africa is a very unequal society, so are the companies in this country. After 1994, laws were promulgated to outlaw unfair discrimination, amongst them discrimination based on gender. The presentation aims to share the experiences and learnings of Rand Water through its transformation journey. The environment was so hostile to women in the workplace that policies and practices excluded or unfairly discriminated against women. The paper will be in the form of a case study, predominantly qualitative and to a lesser extent quantitative. The results will show that the number of women at Board, Executive and Management levels have increased; and policies amended to be gender sensitive. Policies were developed that specifically protected women’s rights e.g. sexual harassment. A program like TechnoGirl was introduced to lure girl learners to Rand Water.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, policies, transformation, unfair discrimination

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2045 Gender Considerations and Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria

Authors: Tirimisiyu Olaide Gbadamosi

Abstract:

Individuals go into business for the sake of obtaining regular income, becoming self-employed. Although, there different kinds of business enterprises that female and male can go into, often times, some businesses are regarded more suitable for a particular sex and not the other. This means that there is some gender discrimination in the choice of business one goes into and by extension in entrepreneurship development. Apparently, gender attitudes and behaviors will have positive or negative effects on entrepreneurship development in a society or economy. This research work therefore intends to take a critical look at gender discrimination as they affect entrepreneurship development with particular reference to northern Nigeria in general, using Exceptional Production Services Limited Kaduna, Kaduna North Local Government area as a case study, and also to suggest the possible solution to unidentified problems and give recommendation where necessary. Statement of research problem: Entrepreneurship has generally been recognised as a good medium or strategy for economic development of an individual, a community and a nation. It is also a known a known fact that some gender discrimination are often used in the choice of business or even the decision to go into business. For example, some businesses are regarded as more suitable to men than women. The question here is, is this the right approach to economic development through entrepreneurship? Of what effect is this approach to entrepreneurship development? These and the other questions are what this research intends to find answers to and if possible make recommendations. Significance of the study: The findings of this study will provide a guide for anyone for the establishment of a business in Nigeria. The study will help any prospective entrepreneur to make the right decision of which business to go into and how to contend with gender related issues that might influence its success in business. Furthermore, it is hoped that the study will assist the government and her agencies in the process in developing entrepreneurship development programs. Conclusion: There has been growing recognition that various types of discrimination do not always affect women and men in the same way. Moreover, gender discrimination may be intensified and facilitated by all other forms of discrimination. It has been increasingly recognized that without gender analysis of all forms of discrimination in business, including multiple forms of discrimination, and, in particular, in this context, related intolerance, violations of the human rights of women might escape detection and remedies to address racism may also fail to meet the needs of women and girls. It is also important that efforts to address gender discrimination incorporate approaches to the elimination of all forms of discrimination. Recommendation: Campaigning and raising awareness among young men and women, parents, teachers and employers about gender stereotypical attitudes towards academic performances and the likely consequences of overall educational choices for employment and entrepreneurship opportunities, career progression and earnings.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, economic development, small medium enterprises, gender discrimination

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2044 A Study of Gender Awareness among College Students in Delhi

Authors: Shailly Kumar

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Gender is a social construction resulting in defining roles and responsibilities to carried out according to masculine and feminine traits. The main aim of the study was to explore gender awareness among college going students of Delhi. The objectives of studies were to find out (i) the understanding of term gender and roles and responsibilities associated with male and female as masculine and feminine traits in our society. (ii)Gender images representing the attributes and characteristics attached to particular gender. (iii) Gender discrimination prevailing among girls and boys in our society. (iv)Gender stereotypes resulting in gendering with respect to religion, culture, family and media. The sample of study consisted of 100 undergraduate college girl students. The findings of study stated that the students had this understanding that sex is a natural phenomenon and gender is socially constructed. Gender defines the roles and responsibilities among two sexes. On a gender image students concluded that males are represented as a powerful members of society showing physical strength and violence, force and society gave the power to men oppress and subjugate women in society that's why women are treated inferior and given secondary position in society. On gender discrimination, girl students stated that they faced discrimination at all level such as family, media ,education, workplace etc .There is strong prevailing gender stereotypes among girls and boys with respect to religious practices, choice of career ,preference of child etc. This study concluded that students were aware of gendered practices in various domains of life. The study helped to interpret the notions and perceptions of students towards gendering of social spaces and in their lives.

Keywords: gender, gender awareness, gender role, masculinity and feminity

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2043 Gender Inequality in the Workplace: A Literature Review on the Discrimination of Women by Human Resources Instruments

Authors: Katja Wiedemann, Melinda Gainschnigg

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This paper deals with gender inequality in companies. In the context of this paper, it is analyzed how women are discriminated by means of Human Resources instruments. The existing gender inequality is made apparent by the ‘Equal Pay Day. Women in Austria work without payment from 20 October onwards, which represents inequality of 21.7 percent points. This gender pay gap is due to the unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. Since the majority of activities related to the family and care are carried out by women, there are human capital deficits on women’s side. In addition to the discrimination of women in compensation, there are also discrimination cases caused by other Human Resources instruments. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of Human Resources instruments with regard to the discrimination of women and to identify measures to counteract this discrimination. Within the scope of this paper, possible instructions for companies on how to design and implement Human Resources instruments will be elaborated. Therefore personnel planning, recruiting, workforce management, compensation, and leadership are used as the basis for that analysis. The data were collected by a literature review and evaluated by means of a summary content analysis. The literature analysis includes papers of scientific journals from various business fields. On the basis of the results of the literature review, it is clear that women are discriminated by all analyzed Human Resources instruments. As a result, existing potentials are not optimally used. In order to limit or even prevent this loss of potential, companies must take specific measures to counteract the discrimination of women.

Keywords: employment issues, gender inequality , women's studies, workplace

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2042 A Detailed Study of Sexism in Mizo Language

Authors: H. C. Laltleipuii, Lalruatdiki Siakeng

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Mizo is a language spoken by the natives of Mizoram in North-East India. The Mizo society is a patriarchal society and hence is encumbered with trails of sexism in its language. Sexist language expresses discrimination on the basis of gender. While women are primarily affected, it is not however limited to just the female gender. This paper focuses on the sexist language that reflects the discrimination of women in the male-dominated, male-centered society of the Mizo. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize with details, sexism that can be found in three aspects of language: in the naming of animate and inanimate objects or words in general, in the idioms and phrases and proverbs. This study will also take into account the gender neutral terms that are in use in the language.

Keywords: gender, Mizo, patriarchy, sexism

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2041 Cross Analysis of Gender Discrimination in Print Media of Subcontinent via James Paul Gee Model

Authors: Luqman Shah

Abstract:

The myopic gender discrimination is now a well-documented and recognized fact. However, gender is only one facet of an individual’s multiple identities. The aim of this work is to investigate gender discrimination highlighted in print media in the subcontinent with a specific focus on Pakistan and India. In this study, an approach is adopted by using the James Paul Gee model for the identification of gender discrimination. As a matter of fact, gender discrimination is not consistent in its nature and intensity across global societies and varies as social, geographical, and cultural background change. The World has been changed enormously in every aspect of life, and there are also obvious changes towards gender discrimination, prejudices, and biases, but still, the world has a long way to go to recognize women as equal as men in every sphere of life. The history of the world is full of gender-based incidents and violence. Now the time came that this issue must be seriously addressed and to eradicate this evil, which will lead to harmonize society and consequently heading towards peace and prosperity. The study was carried out by a mixed model research method. The data was extracted from the contents of five Pakistani English newspapers out of a total of 23 daily English newspapers, and likewise, five Indian daily English newspapers out of 52 those were published 2018-2019. Two news stories from each of these newspapers, in total, twenty news stories were taken as sampling for this research. Content and semiotic analysis techniques were used to analyze through James Paul Gee's seven building tasks of language. The resources of renowned e-papers are utilized, and the highlighted cases in Pakistani newspapers of Indian gender-based stories and vice versa are scrutinized as per the requirement of this research paper. For analysis of the written stretches of discourse taken from e-papers and processing of data for the focused problem, James Paul Gee 'Seven Building Tasks of Language' is used. Tabulation of findings is carried to pinpoint the issue with certainty. Findings after processing the data showed that there is a gross human rights violation on the basis of gender discrimination. The print media needs a more realistic representation of what is what not what seems to be. The study recommends the equality and parity of genders.

Keywords: gender discrimination, print media, Paul Gee model, subcontinent

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2040 Deconstructing the Dialectics of Gender: An Analysis of Nigerian Igbo Women's Writing

Authors: R. Vidhya

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Nigeria, the seat of canonical literature in Africa, though widely acclaimed as the literary capital of the continent, it failed to produce women writers in its literary arena till the 1960s. Only after 1966, with the publication of the first novel by a women writer, Nigeria saw the emergence of women’s writing through which the world witnessed an upsurge in the sensitization of women’s issues in Africa. The Nigerian Igbo women’s writing threw light on gender discrimination in postcolonial Africa. Their works were instrumental in bringing a remarkable change in the perception of gender in a male dominated society. The social mindscape of the land which strongly believed that feminist ideologies could be highly detrimental to its patriarchal setup is slowly changed through the changing perspectives of gender. This paper aims to analyse the select works of Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie to deconstruct the dialectics of gender, which has been realised in the works of these women writers.

Keywords: gender discrimination, Igbo women's writings, postcolonial Africa, changing perspective

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2039 Gender and Political Participation in Africa

Authors: Ibrahim Baba

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The work examines the nature and causes of differential politics in Africa with particular reference to the sub-Saharan region of the continent. It also among other objectives provides alternative panacea to gender discrimination in African politics and offers solutions on how to promote political inclusion of all citizens in respect of gender differences in Africa. The work is conducted using library base documentation analysis.

Keywords: gender, political, participation, differential politics, sub-Saharan Africa

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2038 Sociological Analysis of Fulfillment Regarding Basic Needs of Females(Women) at Home with Special Reference of Balochistan (Pakistan)

Authors: Shabana Mohammad, Muhammad Irfan

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The aim of this study was to bring out the facts regarding the effects of gender discrimination in fulfilling the basic needs of females at home. The purpose of the study was to observe whether gender discrimination affects the fulfillment of their basic needs in comparison to male siblings. Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan geographically and has a tribal system. Due to having tribal systems, the women are not treated equally as men at home because males are considered the strength and privilege of tribes; males are more valuable because they support their families economically as well, and females are not allowed to work outside the home. That’s why females are deprived of their basic needs of life. The females (women) are neglected to have better nourishment, health facilities, easy access to get an education, safe house, and self-confidence. The type of research is quantitative, and data was collected from all government girls’ degree colleges of Quetta city (the capital of Balochistan province) under the age of 18. Two hundred (200) Students of all FA arts faculty (first year) were selected through simple random sampling (fishbowl draw). Data were analyzed by SPSS, and a coefficient test was applied to test the hypothesis. The regression of coefficient has a significant association between gender discrimination and basic needs (P-value =.000). The results showed that women are underprivileged from all basic needs (fundamental rights) of life, which are entitled to everyone by their birth because of male preference that creates gender disparity between men and women.

Keywords: basic needs, discrimination, value of women at home, hurdles of women

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2037 Sexual Harassment at Workplace in Cuttack District

Authors: Anasuya P. Pradhan, Netajee Abhinandan

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Today's workplace is diverse and keeps changing continuously. Sexual harassment in the work place has emerged as a growing obstacle in women’s progress and being a sex discrimination issue has made the society vulnerable.Such issues indicate that, today women are comparatively more insecure in our society irrespective of their social status, position, and educational qualification. Hence, it needs to be addressed in the academic pedagogy.The study aimed to learn how far people are gender-sensitized, how far they are aware about the laws related to the issue, and how far women employees raise their voice against it. The findings revealed that even being educated and working in the organized sectors, people are unaware and are not sensitized. The study therefore recommends both the Government and managers of institutions how to critically identify the root causes of sexual harassment, its implications on our society and how best to address it.

Keywords: workplace power, gender discrimination, gender sensitization, sexual harassment

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2036 Gender Equality for the Environment: Positioning India

Authors: Nivedita Roy, Aparajita Chattopadhyay

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Gender discrimination is already one of the major factors why India is still in the list of the 3rd World Countries, but, when it comes to gender inclusion in the environmental arena, this umbrella concept is quite unheard of by our countrymen. The main objective was to assess gender equality for the environment through calculating Environment and Gender Index on a country level, India, in this case. 22 states out of 29 were considered for calculation. Also, out of the 72 countries chosen by IUCN to calculate EGI, the lower middle income group of countries was chosen to assess the position of India, also a lower middle income group country, among them. Linear Regression is executed through SPSS and simple graphs and tables are prepared through MS-EXCEL for analysis. India portrays good governance, reporting activities well to the UN but in terms of basic livelihood and gender equality, the performance is comparatively weak.

Keywords: environment, gender, livelihood, rights, participation, development, conservation

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2035 Gender Inequality in Pakistan: A Study of Economic Inequality Keeping in View the Gender Biased Societal Set up and Patriarchal Mind Set

Authors: Humera Malik

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Gender inequality, as a societal issue, is prevalent in all spheres of life in Pakistan. It is world-wide understood that gender equality is a basic right of every human being as well as the source of development and prosperity for the whole country. In fact, many countries endeavor to ensure equal opportunities for men and women which will, in turn, help to attain sustainable growth in every field. Most of the women in Pakistan live their life under the societal pressure which is exerted by centuries old traditions. This archaic setup restricts women to stay at home because their survival is conditional to their total subjugation to the male member of the family. This patriarchal structure confers men the right to deal women as their property. It is not wrong to say that women endure severe discrimination in their whole life. No doubt, women are confronted with multifaceted discrimination in the field of education, health, politics, social status, etc. The main theme of this research is to ascertain the present condition of gender inequality in the field of economy in Pakistan. Pakistan’s poor ranking in Global Gender Gap Index, 2016 clearly depicts that women are deprived of fundamental rights as well as equal opportunities of development. This very state of affairs depicts the real picture of government’s commitment to women empowerment and gender equality. The nature of this research is descriptive which helps to determine the status of women in Pakistan on the basis of labour force participation, wage gap, estimated incomes, and ratio of high ranking positions secured by women. It is an endeavor to understand the reasons of economic inequality by following qualitative method of research. Moreover, few recommendations will be suggested to get rid of this issue.

Keywords: dismal, discrimination, feudal, patriarchal, wage gap

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2034 Discrimination during a Resume Audit: The Impact of Job Context in Hiring

Authors: Alexandra Roy

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Building on literature on cognitive matching and social categorization and using the correspondence testing method, we test the interaction effect of person characteristics (Gender with physical attractiveness) and job context (client contact, industry status, coworker contact). As expected, while findings show a strong impact of gender with beauty on hiring chances, job context characteristics have also a significant overall effect of this hiring outcome. Moreover, the rate of positive responses varies according some of the recruiter’s characteristics. Results are robust to various sensitivity checks. Implications of the results, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: correspondence testing, discrimination, hiring, physical attractiveness

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2033 Social Problems and Gender Wage Gap Faced by Working Women in Readymade Garment Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Narjis Kahtoon

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The issue of the wage discrimination on the basis of gender and social problem has been a significant research problem for several decades. Whereas lots of have explored reasons for the persistence of an inequality in the wages of male and female, none has successfully explained away the entire differentiation. The wage discrimination on the basis of gender and social problem of working women is a global issue. Although inequality in political and economic and social make-up of countries all over the world, the gender wage discrimination, and social constraint is present. The aim of the research is to examine the gender wage discrimination and social constraint from an international perspective and to determine whether any pattern exists among cultural dimensions of a country and the man and women remuneration gap in Readymade Garment Sector of Pakistan. Population growth rate is significant indicator used to explain the change in population and play a crucial point in the economic development of a country. In Pakistan, readymade garment sector consists of small, medium and large sized firms. With an estimated 30 percent of the workforce in textile- Garment is females’. Readymade garment industry is a labor intensive industry and relies on the skills of individual workers and provides highest value addition in the textile sector. In the Garment sector, female workers are concentrated in poorly paid, labor-intensive down-stream production (readymade garments, linen, towels, etc.), while male workers dominate capital- intensive (ginning, spinning and weaving) processes. Gender wage discrimination and social constraint are reality in Pakistan Labor Market. This research allows us not only to properly detect the size of gender wage discrimination and social constraint but to also fully understand its consequences in readymade garment sector of Pakistan. Furthermore, research will evaluated this measure for the three main clusters like Lahore, Karachi, and Faisalabad. These data contain complete details of male and female workers and supervisors in the readymade garment sector of Pakistan. These sources of information provide a unique opportunity to reanalyze the previous finding in the literature. The regression analysis focused on the standard 'Mincerian' earning equation and estimates it separately by gender, the research will also imply the cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede (2001) to profile a country’s cultural status and compare those cultural dimensions to the wage inequalities. Readymade garment of Pakistan is one of the important sectors since its products have huge demand at home and abroad. These researches will a major influence on the measures undertaken to design a public policy regarding wage discrimination and social constraint in readymade garment sector of Pakistan.

Keywords: gender wage differentials, decomposition, garment, cultural

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2032 Is Maternity Discrimination Pushing Women out of Work? A Case Study of Maternity Experiences of Working Women in Malaysia

Authors: Nor Hafizah Selamat, Intan Hashima Mohd Hashim, Noraida Endut, Shariffah Suraya Syed Jamaludin, Sharifah Zahhura Syed Abdullah, Suziana Mat Yasin, Nurul Jannah Ambak

Abstract:

In Malaysia, report on discrimination against pregnant women at work does exist, and this issue should be taken seriously as large proportion of women in the workforce in Malaysia are of reproductive age. It has been well established that women tend to leave the workforce because of their responsibility in raising the family, to care for family members and, also due to lack of work-life balance. In this case, women find themselves disadvantaged in career and job advancements due to gender roles and expectations connected with maternity. This maternity discrimination have pushed women out of work although The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), to which Malaysia is a party, considers discrimination on the ground of maternity is a form of gender discrimination because it hinders women of their effective right to work and requires that special protection be provided for women during maternity to ensure their ability to enjoy the right to work (Article 11(2). What factors prevent women from returning to work and at the same time performing their gender roles expectations? Using semi-structured in-depth interviews this paper explores the experiences of maternity discrimination and their perspectives towards their work employment. 15 women employees who were pregnant or had given birth during her employment period in public and private organizations in Malaysia were participated in this study. While data were analyzed using narrative analysis, respondents were asked on issues related to managing pregnancy, maternity leave and returning to work. The findings revealed that several respondents from private companies stated that they were either dismissed or forced to take unpaid leave due to the company policies. In some cases, respondents also shared how they were treated poorly that they felt that they had to leave their jobs. However, in public organization, the maternity policy implemented showed the support that the employees received from their employer. Study shows that supportive family and employers will encourage employees to return to work. Reasonable adjustments in terms of maternity policies at workplace such as allowing sufficient time in postnatal appointments, offering clear explanation on maternity issues at workplace are something that employees expected from their employers.

Keywords: maternity discrimination, women and work, gender, maternity protection, Malaysia

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2031 Gender Mainstreaming in Kazakhstan: A University Audit as the First Stage to Inform Policy

Authors: A. S. CohenMiller, Jenifer Lewis, Gwen McEvoy, Kristy Kelly

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This international, interdisciplinary study presents the first stage of a gender mainstreaming project within one university as a microcosm of society in Kazakhstan to make concrete policy recommendations and set up the potential for new research to monitor change over time. Local, regional, and UN representatives have noted the critical need and interest in gender related issues in Kazakhstan. Gender mainstreaming has been noted as a strategy to understand and address gender equality and equity such as within the academy in exploring and examining organizational/management issues, university decision-making and leadership, assessing the overall academic climate, discrimination issues, hiring and promotion, and student recruitment and retention. This presentation provides preliminary findings from the university gender audit, highlighting key elements for moving forward in gender mainstreaming. The full study analyzes findings from the full gender audit including interview with key stakeholders, time-use surveys, participant-observations and interviews with female students, staff and faculty, and reviews of formal organizational policies and practices.

Keywords: academia, equity, Eurasia, gender audit, gender mainstreaming, Kazakhstan, policy, time-use survey

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2030 Translating the Gendered Discourse: A Corpus-Based Study of the Chinese Science Fiction The Three Body Problem

Authors: Yi Gu

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The Three-Body Problem by Cixin Liu has been a bestseller Chinese Sci-Fi novel for years since 2008. The book was translated into English by Ken Liu in 2014 and won the prestigious 2015 science fiction and fantasy writing Hugo Award, drawing greater attention from wider international communities. The story exposes the horrors of the Chinese Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, in an intriguing narrative for readers at home and abroad. However, without the access to the source text, western readers may not be aware that the original Chinese version of the book is rich in gender-bias. Some Chinese scholars have applied feminist translation theories to their analysis on this book before, based on isolated selected, cherry-picking examples. Thus this paper aims to obtain a more thorough picture of how translators can cope with gender discrimination and reshape the gendered discourse from the source text, by systematically investigating the lexical and syntactic patterns in the translation of Liu’s entire book of 400 pages. The source text and the translation were downloaded into digital files, automatically aligned at paragraph level and then manually post-edited. They were then compiled into a parallel corpus of 114,629 English words and 204,145 Chinese characters using Sketch Engine. Gender-discrimination markers such as the overuse of ‘girl’ to describe an adult woman were searched in the source text, and the alignment made it possible to identify the strategies adopted by the translator to mitigate gender discrimination. The results provide a framework for translators to address gender bias. The study also shows how corpus methods can be used to further research in feminist translation and critical discourse analysis.

Keywords: corpus, discourse analysis, feminist translation, science fiction translation

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2029 A Mixed Methods Research Design for the Development of the Xenia Higher Education Institutions' Inclusiveness Index

Authors: Achilles Kameas, Eleni Georgakakou, Anna Lisa Amodeo, Aideen Quilty, Aisling Malone, Roberta Albertazzi, Moises Carmona, Concetta Esposito, Ruben David Fernandez Carrasco, Carmela Ferrara, Francesco Garzillo, Mojca Pusnik, Maria Cristina Scarano

Abstract:

While researchers, especially in academia, study and research the phenomena of inclusion of sexual minority and gender marginalized groups, seldom the European Higher Education Institutions (HEI) act on lowering the cultural and educational barriers to their proactive inclusion. The challenge in European HEIs is that gender, and sexual orientation discrimination remains an issue not adequately addressed. Following a mixed methods research design of quantitative and qualitative research techniques and tools, which is applied in five (5) European countries (Italy, Greece, Ireland, Slovenia, and Spain) and that combines desk research, evaluation, and weighting processes for a Matrix-based on Objective indicators and Survey for students and staff of the HEI to gauge the perception of inclusiveness in the HEI context, XENIA HEI Inclusiveness Index is an instrument that will allow universities to gauge and assess their inclusiveness in the domain of discrimination and exclusion based on gender identity and sexual orientation. The index will allow capturing the depth and reach of policies, programmes, and initiatives of HEIs in tackling the phenomena and dynamics of exclusion of LGBT+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and other marginalized groups on the basis of gender and sexual identity) and cisgender women exposed to the risk of discrimination.

Keywords: gender identity, higher education, LGBT+ rights, XENIA inclusiveness index

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2028 Conflict, Confusion or Compromise: Violence against Women, A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Farhat Jabeen, Syed Asfaq Hussain Bukhari

Abstract:

In the wake of the contemporary period the basic objective of the research paper points out that socio-cultural scenario of Pakistan reveals that gender-based violence is deep rooted in the society irrespective of language and ethnicity. This paper would reconnaissance the possibility reforms in Pakistan for diminishing of violence. Women are not given their due role, rights, and respect. Furthermore, they are treated as chattels. This presentation will cover the socio-customary practices in the context of discrimination, stigmatization, and violence against women. This paper envisages justice in a broader sense of recognition of rights for women, and masculine structure of society, socio-customary practices and discrimination against women are a very serious concern which needs to be understood as a multidimensional problem. The paper will specially focus on understanding the existing obstacles of women in Pakistan in the constitutional scenario. Women stumble across discrimination and human rights manipulations, voluptuous violation and manipulation including domestic viciousness and are disadvantaged by laws, strategies, and programming that do not take their concerns into considerations. This presentation examines the role of honour killings among Pakistani community. This affects their self-assurance and capability to elevation integrity campaign where gender inequalities and discrimination in social, legal domain are to be put right. This paper brings to light the range of practices, laws and legal justice regarding the status of women and also covers attitude towards compensations for murders/killings, domestic violence, rape, adultery, social behavior and recourse to justice.

Keywords: discrimination, cultural, women, violence

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2027 Women Soldiers in the Israel Defence Forces: Changing Trends of Gender Equality and Military Service

Authors: Dipanwita Chakravortty

Abstract:

Officially, the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) follows a policy of 'gender equality and partnership' which institutionalises norms regarding equal duty towards the nation. It reiterates the equality in unbiased opportunities and resources for Jewish men and women to participate in the military as equal citizens. At the same time, as a military institution, the IDF supports gender biases and crystallises the same through various interactions among women soldiers, male soldiers and the institution. These biases are expressed through various stages and processes in the military institution like biased training, discriminatory postings of women soldiers, lack of combat training and acceptance of sexual harassment. The gender-military debates in Israel is largely devoted to female emancipation and converting the militarised women’s experiences into mainstream debates. This critical scholarship, largely female-based and located in Israel, has been consistently critical of the structural policies of the IDF that have led to continued discriminatory practices against women soldiers. This has compelled the military to increase its intake of women soldiers and make its structural policies more gender-friendly. Nonetheless, the continued thriving of gender discrimination in the IDF resulted in scholars looking deep into the failure of these policies in bringing about a change. This article looks into two research objectives, firstly to analyse existing gender relations in the IDF which impact the practices and prejudices in the institution and secondly to look beyond the structural discrimination as part of the gender debates in the IDF. The proposed research uses the structural-functional model as a framework to study the discourses and norms emerging out of the interaction between gender and military as two distinct social institutions. Changing gender-military debates will be discussed in great detail to understanding the in-depth relation between the Israeli society and the military due to the conscription model. The main arguments of the paper deal with the functional aspect of the military service rather than the structural component of the institution. Traditional stereotypes of military institutions along with cultural notions of a female body restrict the complete integration of women soldiers despite favourable legislations and policies. These result in functional discriminations like uneven promotion, sexual violence, restructuring gender identities and creating militarised bodies. The existing prejudices encourage younger women recruits to choose from within the accepted pink-collared jobs in the military rather than ‘breaking the barriers.’ Some women recruits do try to explore new avenues and make a mark for themselves. Most of them face stiff discrimination but they accept it as part of military life. The cyclical logic behind structural norms leading to functional discrimination which then emphasises traditional stereotypes and hampers change in the institutional norms compels the IDF to continue to strive towards gender equality within the institution without practical realisation.

Keywords: women soldiers, Israel Defence Forces, gender-military debates, security studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
2026 A Short Study on the Effects of Public Service Advertisement on Gender Bias in Accessible and Non-Accessible Format

Authors: Amrin Moger, Sagar Bhalerao, Martin Mathew

Abstract:

Advertisements play a vital role in dissemination of information regarding products and services. Advertisements as Mass Media tool is not only a source of entertainment, but also a source of information, education and entertainment. It provides information about the outside world and exposes us to other ways of life and culture. Public service advertisements (PSA) are generally aimed at public well-being. Aim of PSA is not to make profit, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness in the Society about a social issue.’ Start with the boys’ is one such PSA aims to create awareness about issue of ‘gender bias’ that is taught prevalent in the society. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are also consumers of PSA in the society. The population of persons with disability in the society also faces gender bias and discrimination. It is a double discrimination. The advertisement selected for the study gives out a strong message on gender bias and therefore must be accessible to everyone including PWDs in the society. Accessibility of PSA in the digital format can be done with the help of Universal Design (UD) in digital media application. Features of UD inclusive in nature, and it focus on eliminating established barriers through initial designs. It considers the needs of diverse people, whether they are persons with or without disability. In this research two aspects of UD in digital media: captioning and Indian sign language (ISL) is used. Hence a short survey study was under taken to know the effects of a multimedia on gender bias, in accessible format on persons with and without disability. The result demonstrated a significant difference in the opinion, on the usage accessible and non-accessible format for persons with and without disability and their understanding of message in the PSA selected for the study.

Keywords: public service advertisements, gender, disability, accessibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2025 Gender Stereotypes in the Media Content as an Obstacle for Elimination of Discrimination against Women in the Republic of Serbia

Authors: Mirjana Dokmanovic

Abstract:

The main topic of this paper is the analysis of the presence of gender stereotypes in the media content in the Republic of Serbia with respect to the state commitments to eliminate discrimination against women. The research methodology included the analysis of the media content of six daily newspapers and two magazines on the date of 28 December 2015 and the analysis of the reality TV show programs in 2015 from gender perspective. The methods of the research has also included a desk research and a qualitative analysis of the available data, statistics, policy papers, studies, and reports produced by the government, the Ministry of Culture and Information, the Regulatory Body for Electronic Media, the Press Council, the associations of media professionals, the independent human rights bodies, and civil society organizations (CSOs). As a State Signatory to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Republic of Serbia has adopted numerous measures in this field, including the Law on Equality between Sexes and the national gender equality strategies. Special attention has been paid to eliminating gender stereotypes and prejudices in the media content and portraying of women. This practice has been forbidden by the Law on Electronic Media, the Law on Public Information and Media, the Law on Public Service Broadcasting and the Bylaw on the Protection of Human Rights in the Provision of Media Services. Despite these commitments, there has not been achieved progress regarding eliminating gender stereotypes in the media content. The research indicates that the media perpetuate traditional gender roles and patriarchal patterns. Female politicians, entrepreneurs, academics, scientists, and engineers have been very rarely portrayed in the media. On the other side, women are in their focus as celebrities, singers, and actresses. Women are underrepresented in the pages related to politics and economy, while they are mostly present in the cover stories related to show-business, health care, family and household matters. Women are three times more than men identified on the basis of their family status, as mothers, wives, daughters, etc. Hate speech, misogyny, and violence against women are often present in the reality TV shows. The abuse of women and their bodies in advertising is still widely present. The cases of domestic violence are still presented with sensationalism, although there has been achieved progress in portraying victims of domestic violence with respect and dignity. The issues related to gender equality and the position of the vulnerable groups of women, such as Roma women or rural women, are not visible in the media. This research, as well as warnings of women’s CSOs and independent human rights bodies, indicates the necessity to implement legal and policy measures in this field consistently and with due diligence. The aim of the paper is to contribute eliminating gender stereotypes in the media content and advancing gender equality.

Keywords: discrimination against women, gender roles, gender stereotypes, media, misogyny, portraying women in the media, prejudices against women, Republic of Serbia

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2024 Gender of the Infant and Interpersonal Relationship Correlates of Postpartum Depression among Women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Humaira Mujeeb, Farah Qadir

Abstract:

The present study aimed to explore the association between interpersonal relationship and postpartum depression with a special focus on gender of the infant among women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The research was quantitative in nature. It was a correlation study with a cross-sectional study design. The target population was women between six weeks to six months after the delivery of a baby. The sample size of 158 women has been computed by using G*Power (3.0.10 version). The sample was taken through quota sampling technique which was used to gather data according to the specifically predefined groups (79 women with female infants and 79 women with male infants). The sample was selected non-randomly according to the fixed quota. A protocol which had demographic and interpersonal relationship variables alongside with the Urdu version Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to collect the relevant data. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software package. A statistically significant association between the attachment with husband in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression has been found. The association between the husband’s emotional and physical support in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression had also been found significant. In case of women with a male infant, the association between support of in-laws and postpartum depression is statistically significant. An association between the violence/discrimination based on the basis of infant's gender in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression is also found. These findings points out that when studying the correlates of postpartum depression, it is imperative to carry out an analysis in the context of gender by considering gender of the infant especially in societies where strict gender preferences exists.

Keywords: infant, gender, attachment, husband, in-laws, support, violence, discrimination, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Gilgit, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
2023 Employment Discrimination on Civil Servant Recruitment

Authors: Li Lei, Jia Jidong

Abstract:

Employment right is linked to the people’s livelihood in our society. As a most important and representative part in the labor market, the employment of public servants is always taking much attention. But the discrimination in the employment of public servants has always existed and, to become a controversy in our society. The paper try to discuss this problem from four parts as follows: First, the employment of public servants has a representative status in our labor market. The second part is about the discrimination in the employment of public servants. The third part is about the right of equality and its significance. The last part is to analysis the legal predicament about discrimination in the employment of public servants in China.

Keywords: discrimination, employment of public servants, right of labor, law

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2022 Perceived Ethnic Discrimination, Aggression, and School Connectedness among Adolescents in Finland

Authors: Isik Z. Ulubas, Kaj Bjorkqvist

Abstract:

The relationships between perceived ethnic discrimination, peer aggression and school connectedness are being examined among 1,000 adolescents in Ostrobothnia, Finland with an online questionnaire. The study aims at investigating perceived ethnic discrimination in school environment by peers and teachers, and within society in general. Six types of aggressive behavior are measured: physical, verbal, indirect, and cyber aggression, in addition to both verbal and physical sexual harassment. High perceived ethnic discrimination is expected to be related with high aggression and low school connectedness. Adolescents who have special diet and clothing because of their cultural or religious background are expected to score higher on perceived ethnic discrimination and lower school connectedness. Adolescents who have lower domestic language skills (Finnish/Swedish) are expected to show lower school connectedness and higher perceived ethnic discrimination.

Keywords: adolescents, aggression, ethnic discrimination, school connectedness

Procedia PDF Downloads 29