Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: azithromycin

8 Efficacy of Single-Dose Azithromycin Therapy for the Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in Patients Evaluated for Child Sexual Abuse in an Urban Health Center 2006-16

Authors: Trenton Hubbard, Kenneth Soyemi, Emily Siffermann


Introduction: According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) there are different weight-based recommendations for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in patients who are being evaluated for sexual assault. Current AAP Red Book guidelines recommend that uncomplicated C. trachomatis anogenital infection in prepubertal patients weighing less than =<45 kg be treated with oral erythromycin 50 mg/kg/day QID for 14 days with no alternative therapies, and for patients whose weight => 45 kg are Azithromycin 1 gm PO once. Our study objective was to determine the efficacy of single-dose Azithromycin therapy for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients weighing less than 50 kg who were evaluated for child sexual abuse in an urban setting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of historical medical records (paper and electronic) patients weighing less than 50 kg who were evaluated for child sexual abuse and subsequently treated for C. trachomatis infection with Azithromycin (20 mg/kg PO once up to a maximum 1 gm) and received a Test of Cure (TOC) from 2006-2016. Qualitative variables were expressed as percentages. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean values (+/- standard deviation [SD]) if they followed a normal distribution or as median values (interquartile range[IQR]) if they did not. Wilcoxson two-sample test was used to compare means of Azithromycin Dose, mg/kg, and TOC timing between treatment responders and non-responders. Results: We reviewed records of 34 patients, average age (SD) was 5.4 (2.0) years, 33 (97%) were treated for CT and 1(3%) for both GC and CT. 25 (74%) were females. Urine PCR was the most commonly used test at evaluation and as TOC with 13 (38%) patients completing both tests. The average (SD) dose of Azithromycin at treatment was 470 (136) mg and average (SD) mg/kg dose of 20 (1.9) mg/kg for all patients. Median (IQR) timing for TOC testing was 19 (14-26) days. Of the 33 with complete data 25 (74%) had a negative TOC. When compared with treatment non-responders (TOC failures), treatment responders received higher doses (average dose (SD) received 495 (139) vs 401(110), P 0.06)); similar average (SD) weight base dosing received (20.8(2.0) vs 19.7 (1.5), P 0.15)), and earlier average (SD)TOC test timing (18.8 (5.6) vs 32 (28.6) P 0.02)). Conclusion: Azithromycin dosing appears to be efficacious in the treatment of CT post sexual assault as majority of patients responded. Although treatment responders and non-responders received similar weight based doses, there is need for additional studies to understand variances and predictors of response.

Keywords: child sexual abuse, chlmaydia trachmotis infection, single-dose azithromycin, weight less than or equal to 45 kilograms

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7 Pefloxacin as a Surrogate Marker for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella: Study from North India

Authors: Varsha Gupta, Priya Datta, Gursimran Mohi, Jagdish Chander


Fluoroquinolones form the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of infections due to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. There is a complex interplay between several resistance mechanisms for quinolones and various fluoroquinolones discs, giving varying results, making detection and interpretation of fluoroquinolone resistance difficult. For detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella ssp., we compared the use of pefloxacin and nalidixic acid discs as surrogate marker. Using MIC for ciprofloxacin as the gold standard, 43.5% of strains showed MIC as ≥1 μg/ml and were thus resistant to fluoroquinoloes. Based on the performance of nalidixic acid and pefloxacin discs as surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin resistance, both the discs could correctly detect all the resistant phenotypes; however, use of nalidixic acid disc showed false resistance in the majority of the sensitive phenotypes. We have also tested newer antimicrobial agents like cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin against Salmonella spp. Moreover, there was a comeback of susceptibility to older antimicrobials like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. We can also use cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. typhi due to their high susceptibility.

Keywords: salmonella, pefloxacin, surrogate marker, chloramphenicol

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6 Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant

Authors: Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Ali M. Elgerbi


Antibiotic resistance has become a global public-health problem, thus it is imperative that new antibiotics continue to be developed. Major problems are being experienced in human medicine from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, no new chemical class of antibiotics has been introduced into medicine in the past two decades. The aim of the current study presents experimental results that evaluate the capability of bio surfactant rhamnolipid on enhancing the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics. Serial dilutions of azithromycin and clarithromycin were prepared. A bacterial suspension (approximately 5 X 105 CFU) from an overnight culture in MSM was inoculated into 20 ml sterile test tube each containing a serial 10-fold dilution of the test antibiotic(s) in broth with or without 200 mgL-1 rhamnolipid. The tubes were incubated for 24 h with vigorous shaking at 37°C. Antimicrobial activity in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria pathogens and gram-positive bacteria were assessed using optical density technique. The results clearly demonstrated that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly improved the efficiency of both antibiotics. We hypothesized that the addition of rhamnolipid at low concentration, causes release of LPS which results in an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. This allows increased association of cells with hydrophobic antibiotics resulting in increased cytotoxicity rates.

Keywords: hydrophobic antibiotics, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, azithromycin, clarithromycin

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5 Prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum as Causative Agents of Non-Gonococcal Urethritis in Men and Determination of Anti-Bacterial Resistance Rates

Authors: Recep Keşli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Türkyılmaz


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum as the causative agents in men with non-gonococcal urethtritis, and anti-bacterial resistance rates. Methods: The Study was carried out in the two Medical Microbiology Laboratories belonging to: Konya Education and Research Hospital and ANS Practice and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, between January 2012 and December 2015. Urethral samples were obtained from patients by using a swab. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected by using Mycoplasma IST-2 kit (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France). Neisseria gonorrhoea was excluded by Gram staining and culture methods. Results: Of all the one hundred and eighty-eight male patients with urethritis, forty M. hominis and forty two U. urealyticum were detected. Resistance rates of M. hominis strains against to doxycycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin were found as 5 %, 65 %, 25 %, 5 %, 80 %, 20 %, 20 %, 20 %, 5 %, respectively. Resistance rates of U. urealyticum strains against to doxycycline, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin were found as 4.7 %, 66.6 %, 23.8 %, 4.75 %, 81 %, 19 %, 19 %, 4.7 % respectively. No resistance was detected against to josamycin, for both the strains. Conclusions: It was concluded that; ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin had the weakest; josamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline had the strongest in vitro anti-bacterial activity, for treatment of the NGU. So josamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline should be preferred as the first choice of anti-bacterial agents, for treatment of the patients with non-gonococcal male urethritis.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Mycoplasma hominis, non-gonococcal urethritis, Ureaplasma urealyticum

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4 Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance in Shigella since the Turn of 21st Century, India

Authors: Neelam Taneja, Abhishek Mewara, Ajay Kumar


Multidrug resistant shigellae have emerged as a therapeutic challenge in India. At our 2000 bed tertiary care referral centre in Chandigarh, North India, which caters to a large population of 7 neighboring states, antibiotic resistance in Shigella is being constantly monitored. Shigellae are isolated from 3 to 5% of all stool samples. In 1990 nalidixic acid was the drug of choice as 82%, and 63% of shigellae were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Nalidixic acid resistance emerged in 1992 and rapidly increased from 6% during 1994-98 to 86% by the turn of 21st century. In the 1990s, the WHO recommended ciprofloxacin as the drug of choice for empiric treatment of shigellosis in view of the existing high level resistance to agents like chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. First resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. flexneri at our centre appeared in 2000 and rapidly rose to 46% in 2007 (MIC>4mg/L). In between we had an outbreak of ciprofloxacin resistant S.dysenteriae serotype 1 in 2003. Therapeutic failures with ciprofloxacin occurred with both ciprofloxacin-resistant S. dysenteriae and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri. The severity of illness was more with ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Till 2000, elsewhere in the world ciprofloxacin resistance in S. flexneri was sporadic and uncommon, though resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin was common and in some areas resistance to nalidixic acid had also emerged. Fluoroquinolones due to extensive use and misuse for many other illnesses in our region are thus no longer the preferred group of drugs for managing shigellosis in India. WHO presently recommends ceftriaxone and azithromycin as alternative drugs to fluoroquinolone-resistant shigellae, however, overreliance on this group of drugs also seems to soon become questionable considering the emerging cephalosporin-resistant shigellae. We found 15.1% of S. flexneri isolates collected over a period of 9 years (2000-2009) resistant to at least one of the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone/cefotaxime). The first isolate showing ceftriaxone resistance was obtained in 2001, and we have observed an increase in number of isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins in S. flexneri 2005 onwards. This situation has now become a therapeutic challenge in our region. The MIC values for Shigella isolates revealed a worrisome rise for ceftriaxone (MIC90:12 mg/L) and cefepime (MIC90:8 mg/L). MIC values for S. dysenteriae remained below 1 mg/L for ceftriaxone, however for cefepime, the MIC90 has raised to 4 mg/L. These infections caused by ceftriaxone-resistant S. flexneri isolates were successfully treated by azithromycin at our center. Most worrisome development in the present has been the emergence of DSA(Decreased susceptibility to azithromycin) which surfaced in 2001 and has increased from 4.3% till 2011 to 34% thereafter. We suspect plasmid-mediated resistance as we detected qnrS1-positive Shigella for the first time from the Indian subcontinent in 2 strains from 2010, indicating a relatively new appearance of this PMQR determinant among Shigella in India. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country. The prevention of shigellosis by developing cost-effective vaccines is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country

Keywords: Shigella, antimicrobial, resistance, India

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3 Multiclass Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Fish and Shrimp Tissues by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Reza Pashaei, Reda Dzingelevičienė


An efficient, reliable, and sensitive multiclass analytical method has been expanded to simultaneously determine 15 human pharmaceutical residues in fish and shrimp tissue samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The investigated compounds comprise ten classes, namely analgesic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, cardiovascular, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, penicillins, stimulant, and sulfonamide. A simple liquid extraction procedure based on 0.1% formic acid in methanol was developed. Chromatographic conditions were optimized, and mobile phase namely 0.1 % ammonium acetate (A), and acetonitrile (B): 0 – 2 min, 15% B; 2 – 5 min, linear to 95% B; 5 – 10 min, 95% B; and 10 – 12 min was obtained. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.017 to 1.371 μg/kg and 0.051 to 4.113 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, amoxicillin, azithromycin, caffeine, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, erythromycin, furosemide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and triclosan were quantifiable in fish and shrimp samples.

Keywords: fish, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pharmaceuticals, shrimp, solid-phase extraction

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2 Understanding the Common Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistant-Bacterial Load in the Textile Industrial Effluents

Authors: Afroza Parvin, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Rokunozzaman, Papon Debnath


The effluents of textile industries have considerable amounts of heavy metals, causing potential microbial metal loads if discharged into the environment without treatment. Aim: In this present study, both lactose and non-lactose fermenting bacterial isolates were isolated from textile industrial effluents of a specific region of Bangladesh, named Savar, to compare and understand the load of heavy metals in these microorganisms determining the effects of heavy metal resistance properties on antibiotic resistance. Methods: Five different textile industrial canals of Savar were selected, and effluent samples were collected in 2016 between June to August. Total bacterial colony (TBC) was counted for day 1 to day 5 for 10-6 dilution of samples to 10-10 dilution. All the isolates were isolated and selected using 4 differential media, and tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of heavy metals and antibiotic susceptibility test with plate assay method and modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, respectively. To detect the combined effect of heavy metals and antibiotics, a binary exposure experiment was performed, and to understand the plasmid profiling plasmid DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis method of some selective isolates. Results: Most of the cases, the colony forming units (CFU) per plate for 50 ul diluted sample were uncountable at 10-6 dilution, however, countable for 10-10 dilution and it didn’t vary much from canal to canal. A total of 50 Shigella, 50 Salmonella, and 100 E.coli (Escherichia coli) like bacterial isolates were selected for this study where the MIC was less than or equal to 0.6 mM for 100% Shigella and Salmonella like isolates, however, only 3% E. coli like isolates had the same MIC for nickel (Ni). The MIC for chromium (Cr) was less than or equal to 2.0 mM for 16% Shigella, 20% Salmonella, and 17% E. coli like isolates. Around 60% of both Shigella and Salmonella, but only 20% of E.coli like isolates had a MIC of less than or equal to 1.2 mM for lead (Pb). The most prevalent resistant pattern for azithromycin (AZM) for Shigella and Salmonella like isolates was found 38% and 48%, respectively; however, for E.coli like isolates, the highest pattern (36%) was found for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT). In the binary exposure experiment, antibiotic zone of inhibition was mostly increased in the presence of heavy metals for all types of isolates. The highest sized plasmid was found 21 Kb and 14 Kb for lactose and non-lactose fermenting isolates, respectively. Conclusion: Microbial resistance to antibiotics and metal ions, has potential health hazards because these traits are generally associated with transmissible plasmids. Microorganisms resistant to antibiotics and tolerant to metals appear as a result of exposure to metal-contaminated environments.

Keywords: antibiotics, effluents, heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration, resistance

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1 Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Evidence of Factors Influencing the Practice in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Scoping Review

Authors: Neusa Fernanda Torres, Buyisile Chibi, Lyn E. Middleton, Vernon P. Solomon, Tivani P. Mashamba-Thompson


Background: Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a global concern, with a higher incidence in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite intense world-wide efforts to control and promote the rational use of antibiotics, continuing practices of SMA systematically exposes individuals and communities to the risk of antibiotic resistance and other undesirable antibiotic side effects. Moreover, it increases the health systems costs of acquiring more powerful antibiotics to treat the resistant infection. This review thus maps evidence on the factors influencing self-medication with antibiotics in these settings. Methods: The search strategy for this review involved electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCOhost (PubMed, CINAHL with Full Text, Health Source - Consumer Edition, MEDLINE), Google Scholar, BioMed Central and World Health Organization library, using the search terms:’ Self-Medication’, ‘antibiotics’, ‘factors’ and ‘reasons’. Our search included studies published from 2007 to 2017. Thematic analysis was performed to identify the patterns of evidence on SMA in LMICs. The mixed method quality appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2011 was employed to assess the quality of the included primary studies. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies included population from the rural (46,4%), urban (33,6%) and combined (20%) settings, of the following LMICs: Guatemala (2 studies), India (2), Indonesia (2), Kenya (1), Laos (1), Nepal (1), Nigeria (2), Pakistan (2), Sri Lanka (1), and Yemen (1). The total sample size of all 15 included studies was 7676 participants. The findings of the review show a high prevalence of SMA ranging from 8,1% to 93%. Accessibility, affordability, conditions of health facilities (long waiting, quality of services and workers) as long well as poor health-seeking behavior and lack of information are factors that influence SMA in LMICs. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, were the most frequently used for SMA. The major sources of antibiotics included pharmacies, drug stores, leftover drugs, family/friends and old prescription. Sore throat, common cold, cough with mucus, headache, toothache, flu-like symptoms, pain relief, fever, running nose, toothache, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection were the common disease symptoms managed with SMA. Conclusion: Although the information on factors influencing SMA in LMICs is unevenly distributed, the available information revealed the existence of research evidence on antibiotic self-medication in some countries of LMICs. SMA practices are influenced by social-cultural determinants of health and frequently associated with poor dispensing and prescribing practices, deficient health-seeking behavior and consequently with inappropriate drug use. Therefore, there is still a need to conduct further studies (qualitative, quantitative and randomized control trial) on factors and reasons for SMA to correctly address the public health problem in LMICs.

Keywords: antibiotics, factors, reasons, self-medication, low and middle-income countries (LMICs)

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