Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: clarithromycin

9 Pharmacokinetic Study of Clarithromycin in Human Female of Pakistani Population

Authors: Atifa Mushtaq, Tanweer Khaliq, Hafiz Alam Sher, Asia Farid, Anila Kanwal, Maliha Sarfraz

Abstract:

The study was designed to assess the various pharmacokinetic parameters of a commercially available clarithromycin Tablet (Klaricid® 250 mg Abbot, Pakistan) in plasma sample of healthy adult female volunteers by applying a rapid, sensitive and accurate HPLC-UV analytical method. The human plasma samples were evaluated by using an isocratic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system of Sykam consisted of a pump with a column C18 column (250×4.6mn, 5µm) UV-detector. The mobile phase comprises of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (50 mM, pH 6.8, contained 0.7% triethylamine), methanol and acetonitrile (30:25:45, v/v/v) was delivered with injection volume of 20µL at flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection was performed at λmax 275 nm. By applying this method, important pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, Area under curve (AUC), half-life (t1/2), , Volume of distribution (Vd) and Clearance (Cl) were measured. The parameters of pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin were calculated by software (APO) pharmacological analysis. Maximum plasma concentrations Cmax 2.78 ±0.33 µg/ml, time to reach maximum concentration tmax 2.82 ± 0.11 h and Area under curve AUC was 20.14 h.µg/ml. The mean ± SD values obtained for the pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters observed in previous literature which emphasizes the need for dose adjustment of clarithromycin in Pakistani population.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetc, Clarothromycin, HPLC, Pakistan

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8 Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant

Authors: Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Ali M. Elgerbi

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance has become a global public-health problem, thus it is imperative that new antibiotics continue to be developed. Major problems are being experienced in human medicine from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, no new chemical class of antibiotics has been introduced into medicine in the past two decades. The aim of the current study presents experimental results that evaluate the capability of bio surfactant rhamnolipid on enhancing the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics. Serial dilutions of azithromycin and clarithromycin were prepared. A bacterial suspension (approximately 5 X 105 CFU) from an overnight culture in MSM was inoculated into 20 ml sterile test tube each containing a serial 10-fold dilution of the test antibiotic(s) in broth with or without 200 mgL-1 rhamnolipid. The tubes were incubated for 24 h with vigorous shaking at 37°C. Antimicrobial activity in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria pathogens and gram-positive bacteria were assessed using optical density technique. The results clearly demonstrated that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly improved the efficiency of both antibiotics. We hypothesized that the addition of rhamnolipid at low concentration, causes release of LPS which results in an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. This allows increased association of cells with hydrophobic antibiotics resulting in increased cytotoxicity rates.

Keywords: hydrophobic antibiotics, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, azithromycin, clarithromycin

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7 Evaluation of Diagnostic Values of Culture, Rapid Urease Test, and Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection and in vitro Effects of Various Antimicrobials against Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study, was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by culture, histology, and RUT (Rapid Urease Test) in gastric antrum biopsy samples taken from patients presented with dyspeptic complaints and to determine resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and metronidazole against the H. pylori strains by E-test. Material and Methods: A total of 278 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-July 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in biopsy samples was investigated by culture (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), and RUT(CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA). Antimicrobial resistance of isolates against amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was determined by E-test method (bioMerieux, France). As a gold standard in the diagnosis of H. pylori; it was accepted that the culture method alone was positive or both histology and RUT were positive together. Sensitivity and specificity for histology and RUT were calculated by taking the culture as a gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for culture were also calculated by taking the co-positivity of both histology and RUT as a gold standard. Results: H. pylori was detected in 140 of 278 of patients with culture and 174 of 278 of patients with histology in the study. H. pylori positivity was also found in 191 patients with RUT. According to the gold standard criteria, a false negative result was found in 39 cases by culture method, 17 cases by histology, and 8 cases by RUT. Sensitivity and specificity of the culture, histology, and RUT methods of the patients were 76.5 % and 88.3 %, 87.8 % and 63 %, 94.2 % and 57.2 %, respectively. Antibiotic resistance was investigated by E-test in 140 H. pylori strains isolated from culture. The resistance rates of H. pylori strains to the amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was detected as 9 (6.4 %), 22 (15.7 %), 17 (12.1 %), 57 (40.7 %), respectively. Conclusion: In our study, RUT was found to be the most sensitive, culture was the most specific test between culture, histology, and RUT methods. Although we detected the specificity of the culture method as high, its sensitivity was found to be quite low compared to other methods. The low sensitivity of H. pylori culture may be caused by the factors affect the chances of direct isolation such as spoild bacterium, difficult-to-breed microorganism, clinical sample retrieval, and transport conditions.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, culture, histology, H. pylori, RUT

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6 Prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum as Causative Agents of Non-Gonococcal Urethritis in Men and Determination of Anti-Bacterial Resistance Rates

Authors: Recep Keşli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum as the causative agents in men with non-gonococcal urethtritis, and anti-bacterial resistance rates. Methods: The Study was carried out in the two Medical Microbiology Laboratories belonging to: Konya Education and Research Hospital and ANS Practice and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, between January 2012 and December 2015. Urethral samples were obtained from patients by using a swab. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected by using Mycoplasma IST-2 kit (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France). Neisseria gonorrhoea was excluded by Gram staining and culture methods. Results: Of all the one hundred and eighty-eight male patients with urethritis, forty M. hominis and forty two U. urealyticum were detected. Resistance rates of M. hominis strains against to doxycycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin were found as 5 %, 65 %, 25 %, 5 %, 80 %, 20 %, 20 %, 20 %, 5 %, respectively. Resistance rates of U. urealyticum strains against to doxycycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin were found as 4.7 %, 66.6 %, 23.8 %, 4.75 %, 81 %, 19 %, 19 %, 4.7 % respectively. No resistance was detected against to josamycin, for both the strains. Conclusions: It was concluded that; ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin had the weakest; josamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline had the strongest in vitro anti-bacterial activity, for treatment of the NGU. So josamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline should be preferred as the first choice of anti-bacterial agents, for treatment of the patients with non-gonococcal male urethritis.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Mycoplasma hominis, non-gonococcal urethritis, Ureaplasma urealyticum

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5 Multiclass Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Fish and Shrimp Tissues by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Reza Pashaei, Reda Dzingelevičienė

Abstract:

An efficient, reliable, and sensitive multiclass analytical method has been expanded to simultaneously determine 15 human pharmaceutical residues in fish and shrimp tissue samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The investigated compounds comprise ten classes, namely analgesic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, cardiovascular, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, penicillins, stimulant, and sulfonamide. A simple liquid extraction procedure based on 0.1% formic acid in methanol was developed. Chromatographic conditions were optimized, and mobile phase namely 0.1 % ammonium acetate (A), and acetonitrile (B): 0 – 2 min, 15% B; 2 – 5 min, linear to 95% B; 5 – 10 min, 95% B; and 10 – 12 min was obtained. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.017 to 1.371 μg/kg and 0.051 to 4.113 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, amoxicillin, azithromycin, caffeine, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, erythromycin, furosemide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and triclosan were quantifiable in fish and shrimp samples.

Keywords: fish, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pharmaceuticals, shrimp, solid-phase extraction

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4 Recovery and Identification of Phenolic Acids in Honey Samples from Different Floral Sources of Pakistan Having Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Samiyah Tasleem, Muhammad Abdul Haq, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Muhammad Abid Husnain, Sajjad Haider Naqvi

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was: a) to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples of different floral sources of Pakistan, b) to recover the phenolic acids in them as a possible contributing factor of antimicrobial activity. Six honey samples from different floral sources, namely: Trachysperm copticum, Acacia species, Helianthus annuus, Carissa opaca, Zizyphus and Magnifera indica were used. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by the disc diffusion method against eight freshly isolated clinical isolates (Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans). Antimicrobial activity of honey was compared with five commercial antibiotics, namely: doxycycline (DO-30ug/mL), oxytetracycline (OT-30ug/mL), clarithromycin (CLR–15ug/mL), moxifloxacin (MXF-5ug/mL) and nystatin (NT – 100 UT). The fractions responsible for antimicrobial activity were extracted using ethyl acetate. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to recover the phenolic acids of honey samples. Identification was carried out via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that antimicrobial activity was present in all honey samples and found comparable to the antibiotics used in the study. In the microbiological assay, the ethyl acetate honey extract was found to exhibit a very promising antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms tested, indicating the existence of phenolic compounds. Six phenolic acids, namely: gallic, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified besides some unknown substance by HPLC. In conclusion, Pakistani honey samples showed a broad spectrum antibacterial and promising antifungal activity. Identification of six different phenolic acids showed that Pakistani honey samples are rich sources of phenolic compounds that could be the contributing factor of antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Pakistani honey, antimicrobial activity, Phenolic acids eg.gallic, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, benzoic and cinnamic acids

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3 In Vivo Antiulcer and Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Geraniol on Acetic Acid plus Helicobacter pylori Induced Ulcer in Rats

Authors: Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Vivian Lee Yean Yan, Chin Koh Lee, Chew Hui Kuean, Yun Khoon Liew, Mayuren Candasamy

Abstract:

Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpenoid is the main active constituent in the essential oils of rose and palmorosa. Antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer and antiulcer activity of geraniol was reported by many researchers. The present investigation was designed to study in vivo antiulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of geraniol. Antiulcer and anti-H. pylori activity of geraniol was evaluated on acetic acid plus H. pylori induced ulcer in rats. Acetic acid (0.03 mL) was injected to the sub-serosal layer of the stomach through laparotomy under anaesthesia. Orogastric inoculation of H. pylori (ATCC 43504) was done twice daily for 7 days. Geraniol (15 and 30 mg/kg), vehicle and standard drugs (Amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg; clarithromycin, 25 mg/kg & omeprazole, 20 mg/kg) was administered twice daily for 14 days. Antiulcer activity of geraniol was examined by the determination of gastric ulcer index, measuring the volume of gastric juice, pH and total acidity, myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological examination. Histopathological investigation for the presence of inflammation, white blood cell infiltration, edema, the mucosal damage was studied. The presence of H. pylori was detected by placing a biopsy sample from antral part of the stomach into rapid urease test. Ulcer index in H. pylori inoculated control group was 4.13 ± 0.85 and was significantly (P < 0.05) lowered in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treated group. Geraniol increase the pH of the gastric juice (2.18 ± 0.13 in control vs. 4.14 ± 0.57 in geraniol 30mg/kg) and lower total acidity significantly (P < 0.01) in geraniol (15 & 30 mg/kg). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured in stomach homogenate of all the groups. H. pylori control group has significant (P < 0.05) increase in MPO activity compared to normal control group. Geraniol (30 mg/kg) was showed significant (P < 0.05) and most effective among all the groups. Histopathological examination of rat stomach was scored and the total score for H. pylori control group was 8. After geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treatment, the histopathological score was significantly decreased and it was observed to be 3.5 and 2.0 respectively. Percentage inhibition of H. pylori infection in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug were found to be 40% and 50% respectively whereas, 100% infection in H. pylori control group was observed. Geraniol exhibited significant antiulcer and anti- H. pylori activity in the rats. Thus, geraniol has the potential for the further development as an effective medication in treating H. pylori associated ulcer.

Keywords: geraniol, helicobacter pylori atcc 43504, myeloperoxidase, ulcer

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2 A Diagnostic Accuracy Study: Comparison of Two Different Molecular-Based Tests (Genotype HelicoDR and Seeplex Clar-H. pylori ACE Detection), in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of two different molecular-based tests (GenoType® HelicoDR ve Seeplex® H. pylori-ClaR- ACE Detection) in detection presence of the H. pylori from gastric biopsy specimens. In addition to this also was aimed to determine resistance ratios of H. pylori strains against to clarytromycine and quinolone isolated from gastric biopsy material cultures by using both the genotypic (GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection) and phenotypic (gradient strip, E-test) methods. Material and methods: A total of 266 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-June 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in all the biopsy samples was investigated by five differnt dignostic methods together: culture (C) (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (H) (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), rapid urease test (RUT) (CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA), and two different molecular tests; GenoType® HelicoDR, Hain, Germany, based on DNA strip assay, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, Seegene, South Korea, based on multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates against clarithromycin and levofloxacin was determined by GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, and gradient strip (E-test, bioMerieux, France) methods. Culture positivity alone or positivities of both histology and RUT together was accepted as the gold standard for H. pylori positivity. Sensitivity and specificity rates of two molecular methods used in the study were calculated by taking the two gold standards previously mentioned. Results: A total of 266 patients between 16-83 years old who 144 (54.1 %) were female, 122 (45.9 %) were male were included in the study. 144 patients were found as culture positive, and 157 were H and RUT were positive together. 179 patients were found as positive with GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection together. Sensitivity and specificity rates of studied five different methods were found as follows: C were 80.9 % and 84.4 %, H + RUT were 88.2 % and 75.4 %, GenoType® HelicoDR were 100 % and 71.3 %, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection were, 100 % and 71.3 %. A strong correlation was found between C and H+RUT, C and GenoType® HelicoDR, and C and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection (r:0.644 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, respectively). Of all the isolated 144 H. pylori strains 24 (16.6 %) were detected as resistant to claritromycine, and 18 (12.5 %) were levofloxacin. Genotypic claritromycine resistance was detected only in 15 cases with GenoType® HelicoDR, and 6 cases with Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection. Conclusion: In our study, it was concluded that; GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection was found as the most sensitive diagnostic methods when comparing all the investigated other ones (C, H, and RUT).

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, antimicrobial resistance

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1 A Case of Prosthetic Vascular-Graft Infection Due to Mycobacterium fortuitum

Authors: Takaaki Nemoto

Abstract:

Case presentation: A 69-year-old Japanese man presented with a low-grade fever and fatigue that had persisted for one month. The patient had an aortic dissection on the aortic arch 13 years prior, an abdominal aortic aneurysm seven years prior, and an aortic dissection on the distal aortic arch one year prior, which were all treated with artificial blood-vessel replacement surgery. Laboratory tests revealed an inflammatory response (CRP 7.61 mg/dl), high serum creatinine (Cr 1.4 mg/dL), and elevated transaminase (AST 47 IU/L, ALT 45 IU/L). The patient was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Following further workups on the inflammatory response, an enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) and a non-enhanced chest DWI (MRI) were performed. The patient was diagnosed with a pulmonary fistula and a prosthetic vascular graft infection on the distal aortic arch. After admission, the patient was administered Ceftriaxion and Vancomycine for 10 days, but his fever and inflammatory response did not improve. On day 13 of hospitalization, a lung fistula repair surgery and an omental filling operation were performed, and Meropenem and Vancomycine were administered. The fever and inflammatory response continued, and therefore we took repeated blood cultures. M. fortuitum was detected in a blood culture on day 16 of hospitalization. As a result, we changed the treatment regimen to Amikacin (400 mg/day), Meropenem (2 g/day), and Cefmetazole (4 g/day), and the fever and inflammatory response began to decrease gradually. We performed a test of sensitivity for Mycobacterium fortuitum, and found that the MIC was low for fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. The clinical course was good, and the patient was discharged after a total of 8 weeks of intravenous drug administration. At discharge, we changed the treatment regimen to Levofloxacin (500 mg/day) and Clarithromycin (800 mg/day), and prescribed these two drugs as a long life suppressive therapy. Discussion: There are few cases of prosthetic vascular graft infection caused by mycobacteria, and a standard therapy remains to be established. For prosthetic vascular graft infections, it is ideal to provide surgical and medical treatment in parallel, but in this case, surgical treatment was difficult and, therefore, a conservative treatment was chosen. We attempted to increase the treatment success rate of this refractory disease by conducting a susceptibility test for mycobacteria and treating with different combinations of antimicrobial agents, which was ultimately effective. With our treatment approach, a good clinical course was obtained and continues at the present stage. Conclusion: Although prosthetic vascular graft infection resulting from mycobacteria is a refractory infectious disease, it may be curative to administer appropriate antibiotics based on the susceptibility test in addition to surgical treatment.

Keywords: prosthetic vascular graft infection, lung fistula, Mycobacterium fortuitum, conservative treatment

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