Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Pratap Sharan

45 Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Indian Scenario

Authors: Garima Joshi, Pratap Sharan, V. Sreenivas, Nand Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad, Ashima N. Wadhawan

Abstract:

Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder and is marked by cognitive impairment, which deleteriously impacts the social and professional functioning along with the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers. Often the cognitive symptoms are in their prodromal state and worsen as the illness progresses; they have proven to have a good predictive value for the prognosis of the illness. It has been shown that intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) leads to improvements in the healthy as well as cognitively-impaired subjects. As the majority of population in India falls in the lower to middle socio-economic status and have low education levels, using the existing packages, a majority of which are developed in the West, for cognitive rehabilitation becomes difficult. The use of technology is also restricted due to the high costs involved and the limited availability and familiarity with computers and other devices, which pose as an impedance for continued therapy. Cognitive rehabilitation in India uses a plethora of retraining methods for the patients with schizophrenia targeting the functions of attention, information processing, executive functions, learning and memory, and comprehension along with Social Cognition. Psychologists often have to follow an integrative therapy approach involving social skills training, family therapy and psychoeducation in order to maintain the gains from the cognitive rehabilitation in the long run. This paper reviews the methodologies and cognitive retaining programs used in India. It attempts to elucidate the evolution and development of methodologies used, from traditional paper-pencil based retraining to more sophisticated neuroscience-informed techniques in cognitive rehabilitation of deficits in schizophrenia as home-based or supervised and guided programs for cognitive rehabilitation.

Keywords: schizophrenia, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological interventions, integrated approached to rehabilitation

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44 Security Architecture for Cloud Networking: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

In the cloud computing hierarchy IaaS is the lowest layer, all other layers are built over it. Thus it is the most important layer of cloud and requisite more importance. Along with advantages IaaS faces some serious security related issue. Mainly Security focuses on Integrity, confidentiality and availability. Cloud computing facilitate to share the resources inside as well as outside of the cloud. On the other hand, cloud still not in the state to provide surety to 100% data security. Cloud provider must ensure that end user/client get a Quality of Service. In this report we describe possible aspects of cloud related security.

Keywords: cloud computing, cloud networking, IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, cloud security

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43 A Survey of Attacks and Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of many interconnected networked systems, they equipped with energy resources and they are used to detect other physical characteristics. On WSN, there are many researches are performed in past decades. WSN applicable in many security systems govern by military and in many civilian related applications. Thus, the security of WSN gets attention of researchers and gives an opportunity for many future aspects. Still, there are many other issues are related to deployment and overall coverage, scalability, size, energy efficiency, quality of service (QoS), computational power and many more. In this paper we discus about various applications and security related issue and requirements of WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network (WSN), wireless network attacks, wireless network security, security requirements

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42 Performance of Non-toxic, Corrosion Resistant, and Lubricious Metalworking Fluids under Machining

Authors: Ajay Pratap Singh Lodhi, Deepak Kumar

Abstract:

Vegetable oil-based environmentally friendly metalworking fluids (MWFs) are formulated. The tribological performance, cytotoxicity, and corrosion resistance of the formulated fluids (FFs) are evaluated and benchmarked with commercial mineral oil-based MWFs (CF). Results show that FFs exhibited better machining characteristics (roughness, cutting forces, and surface morphology) during machining than CF. MTT assay and Live dead cell assay confirm the cytocompatibility nature of the FFs relative to the toxic CF. Electrochemical analysis shows that FFs and CF exhibited comparable corrosion current density.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitors, cytotoxicity, machining, MTT assay, Taguchi method, vegetable oil

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41 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

The main aim of the communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In cognitive radio, any user or transceiver have the ability to sense best suitable channel, while the channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of licensed user without any interference. Though the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper, we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision-making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: artificial neural network, cognitive radio, cognitive radio networks, back propagation, spectrum sensing

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40 Profile of Postgraduate Nursing Students Studying at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta

Abstract:

Continuing changes in health and social care policy and practice have affected and changed the way in which nursing is practiced. One of the greatest challenges facing nursing today is to build on the essence of nursing as a caring profession whilst incorporating new technologies, ideas and approaches to future healthcare. The objective of this study was to find out the socio-demographic characteristics of the M.Sc. Nursing students and calculate the association between specialty subjects, caste, age group, and residence with SLC division, BN/BSN division, entrance score, and total nursing experience. Descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to conduct the study among all the 25 M.Sc. Nursing students studying at BPKIHS in 2012. Most of the students (56%) were of age group of 25-30 years, completed his academic courses with first division and succeeded in entrance test in first attempt (96%). Based on the results, it can conclude that most of the subjects were of young age, having high score achievers in SLC, I.Sc., CN, BN/BSN and Entrance test. The demographic characteristics do not influence in the academic scores of the students.

Keywords: profile, postgraduate nursing students, Nepal, influence

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39 Telephone Health Service to Improve the Quality of Life of the People Living with AIDS in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Naveen Kumar Pandey, Binod Kumar Deo

Abstract:

Quality of Life (QOL) is an important component in the evaluation of the well-being of People Living with AIDS (PLWA). This study assessed the effectiveness of education intervention programme in improving the QOL of PLWA on ART attaining the ART-clinics at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal. A pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the PLWA on ART at BPKIHS from June to August 2013 involving 60 PLWA on pre-test randomly. The mean age of the respondents was 36.70 ± 9.92, and majority of them (80%) were of age group of 25-50 years and Male (56.7%). After education intervention programme there is significant change in the QOL in all the four domains i.e. Physical (p=0.008), Psychological (p=0.019), Social (p=0.046) and Environmental (p=0.032) using student t-test at 0.05 level of significance. There is significant (p= 0.016) difference in the mean QOL scores of pre-test and post-test. High QOL scores in post-test after education intervention programme may reflective of the effectiveness of planned education interventions programme.

Keywords: telephone, AIDS, health service, Nepal

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38 Electrospun Zinc Oxide Nanowires as Highly Sensitive Piezoelectric Transduction Elements for Nano-Scale Devices

Authors: K. Brince Paul, Nagendra Pratap Singh, Shiv Govind Singh, Siva Rama Krishna Vanjari

Abstract:

In this paper, we report optimized procedure for synthesizing highly oriented, horizontally aligned, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires targeted towards developing highly sensitive piezoelectric transduction elements. The synthesis was carried out using Electrospinning technique, a facile, robust, low cost technique for producing nanowires. The as-synthesized ZnO nanowires were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).The Piezoelectric behavior of these nanowires was characterized using Peizoelectric Force microscopy (PFM). A very high d33 coefficient of 23.1 pm/V obtained through the PFM measurements is an indicative of its potential application towards developing miniaturized piezoelectric transduction elements for nanoscale devices.

Keywords: electrospinning, piezoelectric, technique, zinc oxide

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37 Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern Region of Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta

Abstract:

The number of new cancer cases annually is estimated to rise from 10.9 million in 2002 to more than 16 million by 2020, if current trends continue. Much of this increase in absolute numbers derives from the ageing of populations worldwide. The objectives of this study were to find out the demographic characteristics of the admitted cancer patients in BPKIHS. It was hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted reviewing all the records of admitted diagnosed cancer patients in BPKIHS from 15th October 2004 to 14th October 2012. Using total enumerative sampling technique all 1379 diagnosed cancer patients record were reviewed after obtaining the permission from concerned authorities. Using SPSS-15 software package data was analyzed. It was found that majority (71%) of cancer patients were of age more than 40 years and equal of both sexes. Most of the clients were form Sunsari (31.1%), Morang (16.6%) and Jhapa (17%) districts. The mean hospitalization day is 8.32 and very few patients (5.2%) were only cured. The numbers of cancer patients are markedly increases in BPKIHS, especially in advanced stage. It is mandatory to start the cancer information and education programme in eastern region of Nepal and proper management of cancer patients using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at BPKIHS for quality patient care.

Keywords: lung, cancer, patients, Nepal

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36 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method

Authors: Satyendra Pratap Singh, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology using Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete observability of the power system. The objective of proposed algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs. In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better observability by proposed method.

Keywords: gravitational search algorithm (GSA), law of motion, law of gravity, observability, phasor measurement unit

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35 Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using backpropagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a two-term algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

Keywords: neural network, backpropagation, local minima, fast convergence rate

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34 Effect of Gel Concentration on Physical Properties of an Electrochromic Device

Authors: Sharan K. Indrakar, Aakash B. Prasad, Arash Takshi, Sesha Srinivasan, Elias K. Stefanakos

Abstract:

In this work, we present an exclusive study on the effect of the feeding ratio of polyaniline-based redox-active gel layer on electrical and optical properties of innovative electrochromic devices (ECs). An electrochromic device consisting of polyaniline (PANI) has a redox-active gel electrolyte placed between two conducting transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates. The redox-active composite gel is a mixture of different concentrations of aniline (monomer), a water-soluble polymer poly (vinyl alcohol), hydrochloric acid, and an oxidant. The EC device shows the color change from dark green to transparent for the applied potential between -0.5 V to +2.0 V. The coloration and decoloration of the ECs were tested for electrochemical behavior using techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The optical transparency of the EC devices was examined at two different biasing voltage conditions under UV-visible spectroscopic technique; the result showed 65% transmittance at 564 nm and zero transmittance when the cell was biased at 0.0 V and 2.0 V, the synthesized mol fraction gel was analyzed for surface morphology and structural properties by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformer spectroscopy.

Keywords: electrochromic, gel electrolyte, polyaniline, conducting polymer

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33 Heat Transfer Augmentation in a Channel with Delta Winglet Type Vortex Generators at Different Blade Angles

Authors: Nirmal Kant Singh, Anshuman Pratap Singh

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In this study the augmentation of heat transfer in a channel with delta winglet type vortex generators is evaluated. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed in a rectangular channel with longitudinal triangular vortex generators (LVGs). The span wise averaged Nusselt number and mean temperature are compared with and without vortex generators in the channel. The effect of variation of blade angle (15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) is studied at a Reynolds number of 10000. The numerical results indicate that the application of LVGs effectively enhances heat transfer in the channel. The Nusselt number and mean outlet temperature were found to be greater using LVGs than in the channel without LVGs. It is observed that heat transfer increases with increase in blade angle at the same Reynolds number.

Keywords: heat transfer, rectangular channel, longitudinal vortex generators, effect of blade angle

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32 Short Answer Grading Using Multi-Context Features

Authors: S. Sharan Sundar, Nithish B. Moudhgalya, Nidhi Bhandari, Vineeth Vijayaraghavan

Abstract:

Automatic Short Answer Grading is one of the prime applications of artificial intelligence in education. Several approaches involving the utilization of selective handcrafted features, graphical matching techniques, concept identification and mapping, complex deep frameworks, sentence embeddings, etc. have been explored over the years. However, keeping in mind the real-world application of the task, these solutions present a slight overhead in terms of computations and resources in achieving high performances. In this work, a simple and effective solution making use of elemental features based on statistical, linguistic properties, and word-based similarity measures in conjunction with tree-based classifiers and regressors is proposed. The results for classification tasks show improvements ranging from 1%-30%, while the regression task shows a stark improvement of 35%. The authors attribute these improvements to the addition of multiple similarity scores to provide ensemble of scoring criteria to the models. The authors also believe the work could reinstate that classical natural language processing techniques and simple machine learning models can be used to achieve high results for short answer grading.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, intelligent systems, natural language processing, text mining

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31 Automatic Thresholding for Data Gap Detection for a Set of Sensors in Instrumented Buildings

Authors: Houda Najeh, Stéphane Ploix, Mahendra Pratap Singh, Karim Chabir, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Abstract:

Building systems are highly vulnerable to different kinds of faults and failures. In fact, various faults, failures and human behaviors could affect the building performance. This paper tackles the detection of unreliable sensors in buildings. Different literature surveys on diagnosis techniques for sensor grids in buildings have been published but all of them treat only bias and outliers. Occurences of data gaps have also not been given an adequate span of attention in the academia. The proposed methodology comprises the automatic thresholding for data gap detection for a set of heterogeneous sensors in instrumented buildings. Sensor measurements are considered to be regular time series. However, in reality, sensor values are not uniformly sampled. So, the issue to solve is from which delay each sensor become faulty? The use of time series is required for detection of abnormalities on the delays. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on measurements obtained from a real power plant: an office at Grenoble Institute of technology equipped by 30 sensors.

Keywords: building system, time series, diagnosis, outliers, delay, data gap

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30 Geospatial Network Analysis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Varun Singh, Mainak Bandyopadhyay, Maharana Pratap Singh

Abstract:

The shortest path (SP) problem concerns with finding the shortest path from a specific origin to a specified destination in a given network while minimizing the total cost associated with the path. This problem has widespread applications. Important applications of the SP problem include vehicle routing in transportation systems particularly in the field of in-vehicle Route Guidance System (RGS) and traffic assignment problem (in transportation planning). Well known applications of evolutionary methods like Genetic Algorithms (GA), Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have come up to solve complex optimization problems to overcome the shortcomings of existing shortest path analysis methods. It has been reported by various researchers that PSO performs better than other evolutionary optimization algorithms in terms of success rate and solution quality. Further Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as key information systems for geospatial data analysis and visualization. This research paper is focused towards the application of PSO for solving the shortest path problem between multiple points of interest (POI) based on spatial data of Allahabad City and traffic speed data collected using GPS. Geovisualization of results of analysis is carried out in GIS.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, GIS, traffic data, outliers

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29 An Analysis of Uncoupled Designs in Chicken Egg

Authors: Pratap Sriram Sundar, Chandan Chowdhury, Sagar Kamarthi

Abstract:

Nature has perfected her designs over 3.5 billion years of evolution. Research fields such as biomimicry, biomimetics, bionics, bio-inspired computing, and nature-inspired designs have explored nature-made artifacts and systems to understand nature’s mechanisms and intelligence. Learning from nature, the researchers have generated sustainable designs and innovation in a variety of fields such as energy, architecture, agriculture, transportation, communication, and medicine. Axiomatic design offers a method to judge if a design is good. This paper analyzes design aspects of one of the nature’s amazing object: chicken egg. The functional requirements (FRs) of components of the object are tabulated and mapped on to nature-chosen design parameters (DPs). The ‘independence axiom’ of the axiomatic design methodology is applied to analyze couplings and to evaluate if eggs’ design is good (i.e., uncoupled design) or bad (i.e., coupled design). The analysis revealed that eggs design is a good design, i.e., uncoupled design. This approach can be applied to any nature’s artifacts to judge whether their design is a good or a bad. This methodology is valuable for biomimicry studies. This approach can also be a very useful teaching design consideration of biology and bio-inspired innovation.

Keywords: uncoupled design, axiomatic design, nature design, design evaluation

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28 A Review on Nuclear Desalination Technology

Authors: Aiswarya C. L, Swatantra Pratap Singh

Abstract:

In recent years, most desalination plants have been powered by fossil fuels, and to a lesser extent, by green energy. Greenhouse gases emitted by fossil-fuelled plants significantly impact the global climate. So scientists are forced to develop a powerful energy source to protect the environment with greater sustainability due to climate change issues. Nuclear energy can supply much more fresh water than what is currently available. Furthermore, it is more affordable and does not emit any greenhouse gases. This review compares conventional desalination plants with nuclear-powered desalination plants in terms of cost, energy consumption, water recovery, and environmental issues. On the basis of the review conducted, nuclear desalination has been demonstrated to be technically feasible and economically competitive with a variety of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, and waste heat sources. Nuclear sources have been criticized due to their lack of safety. But studies show, if we were able to handle the issue with care, the problems could be eliminated. Here we're looking at the Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plant (SWROP) at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in Tamil Nadu, India and review the further possibility of implementing nuclear desalination technology in other states of India.

Keywords: energy consumption, environmental impacts, nuclear desalination, water recovery

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27 Design and Construction of a Solar Mobile Anaerobic Digestor for Rural Communities

Authors: César M. Moreira, Marco A. Pazmiño-Hernández, Marco A. Pazmiño-Barreno, Kyle Griffin, Pratap Pullammanappallil

Abstract:

An anaerobic digestion system that was completely operated on solar power (both photovoltaic and solar thermal energy), and mounted on a trailer to make it mobile, was designed and constructed. A 55-gallon batch digester was placed within a chamber that was heated by hot water pumped through a radiator. Hot water was produced by a solar thermal collector and photovoltaic panels charged a battery which operated pumps for recirculating water. It was found that the temperature in the heating chamber was maintained above ambient temperature but it follows the same trend as ambient temperature. The temperature difference between the chamber and ambient values was not constant but varied with time of day. Advantageously, the temperature difference was highest during night and early morning and lowest near noon. In winter, when ambient temperature dipped to 2 °C during early morning hours, the chamber temperature did not drop below 10 °C. Model simulations showed that even if the digester is subjected to diurnal variations of temperature (as observed in winter of a subtropical region), about 63 % of the waste that would have been processed under constant digester temperature of 38 °C, can still be processed. The cost of the digester system without the trailer was $1,800.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, solar-mobile, rural communities, solar, hybrid

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26 Dual Mode Mobile Based Detection of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide for Determination of Live and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Shashank Gahlaut, Chandrashekhar Sharan, J. P. Singh

Abstract:

Increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a big concern for the treatment of pathogenic diseases. The effect of treatment of patients with antibiotics often leads to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the pathogens. The detection of antibiotic or antimicrobial resistant bacteria (microbes) is quite essential as it is becoming one of the big threats globally. Here we propose a novel technique to tackle this problem. We are taking a step forward to prevent the infections and diseases due to drug resistant microbes. This detection is based on some unique features of silver (a noble metal) nanorods (AgNRs) which are fabricated by a physical deposition method called thermal glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Silver nanorods are found to be highly sensitive and selective for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. Color and water wetting (contact angle) of AgNRs are two parameters what are effected in the presence of this gas. H₂S is one of the major gaseous products evolved in the bacterial metabolic process. It is also known as gasotransmitter that transmits some biological singles in living systems. Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon mono oxide (CO) are two another members of this family. Orlowski (1895) observed the emission of H₂S by the bacteria for the first time. Most of the microorganism produce these gases. Here we are focusing on H₂S gas evolution to determine live/dead and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. AgNRs array has been used for the detection of H₂S from micro-organisms. A mobile app is also developed to make it easy, portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, hydrogen sulfide, live and dead bacteria, mobile app

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25 Pachhedi: A Material Culture Study on Folk Textile of India

Authors: Shrutisingh Tomar, Madhu Sharan

Abstract:

It has been an undisputed fact that the culture of a nation has always been reflected in its practice, visual content and in forms of its oral traditions. Regional and communal costumes in India since ancient times have worked as a strong repository for its people to comprehend not only the locality but also the community of the wearer. Such a strong visual language apparently was ordained to communicate basic details about the person such as age, marital status, and socio-cultural status. Most of the fragments of this visual vocabulary have been intensively investigated, recorded, diversified and revived, while a limited range of these has died a slow death. Some of the rare existent kinds of such threads have survived as a mainstream article of clothing: simpler, apparent and a product for daily life yet unique in their own kind. The paper intends to consider and elaborate the investigated repository pertinent to the Pacchedi weaving tradition of Gujarat. The research involved field surveys across seven districts of the two states of India namely Gujarat and Rajasthan. Ethnographic interviews, observations, recording of oral histories and archival research was conducted through multi-timed and multi-cited studies between from the year 2012 to 2015. The results include varied forms of Pacchedi based on the sartorial expressions in the male costume. The characteristic features of these textiles were accorded by the sumptuous use of brocaded cross borders and weft heavy ends along with the details on the languishing fabrication procedure.

Keywords: handloom weaving, material culture, sartorial expressions and vernacular textile craft

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24 Transcriptional Profiling of Developing Ovules in Litchi chinensis

Authors: Ashish Kumar Pathak, Ritika Sharma, Vishal Nath, Sudhir Pratap Singh, Rakesh Tuli

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Litchi is a sub-tropical fruit crop with genotypes bearing delicious juicy fruits with variable seed size (bold to rudimentary size). Small seed size is a desirable trait in litchi, as it increases consumer acceptance and fruit processing. The biochemical activities in mid- stage ovules (e.g. 16, 20, 24 and 28 days after anthesis) determine the fate of seed and fruit development in litchi. Comprehensive ovule-specific transcriptome analysis was performed in two litchi genotypes with contrasting seed size to gain molecular insight on determinants of seed fates in litchi fruits. The transcriptomic data was de-novo assembled in 1,39,608 trinity transcripts, out of which 6,325 trinity transcripts were differentially expressed between the two contrasting genotypes. Differential transcriptional pattern was found among ovule development stages in contrasting litchi genotypes. The putative genes for salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and brassinosteroid pathway were down-regulated in ovules of small-seeded litchi. Embryogenesis, cell expansion, seed size and stress related trinity transcripts exhibited altered expression in small-seeded genotype. The putative regulators of seed maturation and seed storage were down-regulated in small-seed genotype.

Keywords: Litchi, seed, transcriptome, defence

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23 Infused Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Organs Morphology in Cerebral Malaria Infection

Authors: Reva Sharan Thakur, Mrinalini Tiwari, Jyoti das

Abstract:

Cerebral malaria-associated over expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines ultimately results in the up-regulation of adhesion molecules in the brain endothelium leading to sequestration of mature parasitized RBCs in the brain. The high-parasitic load subsequently results in increased mortality or development of neurological symptoms within a week of infection. Studies in the human and experimental cerebral malaria have implicated the breakdown of the integrity of blood-brain barrier during the lethal course of infection, cerebral dysfunction, and fatal organ pathologies that result in multi-organ failure. In the present study, using Plasmodium berghei Anka as a mouse model and in vitro conditions, we have investigated the effect of MSCs to attenuate cerebral malaria pathogenesis by diminishing the effect of inflammation altered organ morphology, reduced parasitemia, and increased survival of the mice. MSCs are also validated for their role in preventing BBB dysfunction and reducing malarial toxins. It was observed that administration of MSCs significantly reduced parasitemia and increased survival in Pb A infected mice. It was further demonstrated that MSCs play a significant role in reversing neurological complexities associated with cerebral malaria. Infusion of MSCs in infected mice decreased hemozoin deposition; oedema, and haemorrhagic lesions in vascular organs. MSCs administration also preserved the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and reduced neural inflammation. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential of MSCs as an emerging anti-malarial candidate.

Keywords: cerebral malaria, mesenchymal stem cells, erythropoesis, cell death

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22 Awareness on Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Attending Diabetic Clinic of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Dina Khanal, Pushpa Parajuli, Gayanand Mandal, Bijaya Bartuala

Abstract:

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Adequate awareness of risk factors of CVD is the first step towards effective preventive strategies to combat the CVD burden in diabetes patients.This study aims to assess the awareness on risk factors of CVD among patients with diabetes mellitus attending diabetic clinic of BPKIHS and to find the association between awareness with their selected socio demographic variables. Methods and Material: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 112 patients with diabetes in diabetic clinic of BPKIHS. Convenient sampling technique was used for data collection over duration of one month using interview schedule by HDFQ II tool. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. (Chi square). Results: The mean age of respondents was 55.4±12.13 years. That mean HDFQ score was 14.31± 5.08. Only 33% of the respondents had adequate level of awareness whereas majority of the respondents (67%) had inadequate level of awareness. Majority of the respondent (83.9%) were aware about smoking, (78.6%) physical activity, (75%) increasing age, (75.9%) high blood pressure, (71.4%) overweight respectively. Whereas most of the respondents were not aware of high cholesterol, fatty diet, preventive strategies and association of diabetes with CVD. Awareness was statistically significant with (p=0.043) educational status, (p=0.025) monthly income, (p=0.05) residence, (p=0.006) CVD information received and (p=0.022) co morbid condition as a heart disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study concluded most of the respondents had an inadequate level of awareness on risk factors of CVD. So Effective education and appropriate preventive strategies of CVD are indeed important to reduce CVD burden in diabetes patients.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, awareness, diabetes patients, risk

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21 Performing Diagnosis in Building with Partially Valid Heterogeneous Tests

Authors: Houda Najeh, Mahendra Pratap Singh, Stéphane Ploix, Antoine Caucheteux, Karim Chabir, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Abstract:

Building system is highly vulnerable to different kinds of faults and human misbehaviors. Energy efficiency and user comfort are directly targeted due to abnormalities in building operation. The available fault diagnosis tools and methodologies particularly rely on rules or pure model-based approaches. It is assumed that model or rule-based test could be applied to any situation without taking into account actual testing contexts. Contextual tests with validity domain could reduce a lot of the design of detection tests. The main objective of this paper is to consider fault validity when validate the test model considering the non-modeled events such as occupancy, weather conditions, door and window openings and the integration of the knowledge of the expert on the state of the system. The concept of heterogeneous tests is combined with test validity to generate fault diagnoses. A combination of rules, range and model-based tests known as heterogeneous tests are proposed to reduce the modeling complexity. Calculation of logical diagnoses coming from artificial intelligence provides a global explanation consistent with the test result. An application example shows the efficiency of the proposed technique: an office setting at Grenoble Institute of Technology.

Keywords: heterogeneous tests, validity, building system, sensor grids, sensor fault, diagnosis, fault detection and isolation

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20 Electromagnetic Interface Shielding of Graphene Oxide–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid ABS Composites

Authors: Jeevan Jyoti, Bhanu Pratap Singh, S. R. Dhakate

Abstract:

In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and Improved Hummer’s method, respectively and their composite with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) were prepared by twin screw co rotating extrusion technique. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of graphene oxide carbon nanotube (GCNTs) hybrid composites was investigated and the results were compared with EMI shielding of carbon nanotube (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). The experimental results indicate that the EMI shielding effectiveness of these composites is achieved up to –21 dB for 10 wt. % loading of GCNT loading. The mechanism of improvement in EMI shielding effectiveness is discussed by resolving their contribution in absorption and reflection loss. The main reason for such a high improved shielding effectiveness has been attributed to the significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of the composites. The electrical conductivity of these GCNT/ABS composites was increased from 10-13 S/cm to 10-7 S/cm showing the improvement of the 6 order of the magnitude. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) studies showed that the GCNTs were uniformly dispersed in the ABS polymer matrix. GCNTs form a network throughout the polymer matrix and promote the reinforcement.

Keywords: ABS, EMI shielding, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide, graphene, oxide-carbon nanotube (GCNTs), twin screw extruder, multiwall carbon nanotube, electrical conductivity

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19 Pre-Experimental Research to Investigate the Retention of Basic and Advanced Life Support Measures Knowledge and Skills by Qualified Nurses Following a Course in Professional Development in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Gayanandra Malla, Anita Gurung, Anu Aryal, Divya Labh, Hricha Neupane

Abstract:

Objectives: Lack of resuscitation skills of nurses and doctors in basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) has been identified as a contributing factor to poor outcomes of cardiac arrest victims. The objective of this study was to examine retention of life support measures (BLS/ALS) knowledge and skills of nurses following education intervention programme. Materials and Methods: Pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the nurses working in medical units of B.P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, where CPR is very commonly performed. Using convenient sampling technique total of 20 nurses agreed to participate and give consent were included in the study. The theoretical, demonstration and re-demonstration were arranged involving the trained doctors and nurses during the three hours educational session. Post-test was carried out after two week of education intervention programme. The 2010 BLS & ALS guidelines were used as guide for the study contents. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results: It was found that there is significant increase in knowledge after education intervention in the components of life support measures (BLS/ALS) i.e. ratio of chest compression to ventilation in BLS (P=0.001), correct sequence of CPR (p <0.001), rate of chest compression in ALS (P=0.001), the depth of chest compression in adult CPR (p<0.001), and position of chest compression in CPR (P=0.016). Nurses were well appreciated the programme and request to continue in future for all the nurses. Conclusions: At recent BLS/ALS courses (2010), a significant number of nurses remain without any such training. Action is needed to ensure all nurses receive BLS training and practice this skill regularly in order to retain their knowledge.

Keywords: pre-experimental, basic and advance life support, nurses, sampling technique

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18 Quantifying Temporal Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Ozone Forming Potential at Rural Atmosphere in Delhi

Authors: Amit Kumar, Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Manoj Singh, Monika Punia, Krishan Kumar, V. K. Jain

Abstract:

Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in order to find out temporal variations and their ozone forming potentials (OFP) at rural site in Delhi National Capital Region during summer 2013. Sampling was performed for continuous five days, to identify the differences in working days and weekend VOCs concentration levels. Sampling and analytical procedure for VOCs were done using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. On each sampling day, VOCs samples were collected for 3-hours in the morning, afternoon and evening. There has been observed a noticeable contrast in the concentration of VOCs levels between working days and weekend. However, most of the VOCs showed diurnal fluctuations with higher concentrations in the morning and evening as compared to afternoon which might be due to change in meteorology. The results showed that mean toluene/benzene and m-/p-xylene/benzene ratios were higher in the afternoon while it was lower during morning and evening. The relative contribution of the VOCs to ozone formation, total propylene equivalent concentrations and OFP were calculated. Toluene was the most contributing organic contaminant to ozone formation as well as ambient VOCs concentrations. Results obtained in current study demonstrate that ozone formation at rural site in Delhi is probably limited by the emissions of VOCs.

Keywords: VOCs, rural, NIOSH, ozone forming potential, propylene equivalent concentration

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17 Thus Spoke the Mouth: Problematizing Dalit Voice in Selected Poems

Authors: Barnali Saha

Abstract:

Dalit writing is the interventionalist voice of the dispossessed subaltern in the cultural economy of the society. As such, Dalit writing, including Dalit poetry, considers the contradictions that permeate the socio-cultural structure historically allocated and religiously sanctioned in the Indian subcontinent. As an epicenter of all Dalit experiences of trauma and violence, the poetics the Dalit body is deeply rooted in the peripheral space socially assigned to it by anachronistic caste-based litigation. An appraisal of Dalit creative-critical work by writers like Sharan Kumar Limbale, Arjun Dangle, Namdeo Dhasal, Om Prakash Valmiki, Muktibodh and others underscore the conjunction of the physical, psychical and the psychological in their interpretation of Dalit consciousness. They put forward the idea that Dalit poetry is begotten by the trauma of societal oppression and therefore, Dalit language and its revitalization are two elements obdurately linked to Dalit poetics. The present research paper seeks to read the problematization of the Dalit agency through the conduit of the Dalit voice wherein the anatomical category of the mouth is closely related to the question of Dalit identity. Theoretically aligned to Heidegger’s notion of language as the house of being and Bachelard’s assertion of a house as an ideal metaphor of poetic imagination and Dylan Trigg’s view of the coeval existence of space and body, the paper examines a series of selected poems by Dalit poetic voices to examine how their distinct Dalit point of view underscores Dalit speech and directs our attention to the historical abstraction of it. The paper further examines how speech as a category in Dalit writing places the Dalit somatic entity as a site of contestation with the ‘Mouth’ as a loaded symbolic category inspiring rebellion and resistance. And as the quintessential purpose of Dalit literature is the unleashing of Dalit voice from the anti-verbal domain of social decrepitude, Dalit poetry needs to be critically read based on the experience of the mouth and the patois.

Keywords: Dalit, poetry, speech, mouth, subaltern, minority, exploitation, space

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16 A Histopathological Study on Leech (Hirudo medicinalis) Application in the Management of Vicarcikā (Eczema)

Authors: K. M. Pratap Shankar, Dattatreya Rao, Sai Prasad

Abstract:

Background: Skin diseases are among the most common health problems worldwide and are associated with a considerable burden. Eczema is such a skin ailment which cause psychological, social and financial burden on the patient and their families. Management of eczema with antibiotics, antihistamines, steroids etc., are available but even after their use relapses, recurrences and other complications are very common. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of leech application in the management of vicarcikā (Eczema) with Histopathological study. Methods: For the present study 10 patients having the classical symptoms of Vicarcikā, were randomly selected as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from O.P.D. & I.P.D. sections of Śalya department, S.V. Āyurvedic Hospital, Tirupati. Minimum 4 sittings of Leech application was carried out with seven days interval. Total duration of treatment was 6 weeks. Biopsy samples were collected from the lesion site before and after treatment. Histopathological examination was done by the pathologist. Results: In eczema (dermatitis) the leech application therapy gives excellent response by reducing the inflammatory component, hyperkeratosis, spongiosis, irregular acanthosis and by evoking a granulation tissue response in the dermis and in most of the cases with complete recovery from the lesion. Most of the cases in the study were chronic dermatitis and sebhoric keratosis, almost all local/focal pigmented lesions is totally relieved by leech therapy especially in cases of sebhoric keratosis. Conclusion: In the present study it was found that, leech application evokes significant changes at histological level specifically in reduction of inflammatory component, hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and irregular acanthosis. It was also found that there was a considerable formation of granulation tissue, which helps in formation of healthy new tissues.

Keywords: acanthosis, eczema, hyperkeratosis, leech application, spongiosis

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