Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: brahminical patriarchy

51 Boundary Crossings: Brahmanical Patriarchy, Power, and Sexual Violence in COVID-19 in Odisha, India

Authors: Saraswati Suna

Abstract:

The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic and the subsequent lockdown have significantly impacted India's political, structural, and economic systems and a rising gap between the rich and the disadvantaged, upper and lower caste. For Dalit women, such forms of subjugation were followed by socioeconomic uncertainty due to the pandemic's economic shutdown and labour oppressions. Dalit women have been the victims of the most oppression among the nation's underprivileged groups. Dalit women undergo systemic oppression at the hands of the state, caste, class, gender, and religious hegemons historically. Dalit women hold a subordinate position within the gender to their male counterparts and caste to their upper-caste counterparts. This paper examines how Brahminical patriarchy and state power severely affected Dalit/Adivasi women during COVID-19 in Odisha, India. In order to understand caste-based sexual violence, a total of five cases have been analysed from newspapers. Findings revealed that Covid-19 appears to have a significant physical, psychological, and economic impact on Dalit women. The intention of sexual harassment and rape perpetrated by upper caste men is to maintain power and patriarchal culture in society. Dalit women are economically, socially, and culturally marginalised, which effectively exacerbates the sense of impunity by perpetrators of violence against Dalit women. This issue requires special attention to end atrocities against Dalit women. Dalit women become the target of rape, sexual assault, and murder. Sexual violence against Dalit women cannot be fully explained without linkage to caste, gender, and power. Dominant caste comes through caste privilege-socio-economic and politically; these factors contribute to sexual violence against Dalit women. The findings revealed that state police manipulate sexual violence, and in so doing, they create and deny access to both services to get justice. This article has argued that understanding Brahminical culture and the legal impacts of state police on Dalit women's identity requires a nuanced analysis.

Keywords: COVID-19, dalit women, sexual violence, brahminical patriarchy, power

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50 Bound By Patriarchy: Women’s Experience of Internal Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Fouzia Mannan, Deepa Joshi

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Millions of Bangladeshis move from low-income agrarian villages to the country’s urban landscape with the hope to gain from the rapidly-growing middle-income urban, industrial future. However, the economic gains are mostly offset by new forms of extreme depravity, indignity, and inequality. Nonetheless, many scholars report unique gendered gains through migration - the rupture of traditional, entrenched inequalities by gender, providing women not only reliable incomes but also the opportunity to re-negotiate gendered roles, responsibilities and identities. In this study, we present the reflections of ten long-term urban migrant women in Dhaka city: of their gains, their losses as well as their aspirations for the future. Our findings show the incredibly high costs of a migration that is induced by desperate rural poverty. Further, we find that patriarchy persists - within the often 'kutcha' walls of urban low-income homes to the nature of so-called economic opportunities - in the constant intertwining of capitalism, globalization, and patriarchy. Caught in between, women have little choice but to cope with these new vulnerabilities by relying on the very norms and boundaries established by patriarchy and by recreating patriarchy to celebrate the (if) gains from displacement and migration.

Keywords: gender, internal migration, patriarchy, urbanization

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49 Patriarchy and Clearance Rates of Sexual Victimization: A Multilevel Analysis

Authors: Margaret Schmuhl, Michelle Cubellis

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Violence against women (VAW) is a widespread social problem affecting nearly two million women in the United States each year. Recently, feminist criminologists have sought to examine patriarchy as a guiding framework for understanding violence against women. Literature on VAW often examines measures of structural gender equality, often overlooking ideological patriarchy which is necessary for structural inequality to remain unchallenged. Additionally, empirical literature generally focuses on extreme forms of VAW, rape, and femicide, often neglecting more common types of violence. This literature, under the theoretical guidance of the Liberal, Radical, and Marxist feminist traditions, finds mixed support for the relationship of patriarchy and VAW. Explanations for these inconsistencies may include data availability, and the use of different operationalizations of structural patriarchy. Research is needed to examine fuller operationalizations of patriarchy in social institutions and to extend this theoretical framework to the criminal justice response to VAW (i.e., clearance rates). This study examines sexual violence clearance rates under the theoretical guidance of these feminist traditions using incident- and county-level data from National Incident Based Reporting System and other sources in multilevel modelling. The findings suggest mixed support for the feminist hypotheses and that patriarchy and gender equality differentially affect arrest clearance rates and clearance through exceptional means for sexual violence.

Keywords: clearance rates, gender equality, multilevel modelling, patriarchy, sexual victimization, violence against women

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48 Patriarchy and Gender Discrimination as seen in the Novels of Ahdaf Soueif’s In the Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002)

Authors: Nagwa Soliman

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Women for centuries have undergone gender discrimination under the pretext of patriarchy which is engraved in the culture and tradition of some societies. It is important to highlight that this condition has been encoded by the male gender to dominate and manipulate women. It is therefore necessary to draw attention to this important obstacle that stands in the way of women’s achievement of their full potential and humanity in the face of these cultural traditions. The appropriate style that was chosen for this literary analysis is a qualitative research method that relies on the feminist technique using Freud’s psychological theories. This article explores patriarchy and gender discrimination as portrayed in Ahdaf Soueif’s In The Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002). It could be argued that those two novels describe a society that is feminist, patriarchal, and gender discriminatory. Moreover, it is important to assert that patriarchy and gender discrimination are part of the system’s social order which compels the female characters to adjust to society’s norms and conventions. This social order is supported by traditional and cultural masculine attitudes and results in sustaining gender inequality, female stereo typing and patriarchy which suppress women’s beliefs and dreams.

Keywords: gender discrimination, patriarchy, feminism, stereotype

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47 Debating the Role of Patriarchy in the Incidence of Gender-Based Violence in Jordan: Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Nour Daoud

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Patriarchy continues to thrive in Jordan where male-controlled values are still entrenched in a society that is suffering from upsetting percentages of Gender-based Violence (GBV). This paper is a systematic review of the literature with an attempt to evaluate and interpret all available research evidence relevant to determining the extent to which patriarchy contributes to the occurrence, re-occurrence, and continuation of GBV in Jordan. Twenty-one (21) full-text articles were selected for the in-depth review due to meeting the established criteria for inclusion. 81 percent of articles included primary data while 19 percent included secondary data. Analysis of data was based on a specific extraction form that was developed using the ‘Excel’ to respond to the main goal of the paper. Interpretation of data was in light of the theorization of different feminism schools on the relationship between patriarchy and gender-based violence. Findings show that 33 percent of the selected articles affirm that the patriarchal standpoint best explains the role of patriarchy in the incidence of gender-based violence in Jordan under its three main themes (Honor-based Violence, Intimate Partner Violence and Street Harassment). Apart from the limited number of articles that were found debating this argument and the low percentage of articles that acknowledged the role of patriarchy in the incidence of gender-based violence in Jordan, this paper breaks the ice to implement future empirical studies on this subject. Also, it is an invitation for all Jordanian women to unite their efforts in order to eradicate all forms of victimization against them.

Keywords: honor-based violence, intimate partner violence, middle-east, street harassment

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46 Challenges of Women Leadership in a Patriarchy Society: Implications for Development of African Women

Authors: Catherine Oluyemo

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In Africa, patriarchy has manifested itself in the socio-cultural, political, economic and legal institutions. The decree of the father as the male head of the family has contributed to the powerlessness of women in African nations. To buttress this perception, in his work Meno, Plato made a declaration in the platonic dialogue that the desirable quality of a man should be the capacity to administer the state, and in the administration of it to benefit his friends and harm his enemies; and he must also be careful not to suffer harm himself. Furthermore, he said: a woman's good worth may also be easily described as ordering her house, keep what is indoors, and obey her husband. The works of Aristotle portrayed women as morally, intellectually, and physically inferior to men; they saw women as the property of men; claimed that women's role in society was to reproduce and serve men in the household; and saw male domination of women as natural and virtuous. This has been sustained for ages and is incessantly impinging on the involvement of women in African leadership positions. The purpose of this paper is to make sense of the concept of patriarchy in relations to women participation in Africa leadership, and its challenges in the participation of women in the leadership positions of Africa. It seeks to discover what women should do to make their voices heard, to participate in leadership arrangements so as to actualize their potentials in contributing to the development of Africa.

Keywords: women, leadership, patriarchy, development, actualize, potentials

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45 Athena Parthenos: Athenian Cultural Imperialism and the Patriarchy

Authors: Kaia Brose

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The Parthenon occupies a dominating position on top of the ancient Acropolis of Athens, giving the Greek world a clear view of the ancient city’s patron goddess, Athena. The technically refined nature of the fifth century B.C. temple, combined with the colossal statue of Athena Parthenos, has been considered a monumental tribute to Athenian hubris. The Parthenon specifically calls on Athena’s main personage as a goddess who creates and advances culture, a notion the Athenians specifically portray in her epithet as a parthenos or a virgin. This paper builds off of the modern research of R. F. Hooker, C. J. Herington and Susan Deacy, who discuss the evolution of Athena and distinguishes the significance of the Parthenos epithet attached to Athena on the Acropolis. The use of Parthenos suggests the Athenians intentionally portrayed a virginal Athena to reaffirm the presence of the patriarchy within the Greek world of the fifth century, specifically seen in the scene of Athena’s birth on the Parthenon. The suggestive subjugation of Athena to the patriarchy serves to establish a patriarchal presence within the Acropolis while simultaneously exposing the rise of Athenian hubris following the Persian War. Various elements of the Parthenon, from its pediments to the monumental statue inside, show Athena as a goddess reduced to mere womanhood in the presence of the patriarchy, a function that emphasizes the Athenian hubris displayed throughout the Parthenon.

Keywords: ancient history, greek mythology, women studies, religion

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44 Women's Sexual Experience in Pakistan: Associations of Patriarchy and Psychological Distress

Authors: Sana Tahir, Haya Fatimah

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Sexuality is a social construct which is considered as the most confidential affair among individuals where women tend to refrain themselves more from sexually explicit behavior than men. Patriarchy has an elevated influence on the expression of female sexuality. While women’s sexual experiences are suppressed men are entitled to pleasure themselves according to their desire. The purpose of this study is to explore how the internalization of patriarchy affects women’s sexuality. Similarly, it was investigated how women sexuality is associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 100(age 20-40) married women. Participants were selected through a combination of convenient and snowball sampling. Women were asked to provide data regarding patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and DAS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyze was conducted to examine the nature of the relationship between patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and psychological distress in married women. There is a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and patriarchal beliefs (r=-.391, p<.001). There also lies a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and depression, anxiety, stress (r=-.359, p<.001) (r=.301, p=.002) (r=-.221, p=.027). The results reveal that women with strong patriarchal beliefs have less sexual awareness in terms of sexual consciousness, sexual monitoring, sexual assertiveness and sexual appeal consciousness. Similarly, women with strong patriarchal beliefs and less sexual awareness have high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: female sexuality, patriarchy, psychological distress, sexual awareness

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43 Violence and Aggression of Women in Native Canada: A Postcolonial Feminist Study of The Rez Sisters and Rose by Tomson Highway

Authors: Sonia Sharma

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In a multicultural country like Canada, Colonialism is still maintained in the form of Violence and Oppression. The Aboriginals are persistently facing Oppression and Marginalization in their own land owing to Colonial presence. Women in particular are getting most affected. They are facing double burden of patriarchy and their being Native. Tomson Highway, the Cree Canadian playwright has deftly exposed the theme of women violence and empowerment. In his plays (The Rez Sisters and Rose) taken from his Rez Septology, he has depicted Aboriginal women’s predicaments and sufferings. But simultaneously also talks about their empowerment and aggression refuting and fighting back to patriarchy and oppression. The Rez Sisters portrays women with shattering images and as a victim of both the male dominating society and the system. It represents the painful odyssey of the seven women facing several hardships. Rose represents women in entirely different light. They are shown more assertive and empowered raising their voice against the Violence and Discrimination meted out to them. The Aboriginal women in Canada are facing dual burden of Colonialism and Patriarchy which indeed is a Colonial construct. This paper is an attempt to explore the above facets Tomson Highway’s The Rez Sisters and Rose.

Keywords: violence, racism, discrimination, postcolonialism feminism

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42 A Philosophical Study of Men's Rights Discourses in Light of Feminism

Authors: Michael Barker

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Men’s rights activists are largely antifeminism. Evaluation of men’s rights discourses, however, shows that men’s rights’ goals would be better achieved by working with feminism. Discussion of men’s rights discourses, though, is prone to confusion because there is no commonly used men’s rights language. In the presentation ‘male sexism’, ‘matriarchy’ and ‘masculism’ will be unpacked as part of a suggested men’s rights language. Once equipped with a men’s rights vocabulary, sustained philosophical assessment of the extent to which several categories of male disadvantages are wrongful will be offered. Following this, conditions that cause each category of male sexism will be discussed. It shall be argued that male sexism is caused more so by matriarchy than by patriarchy or by feminism. In closing, the success at which various methods address the categories of male sexism will be contrasted. Ultimately, it will be shown that male disadvantages are addressed more successfully by methods that work with, than against, feminism.

Keywords: gender studies, feminism, patriarchy, men’s rights, male sexism, matriarchy, masculism

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41 Patriarchy in Caste Society and Control over Women’s Sexuality in India

Authors: Renu Singh

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The caste system in Indian society plays an important role in subjugation of women. It creates divides and controls over women’s sexuality in various ways. This paper attempts to look into various modes in which the institution of caste makes some forms of sexuality as socially “acceptable” norms, while deems others as obscene, immoral and against social ethos. Based on a review of existing literature in this area this paper attempts to understand the notion of sexuality in Indian context. It tries to understand how the emergence of norms and values of sexual behaviour has been entwined with the evolution of caste system and the subjugation of many sections of Indian society. It also attempts to trace the internalisation of patriarchal values in Indian society, and the role played by the colonial rulers in creating and maintaining stringent division of space into public and private ones. It is argued here that brahmanical patriarchy, which is a unique phenomenon of the Indian Subcontinent, plays a crucial role in subjugating and controlling women in general and their sexuality in particular. It also creates a divide among women of different castes. Furthermore, the process of colonisation played an important role in shaping the discourse of sexuality in its present form. There were contradictions as well as consensus between the colonial rulers over the questions of regulation of the private domain, as in introducing reform legislation in the nineteenth century informed the debate on sexuality in postcolonial India. The process of emergence of the dichotomous notions of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ sexuality, and the resistance to any ‘deviation’ from the ‘normal’ sexuality is located, not merely in the ‘passive’ evolution of society, but in the actual politics of it.

Keywords: caste, control, sexuality, regulation, brahmanical patriarchy, India

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40 Disrupting Patriarchy: Transforming Gender Oppression through Dialogue between Women and Men at a South African University

Authors: S. van Schalkwyk

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On international levels and across disciplines gender scholars have argued that patriarchal scripts of masculinity and femininity are harmful as they negatively impact constructions of selfhood and relations between women and men. Patriarchal ideologies serve as a scaffolding for dominance and subordination and fuel violence against women. Toxic masculinity—social discourses of men as violent, unemotional, and sexually dominant—are embedded in South African culture and are rooted in the high rates of gender violence occurring in the country. Finding strategies that can open up space for the interrogation of toxic masculinity is crucial in order to disrupt the destructive consequences of patriarchy in educational and social contexts. The University of the Free State (UFS) in South Africa in collaboration with the non-profit organization Gender Reconciliation International conducted a year-long series of workshops with male and female students. The aim of these workshops was to facilitate healing between men and women through collective dialogue processes. Drawing on a collective biography methodology outlined by feminist poststructuralists, this paper explores the impact of these workshops on gender relations. Findings show that the students experienced significant psychological connections with others during these dialogues, through which they began to interrogate their own gendered conditioning and harmful patriarchal assumptions and practices. This paper enhances insights into the possibilities for disrupting patriarchy in South African universities through feminist collective research efforts.

Keywords: collective biography methodology, South Africa, toxic masculinity, transforming gender oppression, violence against women

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39 Analysis of Subordination: The Reproductive Sphere

Authors: Aneesa Shafi

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Reproduction is a complex term in a setting where it is continuously being shaped by epistemological shifts in knowledge. It denotes not just fertility, birth and childcare related practices but also the ideas that shape those practices. These ideas and practices figure into understandings of social and cultural renewal. Patriarchy continues to be a dominating force in the formation of these ideas and practices. Contemporary times are characterized by the resurgence of the whims of patriarchal politics in delineating the margins of women’s health care. This has further emboldened the struggle for reproductive rights on the global stage. The paper examines the subordination of the right to bodily autonomy of women within the ambit of their reproductive rights. Reproductive rights are recognized human rights and women’s rights. Why these rights of women face stiff opposition is established, as is the structure that creates hurdles to their enjoyment. The negotiation of this structure in the everyday life through women’s agency is also established. The reproductive sphere includes not just the process of reproduction but also social reproduction- domestic work, spheres of production and reproduction, population and birth (control) issues.

Keywords: patriarchy, women, reproduction, gender

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38 Female Dis-Empowerment in Contemporary Zimbabwe: A Re-Look at Shona Writers’ Vision of the Factors and Solutions

Authors: Godwin Makaudze

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The majority of women in contemporary Zimbabwe continue to hold marginalised and insignificant positions in society and to be accorded negative and stereotyped images in literature. In light of this, government and civic organisations and even writers channel many resources, time, and efforts towards the emancipation of the female gender. Using the Africana womanist and socio-historical literary theories and focussing on two post-colonial novels, this paper re-engages the dis-empowerment of women in contemporary Zimbabwe, examining the believed causes and suggested solutions. The paper observes that the writers whip the already whipped by blaming patriarchy, African men and cultural practices as the underlying causes of such a sorry state of affairs while at the same time celebrating war against all these, as well as education, unity among women, Christianity and single motherhood as panaceas to the problem. The paper concludes that the writers’ anger is misdirected as they have fallen trap to the very popular yet mythical victim-blame motif espoused by many writers who focus on Shona people’s problems.

Keywords: cultural practices, female dis-empowerment, patriarchy, Shona novel, solutions, Zimbabwe

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37 Divorce for Iranian-Canadian Women: A Life and Death Matter

Authors: Shila Khayambashi

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Iran’s long history of patriarchy, coupled with the devaluation of women’s rights after Iran’s Islamic revolution of 1979, has subjected Iranian women to different forms of domestic abuse. Upon their migration, however, many Iranian women end their abusive relationship by filing for divorce. In many instances, leaving the abusive environment exposes these Iranian women to more dangerous circumstances. Iranian diasporic community has witnessed several domestically-charged fatalities in the past few years after the abused wives either ended their violent marriages or attempted to establish some control in their marital relationships. While the casualties have been reported in Iranian new media and press, the Canadian media failed to pay much attention to any of these cases. In this paper, I examine the post-migratory factors that encourage the abused Iranian women to leave their abusers after years of endurance. Additionally, I indicate the roles of organizational and governmental support for minority women who decide to terminate their violent relationships. I will also explore how the Canadian media outlets circumvent and ignore the cases of these minority victims.

Keywords: women's right, Divorce, Patriarchy, Domestic Abuse

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36 A Critique of Contemporary Sexual Liberation: A Third Way Analysis

Authors: Sydelle Barreto

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Sexual liberation has been thought of as a movement, an idea, and an antithesis of material oppression. Within feminism it has consistently resisted definition - different feminist schools of thought had entirely different constructions of what liberated feminine sexuality could look like and how we might get there. This paper will critique the current definition of sexual liberation as being limited and carceral in its perspectives of sexual assault and extremely reductive in its imaginings of sexual liberation. The ultimate goal of this assessment is to potentially outline what true sexual liberation might look like in a way that is inclusive but not ignorant of the realities of the patriarchy. The first critique of sexual liberation included in the paper centers around the limits of consent, carceral feminism and sexual subjectivity. The argument will build off the traditionally sex-negative critiques of consent as being limited in scope by explaining how a lack of nuance is even more dangerous to victims of sexual violations. The discussion will also expand an interrogant of consent to an interrogation of wantedness and desire. If we understand that critiquing the conditions of consent is important, we must also critique the way patriarchy and compulsory sexuality have affected desire. Using the aforementioned concept of compulsory sexuality, the paper will argue that while sexual liberation has begun to include queer and transgender individuals, it is still overwhelmingly allonormative. Sex positivity and its opponents both fail to include asexuality. This ultimately leads to a conflation of sexual liberation with genuine material liberation. Just as we cannot divorce our constructions of sexual liberation from the realities of the patriarchy and rape culture, we should consider compulsory sexuality as its own system of social regulation. The conclusion will begin to construct an alternative vision of sexual liberation, leveraging concepts of sexual subjectivity, including a rejection of carceral feminism as a response to sexual violence, and finally, leading to the beginnings of a deconstruction of compulsory sexuality. The paper concludes with a vision of sexual liberation that does not confuse itself with material liberation or mere sexual oppression, but rather a key way stops on the road to constructing our most authentic sexual selves.

Keywords: feminism, sexual assault, sexual liberation, consent

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35 Reconciling Religion and Feminism: A Case Study of Muslim Women's Rights Activism in India

Authors: Qazi Sarah Rasheed

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Feminism and religion have been regarded as opposing binaries. The reason being that religion is regarded as a tool to legitimize the patriarchal control over women, and therefore, it stands in contrast with the basic feminist principle of gender equity. Hence, the issue of incompatibility between religion and gender parity is often discussed by the feminist as well as secular/liberal discourses, but the feminist discourse has suffered a serious backlash in the recent times for it alienates those women who want to liberate but not at the expense of their religious identity. Though in the Western feminist thought, religion is regarded as a tool of patriarchy that promotes women’s suppression, but for many women, religion can be a source of liberation that advances their rights. The feminists in general, fail to realize that religion, as a social phenomenon may not necessarily promote a series of dogmatic doctrines which are inevitably retrogressive or instinctively status-quoist especially when it comes to the social reforms affecting gender orders. The traditional institution of religion could be instrumental to provide what the women in contemporary situation demand. This paper highlights how the Muslim women in India negotiate and mediate this opposition in an Islamic context. To advance the socio-legal recognition of women’s rights, they question the male privilege and patriarchy in a meaningful way without challenging their Islamic doctrines and try to build a feminist consciousness from within religion.

Keywords: feminism, Islam, Muslim women's rights, religious identity

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34 New Trends in Pakistani Cinema: Muslim Women, Cinematic Struggle and the Global World

Authors: Sana Zia

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One of the most important questions for research on Muslim women's representation is the relationship between Islam and women’s situation in Islamic countries. In this context, certain questions can be raised like is it possible to analyze women’s situation in Islamic countries like Pakistan? Or what is the relationship between Islam and patriarchy? So this paper will examine all these questions by analysing Muslim women's representation in Pakistani Cinema. It is also significant to note that despite political and religious constraints in Muslim countries, in particular, Pakistan, women have not only been part of the film industry for long, but they also have chosen films as their feminist tool to question and expose the effects of patriarchy, religious fundamentalism, and gender-specific socio-cultural oppression. The religious-cultural ethos that could include gender-specific restrictions and limitations on their creative expression as Muslim women in an Islamic society. A new wave of Pakistani cinema is pivoting around strong Muslim female characters and opened up a new thought about Islamic women.Their contributions and success through this medium emphasized the need to investigate the significance and effectiveness of contemporary cinema as a tool of resistance and cross-cultural communication in a Muslim society. So this research can also provide a better understanding about Islam that needs to be modernized and reclaimed from the clutches of fundamentalism and extremism. This paper thus investigates the interrelation of women's representation and Pakistani cinema by analysing two films ‘Bol: To speak up’ and ‘Dukhter: Daughter’. The feminist analysis of these films not only helps to understand the new trends and dimensions in representation of Muslim women in Pakistani cinema, but this also helps to raise awareness globally regarding the depiction of Muslim women. So to foreground the above mentioned discussion, the films under study helps to evaluate their significance, the role they play towards activism, resistance, and global awareness in terms of what could be termed as a Muslim woman. The paper thus provides a valuable insight that how and why Islam is being used as a mechanism to merge social, political and economic factors to define the rights and conditions of Pakistani Muslim women and highlight the cinematic struggle of the film maker’s which by using films as an awareness tool are going to highlight the problems and issues of Muslim women in the global world.

Keywords: Muslim women, Pakistani cinema, patriarchy, religious fundamentalism

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33 Traveling Abroad and the Construction of British Identity and Culture in Selected Women Writers: Lady Elizabeth Craven's A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Embassy Letters (1716-1718)

Authors: Raja Al-Khalili

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Traveling abroad for British citizens in the eighteenth century was usually performed for two reasons. The first major form was for administering the expanding realm of the British Empire and its need for officials in governing the natives and facilitating the work of business companies. The other form of travel was for pleasure and involved a manifestation of wealth. This form of travel was a prelude for the modern industry of tourism and usually involved a tour of Europe and the Mediterranean. In both forms of travel the British encountered a myriad of cultures. Travel had fostered a sense of pride and confirmed an ethnocentric view of British superiority, but it also brought a critical self-examination of belonging to a colonial empire that thrives on the weaknesses of other nations. Women writers in particular have sought in the travels a kind of self-exploration of the nature of social patriarchy in a diversity of cultures. Both Lady Elizabeth Craven in A Journey through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in Embassy Letters (1716-1718) have observed the culture of the Ottomans and then pursued to reflect on the social role of women in England.

Keywords: travel writing, Elizabeth Craven, Lady Mary Wortley, patriarchy

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32 African Women in Power: An Analysis of the Representation of Nigerian Business Women in Television

Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Valerie Oguafor

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Women generally have been categorized and placed under the chain of business industry, sometimes highly regarded and other times merely. The social construction of womanhood does not in all sense support a woman going into business, let alone succeed in it because it is believed that it a man’s world. In a typical patriarchal setting, a woman is expected to know nothing more domestic roles. For some women, this is not the case as they have been able to break these barriers to excel in business amidst these social setting and stereotypes. This study examines media representation of Nigerians business women, using content analysis of TV interviews as media text, framing analysis as an approach in qualitative methodology, The study further aims to analyse media frames of two Nigerian business women: FolorunshoAlakija, a business woman in the petroleum industry with current net worth 1.1 billion U.S dollars, emerging as the richest black women in the world 2014. MosunmolaAbudu, a media magnate in Nigeria who launched the first Africa’s global black entertainment and lifestyle network in 2013. This study used six predefined frames: the business woman, the myth of business women, the non-traditional woman, women in leading roles, the family woman, the religious woman, and the philanthropist woman to analyse the representation of Nigerian business women in the media. The analysis of the aforementioned frames on TV interviews with these women reveals that the media perpetually reproduces existing gender stereotype and do not challenge patriarchy. Women face challenges in trying to succeed in business while trying to keep their homes stable. This study concludes that the media represent and reproduce gender stereotypes in spite of the expectation of empowering women. The media reduces these women’s success insignificant rather than a role model for women in society.

Keywords: representation of business women in the media, business women in Nigeria, framing in the media, patriarchy, women's subordination

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31 The Science of Successful Intimate Relationship in China: A Discourse Analytic Examination of Sex and Relationships Advice in Ayawawa’s Book

Authors: Hanlei Yang

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As a kind of popular culture in modern China, advice book on intimate relationship is turning into an important and controversial site with conflicts among neoliberalism, authoritative socialism, market-oriented principles, the science of successful sex and relationship, cosmopolitan notions of nuclear families, and the revitalization of Confucian conservatism and patriarchy. Accelerated modernization and marketization has contributed to great changes in China’s culture and social relations, which accordingly reconceptualizes and reconstructs family structures and moral ethics, particularly urban middle-class nuclear families. To comprehend the meaning of advice book fad in moral and social order, this research proposes to (i) understand the implication of Ayawawa through discourse analysis and how she mobilizes rhetorical devices and cultural resources to present a persuasive and scientific method of managing intimate relationship, (ii) examine the critical role of neoliberalism, post-feminism, and Confucian patriarchy assumed by Ayawawa in her books, (iii) explore how Ayawawa and her fans engage in establishing a model of intimate relationship and sexual subjectivity ordered by neoliberalism, class identity and authoritative socialism. Finally, this research argues that such new fad of a cultural phenomenon is gradually completed in the process of cooperation and negotiation of the state, commercial institutions, and intellectual elite agents. It helps to further learn about (i) the routine life under the influence of neoliberalism and modern hegemony, (ii) the perplexing relationship between China's indigenous cultural forms, global socio-economic and cultural influences in the late modern era.

Keywords: cultural study, intimate relationship, culture sociology, gender study

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30 Disclosing a Patriarchal Society: A Socio-Legal Study on the Indigenous Women's Involvement in Natural Resources Management in Kasepuhan Cirompang

Authors: Irena Lucy Ishimora, Eva Maria Putri Salsabila

Abstract:

The constellation on Indonesian Legal System that varies shows a structural injustice – as a result of patriarchy – exists from the biggest range as a country to the smallest such as a family. Women in their lives, carry out excessive responsibilities in the community. However, the unequal positions between men and women in the society restrain women to fulfill their constructed role. Therefore, increasing the chance for women to become the victim of structural injustice. The lack of authority given to women and its effects can be seen through a case study of the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s involvement in natural resources management. The decision to make the Mount Halimun-Salak as a National Park and the expansion itself did not involve nor consider the existence of indigenous people (Kasepuhan Ciromopang) – especially the women’s experience regarding natural resources management – has been significantly impacting the fulfillment of the indigenous women’s rights. Moreover, the adat law that still reflects patriarchy, made matters worse because women are restricted from expressing their opinion. The writers explored the experience of Cirompang indigenous women through in-depth interviews with them and analyzed it with several theories such as ecofeminism, woman’s access to land and legal pluralism. This paper is important to show how the decision and expansion of the National Park reduced the rights of access to land, natural resources, expressing an opinion, and participating in development. Reflecting on the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s conditions on natural resources management, this paper aims to present the implications of the regulations that do not acknowledge Indigenous women’s experience and the proposed solutions. First, there should be an integration between the law regarding indigenous people and traditional rights in a regulation to align the understanding of indigenous people and their rights. Secondly, Indonesia as a country that’s rich with diversity should ratify the ILO Convention no 169 to reaffirm the protection of Indigenous people’s rights. Last, considering the position of indigenous women that still experienced unjustness in the community, the government and NGOs must collaborate to provide adequate assistance for them.

Keywords: Cirompang indigenous women, indigenous women’s rights, structural injustice, women access to land

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29 A Detailed Study of Sexism in Mizo Language

Authors: H. C. Laltleipuii, Lalruatdiki Siakeng

Abstract:

Mizo is a language spoken by the natives of Mizoram in North-East India. The Mizo society is a patriarchal society and hence is encumbered with trails of sexism in its language. Sexist language expresses discrimination on the basis of gender. While women are primarily affected, it is not however limited to just the female gender. This paper focuses on the sexist language that reflects the discrimination of women in the male-dominated, male-centered society of the Mizo. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize with details, sexism that can be found in three aspects of language: in the naming of animate and inanimate objects or words in general, in the idioms and phrases and proverbs. This study will also take into account the gender neutral terms that are in use in the language.

Keywords: gender, Mizo, patriarchy, sexism

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28 Trapped in Hegemonic Binaries: Performing the Body

Authors: Bitopi Dutta

Abstract:

This paper attempts to understand the constructs of binaries while taking into account the politics of the body. It delves into how these constructs get fashioned and recreated while performing the same across normative and non-normative discourses. While it may be almost mundane and commonplace to see the performance of body within binary constructs across the normative discourses, this is to a great extent also true for those queer discourses that have challenged the conventional/normative. With a queer feminist perspective, the paper challenges this performativity while simultaneously engaging with the subtle nuances of blurring the borders of gender markers. The problem with this polarization within binary constructs is that there remains a tendency to reinstate patriarchy within queerness. To substantiate this argument further, the paper will draw from narratives and accounts of identities with alternate sexualities and genders. The paper concludes with problematising this hegemony within queer discourses locating the question of acceptance and visibility of fluidities.

Keywords: binary, body, gender, identity, performativity, queer

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27 The Popularity and the Fantasy in Tiny Times

Authors: Shu Hui

Abstract:

From 2013 to 2015, Tiny Times series gained huge commercial success. However, compared with the successful box office, these films received severe public criticism. Some scholars refer to these films as trash (lan pian) because of the fragment narrative, the non-professional photographing, and advocating money warship. Differing from other popular films, the popularity of Tiny Times series is actually generated from the fantasy that presented on screen instead of good stories or photographs. The fantasy is desired by the public and then formulates its popularity. Based on Jacques Lacan’s fantasy theory, the paper aims to explain what kind of fantast the films present. Then, according to hegemony theory, the paper will illustrate why the public desires such a fantasy and how the fantasy causes the criticism as well. The dominant ideology (patriarchy) conspires with or manipulates consumerism, which brings about the female's fantasy in Tiny Times. Because consumerism interrogates Confucianism, the film received public criticism for highlighting the former.

Keywords: fantasy, desire, ideology, popularity

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26 Gender Equality and the Politics of Presence among the Maasai in Kenya

Authors: Shillah Memusi

Abstract:

Underrepresentation of women in governance structures is a global phenomenon, with patriarchal considerations being among the main, if not the top, reason for this in Sub Saharan Africa. This paper demonstrates that gender norms and informal rules have perpetuated a culture of stereotypical gender roles that have limited women’s public participation and leadership in society. To achieve this, the paper explores barriers to women’s political engagement, and how these are navigated in the face of gender equality laws. Situated in Kenya’s Maasai community, the paper investigates the influence of set laws on the increased involvement of women from the patriarchal community in the political economy. It gives special attention to the intersectionality of formal and informal laws and the subsequent interpretation and implementation of gender equality. The paper then concludes by demonstrating the benefits of exploring alternative gender equality pathways, as informed by contextual realities of settings such as patriarchal communities.

Keywords: equality, Kenya, patriarchy, public participation, women

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25 The Rocketing Raise of Bride Price in the Rural China: Intimacy and Family Changes Brought by Rural Urban Migration

Authors: Lei Liu

Abstract:

This paper concerns on a special phenomenon of rocketing of bride’s price in rural China after the rural-urban labor migration nowadays. It provides a brief overview of three major prospective on marriage exchange, especially impose the local marriage market due to the post-migration economic environments. Then the author highlights on several factors that influence the rocketing raise of rural marriage gifts using both the primary data from census 2010 and the interviews from the field study, such as one-child policy and the unbalanced sex ratio with the familiar context parents used different strategies in raising their sons and daughters so as to best hold their own interests, causing inequality between females and males. Then this was broken by the independence of rural women and the phenomenon of cross-regional marriage after the free mobility of labor resource between rural areas and urban areas which gives women equal rights to choose their spouses together with some publicly policies that accelerate the decline of patriarchy. In the end, the author spells out a framework of migration influence on rural marriage for some theoretical and policy implications of the findings.

Keywords: rural-urban migration, gender stratification, rural China, bride price, marriage

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24 Battling with Patriarchy: Political Sexuality and Gender Democracy in Nigeria

Authors: Lenshie, Nsemba Edward

Abstract:

This paper examines political sexuality as an identity construct, which imparts on democratic practices globally. The manifestation of political sexuality reflect on the dynamics of social, economic, cultural and political relations among different gender affecting a number of issues, such as the questions of citizenship, poverty alleviation, property rights, ownership and inheritance, rights to sexual consent, polygamous marriage, governance and representation among other issues. This paper is concerned with the aspect of political participation among different genders in Nigeria. This paper posit that political sexuality is an outcome of ‘sexuality differences’, which seeks to glorify and gratify the superiority of a particular sexuality over another. Political sexuality, therefore, motivate and exacerbate socio-cultural, economic, and political struggles among different sexualities. The paper asserts further that majority of women have been discriminated, sexually harassed, and are often denied certain rights and privileges in Nigeria. A few number of women who have found themselves at the corridors of government have used the Beijing protocol on Women to demand for ‘affirmative action’ to expand their political space. It contends that the ‘affirmative action’ in Nigeria is far from achieving it throughout the country. The paper conclude that women require more than just a ‘self-rediscovery’ to assertively demand for a more and proper inclusion in Nigeria’s democratic process.

Keywords: gender democracy, identity, politics, political sexuality

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23 Demographic Characteristics as a Determinant of the use of Health Care Services: Case of Nsukka, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Beatrice Adeoye

Abstract:

Studies have associated social and demographic characteristics as strong determinants of utilization of health care services; however, not much has been done to explore the dynamics of these variables in Nigeria. This empirical study explores the link between demographic factors and the future use of health care services in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. A total of 543 respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. The findings of the study showed that majority (56.9%) of the respondents were female while 43.1% were male. More of the respondents were married (50.3%) while 41.80/0 of the respondents were between ages 26-35. Testing the demographic characteristics regarding where people will prefer to go first for treatment with multiple regression, It is only Sex as a demographic variable that indicates positive association for future occurrence to where people will prefer to go first for treatment with 0.08 significance. Age and education indicates no association considering their level of significance. This result shows that sex is one of the determinant factors of where and when people will go for treatment. This is pointing out the realities regarding African society where in the family setting, it is the father that dictates the cause of action. Also to buttress these findings, cross tabulating age with who determines where and when to go for treatment, findings show that majority (58.9%) within age 26-35 said their spouses decide on where and when to go for treatment. Findings showed that patriarchy still plays an important role in the utilization of health care delivery among the people studied.

Keywords: Demographic characters, Determinant, Health Care, treatment, self-medication, symptom,

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22 Gender Role Attitudes and Work-Life Balance among Dual-Earner Couples: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Tipu Sultan

Abstract:

The proposed research intends to explore the gender role attitudes and work-life balance among dual-earner couples in Pakistan. With the increase of female labor force participation in Pakistan, the trend of dual-earner couples has been increased than ever before. This new trend of dual-earner families has significantly affected the personal life of dual-earner couples. Due to major change in household structures, the traditions and the routine activities are in continuous transition. Balancing work and family life is more complex in the patriarchal society of Pakistan because of the social expectations of gender roles. A dichotomous behavioral reflection is being observed in Pakistani society. The one group of people having an egalitarian attitude are supporting the new gender roles of females, whereas the other group of people having a traditional mindset is still in the favor of patriarchy. Therefore, gender roles are re-evaluated, and it would be more interesting to raise questions on the interplay of new gender roles and work-life balance among dual-earners. The semi-structured interview guide will be utilized to explore gender role attitudes, ideal and in-practice gender roles, experiences of work-life imbalances/balances, possible strategies to create a balance between work and family life among dual-earner couples.

Keywords: dual-earner couples, gender role attitudes, Pakistan, work-life balance

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