Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2655

Search results for: residential sector

2655 Challenges and Opportunities in Modelling Energy Behavior of Household in Malaysia

Authors: Zuhaina Zakaria, Noraliza Hamzah, Siti Halijjah Shariff, Noor Aizah Abdul Karim

Abstract:

The residential sector in Malaysia has become the single largest energy sector accounting for 21% of the entire energy usage of the country. In the past 10 years, a number of energy efficiency initiatives in the residential sector had been undertaken by the government including. However, there is no clear evidence that the total residential energy consumption has been reduced substantially via these strategies. Household electrical appliances such as air conditioners, refrigerators, lighting and televisions are used depending on the consumers’ activities. The behavior of household occupants played an important role in energy consumption and influenced the operation of the physical devices. Therefore, in order to ensure success in energy efficiency program, it requires not only the technological aspect but also the consumers’ behaviors component. This paper focuses on the challenges and opportunities in modelling residential consumer behavior in Malaysia. A field survey to residential consumers was carried out and responses from the survey were analyzed to determine the consumers’ level of knowledge and awareness on energy efficiency. The analyses will be used in determining a right framework to explain household energy use intentions and behavior. These findings will be beneficial to power utility company and energy regulator in addressing energy efficiency related issues.

Keywords: consumer behavior theories, energy efficiency, household occupants, residential consumer

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2654 Energy Efficiency in Hot Arid Climates Code Compliance and Enforcement for Residential Buildings

Authors: Mohamed Edesy, Carlo Cecere

Abstract:

This paper is a part of an ongoing research that proposes energy strategies for residential buildings in hot arid climates. In Egypt, the residential sector is dominated by increase in consumption rates annually. A building energy efficiency code was introduced by the government in 2005; it indicates minimum design and application requirements for residential buildings. Submission is mandatory and should lead to about 20% energy savings with an increase in comfort levels. However, compliance is almost nonexistent, electricity is subsidized and incentives to adopt energy efficient patterns are very low. This work presents an overview of the code and analyzes the impact of its introduction on different sectors. It analyses compliance barriers and indicates challenges that stand in the way of a realistic enforcement. It proposes an action plan for immediate code enforcement, updating current code to include retrofit, and development of rating systems for buildings. This work presents a broad national plan for energy efficiency empowerment in the residential sector.

Keywords: energy efficiency, housing, energy policies, code enforcement

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2653 An Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources in Green Building Systems for the Residential Sector in the Metropolis, Kolkata, India

Authors: Tirthankar Chakraborty, Indranil Mukherjee

Abstract:

The environmental aspect had a major effect on industrial decisions after the deteriorating condition of our surroundings dsince the industrial activities became apparent. Green buildings have been seen as a possible solution to reduce the carbon emissions from construction projects and the housing industry in general. Though this has been established in several areas, with many commercial buildings being designed green, the scope for expansion is still significant and further information on the importance and advantages of green buildings is necessary. Several commercial green building projects have come up and the green buildings are mainly implemented in the residential sector when the residential projects are constructed to furnish amenities to a large population. But, residential buildings, even those of medium sizes, can be designed to incorporate elements of sustainable design. In this context, this paper attempts to give a theoretical appraisal of the use of renewable energy systems in residential buildings of different sizes considering the weather conditions (solar insolation and wind speed) of the metropolis, Kolkata, India. Three cases are taken; one with solar power, one with wind power and one with a combination of the two. All the cases are considered in conjunction with conventional energy, and the efficiency of each in fulfilling the total energy demand is verified. The optimum combination for reducing the carbon footprint of the residential building is thus established. In addition, an assessment of the amount of money saved due to green buildings in metered water supply and price of coal is also mentioned.

Keywords: renewable energy, green buildings, solar power, wind power, energy hybridization, residential sector

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2652 Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

Authors: L. L. Ivy-Yap, H. A. Bekhet

Abstract:

As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 periods. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential sector, a sector that is important for the contemplation of energy policy. The Phillips-Perron (P-P) unit root test is employed to infer the stationary of each variable while the bound test is executed to determine the existence of co-integration relationship among the variables, modeled in an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) framework. The CUSUM and CUSUM of squares tests are applied to ensure the stability of the model. The results suggest the existence of long-run equilibrium relationship and bidirectional Granger causality between EC and the macroeconomic variables. The empirical findings will help policy makers of Malaysia in developing new monitoring standards of energy consumption. As it is the major contributing factor in economic growth and CO2 emission, there is a need for more proper planning in Malaysia to attain future targets in order to cut emissions.

Keywords: co-integration, elasticity, granger causality, Malaysia, residential electricity consumption

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2651 Quality of Life of Poor Residential Neighborhoods in Oshogbo, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo L. Amao

Abstract:

As a result of the high cost of housing, the increasing population is forced to live in substandard housing and unhealthy conditions giving rise to poor residential neighborhoods. The paper examines the causes and characteristics of poor residential neighborhood. The paper finds the problems that have influence poor neighborhoods to; poverty, growth of informal sector and housing shortage. The paper asserts that poor residential neighborhoods have adverse effects on the people. The secondary data was obtained from books, journals and seminar papers while primary data relating to building and environmental quality from structured questionnaire administered on sample of 500 household heads, from sampling frame of 5000 housing units. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are poor and employed in informal sector. The paper suggests urban renewal and slum upgrading programs as methods in dealing with the situation and an improvement in the socio-economic circumstances of the inhabitants.

Keywords: environmental degeneration, housing, poverty, quality of life, urban upgrading

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2650 Sustainable Energy Supply in Social Housing

Authors: Rolf Katzenbach, Frithjof Clauss, Jie Zheng

Abstract:

The final energy use can be divided mainly in four sectors: commercial, industrial, residential, and transportation. The trend in final energy consumption by sector plays as a most straightforward way to provide a wide indication of progress for reducing energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by different end use sectors. According to statistics the average share of end use energy for residential sector in the world was nearly 20% until 2011, in Germany a higher proportion is between 25% and 30%. However, it remains less studied than energy use in other three sectors as well its impacts on climate and environment. The reason for this involves a wide range of fields, including the diversity of residential construction like different housing building design and materials, living or energy using behavioral patterns, climatic condition and variation as well other social obstacles, market trend potential and financial support from government. This paper presents an extensive and in-depth analysis of the manner by which projects researched and operated by authors in the fields of energy efficiency primarily from the perspectives of both technical potential and initiative energy saving consciousness in the residential sectors especially in social housing buildings.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, retro-commissioning, social housing, sustainability

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2649 The Impact of Gender and Residential Background on Racial Integration: Evidence from a South African University

Authors: Morolake Josephine Adeagbo

Abstract:

South Africa is one of those countries that openly rejected racism, and this is entrenched in its Bill of Rights. Despite the acceptance and incorporation of racial integration into the South Africa Constitution, the implementation within some sectors, most especially the educational sector, seems difficult. Recent occurrences of racism in some higher institutions of learning in South Africa are indications that racial integration / racial transformation is still farfetched in the country’s higher educational sector. It is against this background that this study was conducted to understand how gender and residential background influence racial integration in a South African university which was predominantly a white Afrikaner institution. Using a quantitative method to test the attitude of different categories of undergraduate students at the university, this study found that the factors- residential background and gender- used in measuring student’s attitude do not necessarily have a significant relationship towards racial integration. However, this study concludes with a call for more research with a range of other factors in order to better understand how racial integration can be promoted in South African institutions of higher learning.

Keywords: racial integration, gender, residential background, transformation

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2648 Protective Custody in Child Protection: Reflection of Residential Care Workers in the Philippines

Authors: Hazel S. Cometa-Lamberte

Abstract:

This paper presents the residential care workers reflections in working with children who were under protective custody and placed in a residential care facility for children. Key informant interviews and focus group discussion were employed in this study to analyze the views of residential care workers on the programs and services and case management system in residential care for children. Results suggest that working in a residential care facility for children needs the interplay of both the worker’s personal and professional values, knowledge and skills in working with children. Analyzing the residential care workers experiences in handling children in residential care facilities is vital for the improvement of the policies, programs and services, the repertoire of techniques and facilitate the creation of a new social work practice framework/model in child protection specifically in residential care facilities.

Keywords: child protection, residential care, residential care workers, social workers

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2647 Investigating Best Practice Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs, and Their Replication Potential for Residential Sector of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Habib Alshuwaikhat, Nahid Hossain

Abstract:

Residential sector consumes more than half of the produced electricity in Saudi Arabia, and fossil fuel is the main source of energy to meet growing household electricity demand in the Kingdom. Several studies forecasted and expressed concern that unless the domestic energy demand growth is controlled, it will reduce Saudi Arabia’s crude oil export capacity within a decade and the Kingdom is likely to be incapable of exporting crude oil within next three decades. Though the Saudi government has initiated to address the domestic energy demand growth issue, the demand side energy management policies and programs are focused on industrial and commercial sectors. It is apparent that there is an urgent need to develop a comprehensive energy efficiency strategy for addressing efficient energy use in residential sector in the Kingdom. Then again as Saudi Arabia is at its primary stage in addressing energy efficiency issues in its residential sector, there is a scope for the Kingdom to learn from global energy efficiency practices and design its own energy efficiency policies and programs. However, in order to do that sustainable, it is essential to address local contexts of energy efficiency. It is also necessary to find out the policies and programs that will fit to the local contexts. Thus the objective of this study was set to identify globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs in residential sector that have replication potential in Saudi Arabia. In this regard two sets of multi-criteria decision analysis matrices were developed to evaluate the energy efficiency policies and programs. The first matrix was used to evaluate the global energy efficiency policies and programs, and the second matrix was used to evaluate the replication potential of global best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia. Wuppertal Institute’s guidelines for energy efficiency policy evaluation were used to develop the matrices, and the different attributes of the matrices were set through available literature review. The study reveals that the best practice energy efficiency policies and programs with good replication potential for Saudi Arabia are those which have multiple components to address energy efficiency and are diversified in their characteristics. The study also indicates the more diversified components are included in a policy and program, the more replication potential it has for the Kingdom. This finding is consistent with other studies, where it is observed that in order to be successful in energy efficiency practices, it is required to introduce multiple policy components in a cluster rather than concentrate on a single policy measure. The developed multi-criteria decision analysis matrices for energy efficiency policy and program evaluation could be utilized to assess the replication potential of other globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for the residential sector of the Kingdom. In addition it has potential to guide Saudi policy makers to adopt and formulate its own energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, residential sector, energy efficiency, policy evaluation

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2646 Operation Strategies of Residential Micro Combined Heat and Power Technologies

Authors: Omar A. Shaneb, Adell S. Amer

Abstract:

Reduction of CO2 emissions has become a priority for several countries due to increasing concerns about global warming and climate change, especially in the developed countries. Residential sector is considered one of the most important sectors for considerable reduction of CO2 emissions since it represents a significant amount of the total consumed energy in those countries. A significant CO2 reduction cannot be achieved unless some initiatives have been adopted in the policy of these countries. Introducing micro combined heat and power (µCHP) systems into residential energy systems is one of these initiatives, since such a technology offers several advantages. Moreover, µCHP technology has the opportunity to be operated not only by natural gas but it could also be operated by renewable fuels. However, this technology can be operated by different operation strategies. Each strategy has some advantages and disadvantages. This paper provides a review of different operation strategies of such a technology used for residential energy systems, especially for single dwellings. The review summarizes key points that outline the trend of previous research carried out in this field.

Keywords: energy management, µCHP systems, residential energy systems, sustainable houses, operation strategy.

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2645 Development of Market Penetration for High Energy Efficiency Technologies in Alberta’s Residential Sector

Authors: Saeidreza Radpour, Md. Alam Mondal, Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Market penetration of high energy efficiency technologies has key impacts on energy consumption and GHG mitigation. Also, it will be useful to manage the policies formulated by public or private organizations to achieve energy or environmental targets. Energy intensity in residential sector of Alberta was 148.8 GJ per household in 2012 which is 39% more than the average of Canada 106.6 GJ, it was the highest amount among the provinces on per household energy consumption. Energy intensity by appliances of Alberta was 15.3 GJ per household in 2012 which is 14% higher than average value of other provinces and territories in energy demand intensity by appliances in Canada. In this research, a framework has been developed to analyze the market penetration and market share of high energy efficiency technologies in residential sector. The overall methodology was based on development of data-intensive models’ estimation of the market penetration of the appliances in the residential sector over a time period. The developed models were a function of a number of macroeconomic and technical parameters. Developed mathematical equations were developed based on twenty-two years of historical data (1990-2011). The models were analyzed through a series of statistical tests. The market shares of high efficiency appliances were estimated based on the related variables such as capital and operating costs, discount rate, appliance’s life time, annual interest rate, incentives and maximum achievable efficiency in the period of 2015 to 2050. Results show that the market penetration of refrigerators is higher than that of other appliances. The stocks of refrigerators per household are anticipated to increase from 1.28 in 2012 to 1.314 and 1.328 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. Modelling results show that the market penetration rate of stand-alone freezers will decrease between 2012 and 2050. Freezer stock per household will decline from 0.634 in 2012 to 0.556 and 0.515 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. The stock of dishwashers per household is expected to increase from 0.761 in 2012 to 0.865 and 0.960 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. The increase in the market penetration rate of clothes washers and clothes dryers is nearly parallel. The stock of clothes washers and clothes dryers per household is expected to rise from 0.893 and 0.979 in 2012 to 0.960 and 1.0 in 2050, respectively. This proposed presentation will include detailed discussion on the modelling methodology and results.

Keywords: appliances efficiency improvement, energy star, market penetration, residential sector

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2644 End-User Behavior: Analysis of Their Role and Impacts on Energy Savings Achievements

Authors: Margarida Plana

Abstract:

End-users behavior has become one of the main aspects to be solved on energy efficiency projects. Especially on the residential sector, the end-users have a direct impact that affects the achievement of energy saving’s targets. This paper is focused on presenting and quantify the impact of end-users behavior on basis of the analysis of real projects’ data. The analysis study which is the role of buiding’s occupants and how their behavior can change the success of energy efficiency projects how to limit their impact. The results obtained show two main conclusions. The first one is easiest to solve: we need to control and limit the end-users interaction with the equipment operation to be able to reach the targets fixed. The second one: as the plugged equipment are increasing exponentially on the residential sector, big efforts of disseminations are needed in order to explain to citizens the impact of their day by day actions through dissemination campaigns.

Keywords: end-users impacts, energy efficiency, energy savings, impact limitations

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2643 Demand Response from Residential Air Conditioning Load Using a Programmable Communication Thermostat

Authors: Saurabh Chanana, Monika Arora

Abstract:

Demand response is getting increased attention these days due to the increase in electricity demand and introduction of renewable resources in the existing power grid. Traditionally demand response programs involve large industrial consumers but with technological advancement, demand response is being implemented for small residential and commercial consumers also. In this paper, demand response program aims to reduce the peak demand as well as overall energy consumption of the residential customers. Air conditioners are the major reason of peak load in residential sector in summer, so a dynamic model of air conditioning load with thermostat action has been considered for applying demand response programs. A programmable communicating thermostat (PCT) is a device that uses real time pricing (RTP) signals to control the thermostat setting. A new model incorporating PCT in air conditioning load has been proposed in this paper. Results show that introduction of PCT in air conditioner is useful in reducing the electricity payments of customers as well as reducing the peak demand.

Keywords: demand response, home energy management, programmable communicating thermostat, thermostatically controlled appliances

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2642 A Hybrid Simulation Approach to Evaluate Cooling Energy Consumption for Public Housings of Subtropics

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chi T. Cheung

Abstract:

Cooling energy consumption in the residential sector, different from shopping mall, office or commercial buildings, is significantly subject to occupant decisions where in-depth investigations are found limited. It shows that energy consumptions could be associated with housing types. Surveys have been conducted in existing Hong Kong public housings to understand the housing characteristics, apartment electricity demands, occupant’s thermal expectations, and air–conditioning usage patterns for further cooling energy-saving assessments. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid cooling energy prediction model, which integrated by EnergyPlus (EP) and artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate cooling energy consumption in public residential sector. Sensitivity tests are conducted to find out the energy impacts with changing building parameters regarding to external wall and window material selection, window size reduction, shading extension, building orientation and apartment size control respectively. Assessments are performed to investigate the relationships between cooling demands and occupant behavior on thermal environment criteria and air-conditioning operation patterns. The results are summarized into a cooling energy calculator for layman use to enhance the cooling energy saving awareness in their own living environment. The findings can be used as a directory framework for future cooling energy evaluation in residential buildings, especially focus on the occupant behavioral air–conditioning operation and criteria of energy-saving incentives.

Keywords: artificial neural network, cooling energy, occupant behavior, residential buildings, thermal environment

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2641 Research on Residential Block Fabric: A Case Study of Hangzhou West Area

Authors: Wang Ye, Wei Wei

Abstract:

Residential block construction of big cities in China began in the 1950s, and four models had far-reaching influence on modern residential block in its development process, including unit compound and residential district in 1950s to 1980s, and gated community and open community in 1990s to now. Based on analysis of the four models’ fabric, the article takes residential blocks in Hangzhou west area as an example and carries on the studies from urban structure level and block special level, mainly including urban road network, land use, community function, road organization, public space and building fabric. At last, the article puts forward semi-open sub-community strategy to improve the current fabric.

Keywords: Hangzhou west area, residential block model, residential block fabric, semi-open sub-community strategy

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2640 Residential Architecture and Its Representation in Movies: Bangkok's Spatial Research in the Study of Thai Cinematography

Authors: Janis Matvejs

Abstract:

Visual representation of a city creates unique perspectives that allow to interpret the urban environment and enable to understand a space that is culturally created and territorially organized. Residential complexes are an essential part of cities and cinema is a specific representation form of these areas. There has been very little research done on exploring how these areas are depicted in the Thai movies. The aim of this research is to interpret the discourse of residential areas of Bangkok throughout the 20th and 21st centuries and to examine essential changes in the residential structure. Specific cinematic formal techniques in relation to the urban image were used. The movie review results were compared with changes in Bangkok’s residential development. Movie analysis displayed that residential areas are frequently used in Thai cinematography and they make up an integral part of the urban visual perception.

Keywords: Bangkok, cinema, residential area, representation, visual perception

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2639 A Study on the Residential Estate Development and Management by Defence Housing Authority (DHA) in Lahore

Authors: Zareen Shahid

Abstract:

Rapid increase in population has resulted in uncontrolled and unplanned growth of metropolitan cities in Pakistan. Pakistan is facing unprecedented challenges of acute housing shortages, unhealthy living conditions and a non-existent or dilapidated infrastructure across the country. The government of Pakistan has also failed to devise a comprehensive and long-term strategy to cope with the problem of housing and better infrastructure development and management that has resulted in congestion, overcrowding and deterioration of environment in cities. On the other hand public has developed intense faith upon Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Lahore. This research paper is about to observe the difference in residential estate development and services provided by DHA Lahore. This paper attempts to identify the factors which are contributing towards the success of DHA and recommend measures for improvement in public sector for betterment.

Keywords: residential estate, development and management, defence housing authority

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2638 Compact Settlement: The Direction of Chinese Future Urban Residential Area Sustainable Development

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu

Abstract:

Residential area construction links many problems such as population resources, ecology, social values, public services and transportation in the city. After Chinese housing reform, a large number of residential area development accompanied by the loss of agricultural and ecological land. To explore the future of Chinese urban residential area, this article concentrates on how the 'Compact Settlement' behaves in improving the living environment and saving the resources. Through the research of residential area in Hangzhou, there are some determines that increasing the development intensity of the area can indeed bring some improvement in the overall environment. In conclusion, possible design alternatives are discussed for leading Chinese urban development towards a more sustainable path.

Keywords: compact city development, environmental sustainability, residential area, Hangzhou

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2637 Indoor and Outdoor Concentration of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ in Residential Building and Evaluation of Negative Air Ions (NAIs) in Indoor PM Removal

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Azam Nadali, Zahra Asadgol, Mohammad Fahiminia

Abstract:

Indoor and outdoor particulate matters (PM) were monitored in 20 residential buildings in a two-part study. In part I, the levels of indoor and outdoor PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ was measured using real time GRIMM dust monitors. In part II, the effect of negative air ions (NAIs) method was investigated on the reduction of indoor concentration of PM in these residential buildings. Hourly average concentration and standard deviation (SD) of PM₁₀ in indoor and outdoor at residential buildings were 90.1 ± 33.5 and 63.5 ± 27.4 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM₂.₅ in residential buildings were 49.5 ± 18.2 and 39.4± 18.1 µg/ m3 and for PM₁ the concentrations were 6.5 ± 10.1and 4.3 ± 7.7 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios and concentrations of all size fractions of PM were strongly correlated with wind speed and temperature whereas a good relationship was not observed between humidity and I/O ratios of PM. We estimated that nearly 71.47 % of PM₁₀, 79.86 % of PM₂.₅ and of 61.25 % of PM₁ in indoor of residential buildings can be removed by negative air ions.

Keywords: particle matter (PM), indoor air, negative air ions (NAIs), residential building

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2636 A Policy Strategy for Building Energy Data Management in India

Authors: Shravani Itkelwar, Deepak Tewari, Bhaskar Natarajan

Abstract:

The energy consumption data plays a vital role in energy efficiency policy design, implementation, and impact assessment. Any demand-side energy management intervention's success relies on the availability of accurate, comprehensive, granular, and up-to-date data on energy consumption. The Building sector, including residential and commercial, is one of the largest consumers of energy in India after the Industrial sector. With economic growth and increasing urbanization, the building sector is projected to grow at an unprecedented rate, resulting in a 5.6 times escalation in energy consumption till 2047 compared to 2017. Therefore, energy efficiency interventions will play a vital role in decoupling the floor area growth and associated energy demand, thereby increasing the need for robust data. In India, multiple institutions are involved in the collection and dissemination of data. This paper focuses on energy consumption data management in the building sector in India for both residential and commercial segments. It evaluates the robustness of data available through administrative and survey routes to estimate the key performance indicators and identify critical data gaps for making informed decisions. The paper explores several issues in the data, such as lack of comprehensiveness, non-availability of disaggregated data, the discrepancy in different data sources, inconsistent building categorization, and others. The identified data gaps are justified with appropriate examples. Moreover, the paper prioritizes required data in order of relevance to policymaking and groups it into "available," "easy to get," and "hard to get" categories. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the data gaps by leveraging digital initiatives, strengthening institutional capacity, institutionalizing exclusive building energy surveys, and standardization of building categorization, among others, to strengthen the management of building sector energy consumption data.

Keywords: energy data, energy policy, energy efficiency, buildings

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2635 Retrofitting Residential Buildings for Energy Efficiency: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Naseer M. A.

Abstract:

Buildings are major consumers of energy in both their construction and operation. They account for 40% of World’s energy use. It is estimated that 40-60% of this goes for conditioning the indoor environment. In India, like many other countries, the residential buildings have a major share (more than 50%) in the building sector. Of these, single-family units take a mammoth share. The single-family dwelling units in the urban and fringe areas are built in two stories to minimize the building foot print on small land parcels. And quite often, the bedrooms are located in the first floors. The modern buildings are provided with reinforced concrete (RC) roofs that absorb heat throughout the day and radiate the heat into the interiors during the night. The rooms that are occupied in the night, like bedrooms, are having their indoors uncomfortable. This has resulted in the use of active systems like air-conditioners and air coolers, thereby increasing the energy use. An investigation conducted by monitoring the thermal comfort condition in the residential building with RC roofs have proved that the indoors are really uncomfortable in the night hours. A sustainable solution to improve the thermal performance of the RC roofs was developed by an experimental study by continuously monitoring the thermal comfort parameters during summer (the period that is most uncomfortable in temperate climate). The study conducted in the southern peninsular India, prove that retrofitting of existing residential building can give a sustainable solution in abating the ever increasing energy demand especially when it is a fact that these residential buildings that are built for a normal life span of 40 years would continue to consume the energy for the rest of its useful life.

Keywords: energy efficiency, thermal comfort, retrofitting, residential buildings

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2634 Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: A Case Study in Canada

Authors: Venkatesh Kumar, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq

Abstract:

Residential buildings consume significant amounts of energy and produce a large amount of emissions and waste. However, there is a substantial potential for energy savings in this sector which needs to be evaluated over the life cycle of residential buildings. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been employed to study the primary energy uses and associated environmental impacts of different phases (i.e., product, construction, use, end of life, and beyond building life) for residential buildings. Four different alternatives of residential buildings in Vancouver (BC, Canada) with a 50-year lifespan have been evaluated, including High Rise Apartment (HRA), Low Rise Apartment (LRA), Single family Attached House (SAH), and Single family Detached House (SDH). Life cycle performance of the buildings is evaluated for embodied energy, embodied environmental impacts, operational energy, operational environmental impacts, total life-cycle energy, and total life cycle environmental impacts. Estimation of operational energy and LCA are performed using DesignBuilder software and Athena Impact estimator software respectively. The study results revealed that over the life span of the buildings, the relationship between the energy use and the environmental impacts are identical. LRA is found to be the best alternative in terms of embodied energy use and embodied environmental impacts; while, HRA showed the best life-cycle performance in terms of minimum energy use and environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to study the influence of building service lifespan over 50, 75, and 100 years on the relative significance of embodied energy and total life cycle energy. The life-cycle energy requirements for SDH is found to be a significant component among the four types of residential buildings. The overall disclose that the primary operations of these buildings accounts for 90% of the total life cycle energy which far outweighs minor differences in embodied effects between the buildings.

Keywords: building simulation, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, life cycle energy analysis, residential buildings

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2633 The Practice of Integrating Sustainable Elements into the Housing Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Wong Kean Hin, Kumarason A. L. V. Rasiah

Abstract:

A building provides shelter and protection for an individual to live, work, sleep, procreate or engage in leisurely activities comfortably. Currently, a very popular term related to building was often stated by many parties, which is sustainability. A sustainable building is environmental friendly, healthy to the occupants, as well as efficient in electricity and water. This particular research is important to any parties that are involved in the construction industry. This research will provide the awareness and acceptability of Malaysian public towards sustainable residential building. It will also provide the developers about which sustainable features that the people usually want so that the developers can build a sustainable housing that suits the needs of people. Then, propose solutions to solve the difficulties of implementing sustainability in Malaysian housing industry. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used throughout the process of data collection. The quantitative research method was distribution of questionnaires to 100 Malaysian public and 50 individuals that worked in developer companies. Then, the qualitative method was an interview session with experienced personnel in Malaysian construction industry. From the data collected, there is increasingly Malaysian public and developers are aware about the existence of sustainability. Moreover, the public is willing to invest on sustainable residential building with minimum additional cost. However, there is a mismatch in between sustainable elements provided by developers and the public needs. Some recommendations to improve the progression of sustainability had been proposed in this study, which include laws enforcement, cooperation between the both government sector with private sector, and private sector with private sector, and learn from modern countries. These information will be helpful and useful for the future of sustainability development in Malaysia.

Keywords: acceptability, awareness, Malaysian housing industry, sustainable elements, green building index

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2632 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang

Abstract:

At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

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2631 Refurbishment Methods to Enhance Energy Efficiency of Brick Veneer Residential Buildings in Victoria

Authors: Hamid Reza Tabatabaiefar, Bita Mansoury, Mohammad Javad Khadivi Zand

Abstract:

The current energy and climate change impacts of the residential building sector in Australia are significant. Thus, the Australian Government has introduced more stringent regulations to improve building energy efficiency. In 2006, the Australian residential building sector consumed about 11% (around 440 Petajoule) of the total primary energy, resulting in total greenhouse gas emissions of 9.65 million tonnes CO2-eq. The gas and electricity consumption of residential dwellings contributed to 30% and 52% respectively, of the total primary energy utilised by this sector. Around 40 percent of total energy consumption of Australian buildings goes to heating and cooling due to the low thermal performance of the buildings. Thermal performance of buildings determines the amount of energy used for heating and cooling of the buildings which profoundly influences energy efficiency. Employing sustainable design principles and effective use of construction materials can play a crucial role in improving thermal performance of new and existing buildings. Even though awareness has been raised, the design phase of refurbishment projects is often problematic. One of the issues concerning the refurbishment of residential buildings is mostly the consumer market, where most work consists of moderate refurbishment jobs, often without assistance of an architect and partly without a building permit. There is an individual and often fragmental approach that results in lack of efficiency. Most importantly, the decisions taken in the early stages of the design determine the final result; however, the assessment of the environmental performance only happens at the end of the design process, as a reflection of the design outcome. Finally, studies have identified the lack of knowledge, experience and best-practice examples as barriers in refurbishment projects. In the context of sustainable development and the need to reduce energy demand, refurbishing the ageing residential building constitutes a necessary action. Not only it does provide huge potential for energy savings, but it is also economically and socially relevant. Although the advantages have been identified, the guidelines come in the form of general suggestions that fail to address the diversity of each project. As a result, it has been recognised that there is a strong need to develop guidelines for optimised retrofitting of existing residential buildings in order to improve their energy performance. The current study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of residential brick veneer buildings in Victoria (Australia). Proposing different remedial solutions for improving the energy performance of residential brick veneer buildings, in the simulation stage, annual energy usage analyses have been carried out to determine heating and cooling energy consumptions of the buildings for different proposed retrofitting techniques. Then, the results of employing different retrofitting methods have been examined and compared in order to identify the most efficient and cost-effective remedial solution for improving the energy performance of those buildings with respect to the climate condition in Victoria and construction materials of the studied benchmark building.

Keywords: brick veneer residential buildings, building energy efficiency, climate change impacts, cost effective remedial solution, energy performance, sustainable design principles

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2630 Effective Wind-Induced Natural Ventilation in a Residential Apartment Typology

Authors: Tanvi P. Medshinge, Prasad Vaidya, Monisha E. Royan

Abstract:

In India, cooling loads in residential sector is a major contributor to its total energy consumption. Due to the increasing cooling need, the market penetration of air-conditioners is further expected to rise. Natural Ventilation (NV), however, possesses great potential to save significant energy consumption especially for residential buildings in moderate climates. As multifamily residential apartment buildings are designed by repetitive use of prototype designs, deriving individual NV based design prototype solutions for a combination of different wind incidence angles and orientations would provide significant opportunity to address the rise in cooling loads by residential sector. This paper presents the results of NV performance of a selected prototype apartment design with a cluster of four units in Pune, India, and an attempt to improve the NV performance through design modifications. The water table apparatus, a physical modelling tool, is used to study the flow patterns and simulate wind-induced NV performance. Quantification of NV performance is done by post processing images captured from video recordings in terms of percentage of area with good and poor access to ventilation. NV performance of the existing design for eight wind incidence angles showed that of the cluster of four units, the windward units showed good access to ventilation for all rooms, and the leeward units had lower access to ventilation with the bedrooms in the leeward units having the least access. The results showed improved performance in all the units for all wind incidence angles to more than 80% good access to ventilation. Some units showed an additional improvement to more than 90% good access to ventilation. This process of design and performance evaluation improved some individual units from 0% to 100% for good access to ventilation. The results demonstrate the ease of use and the power of the water table apparatus for performance-based design to simulate wind induced NV.  

Keywords: fluid dynamics, prototype design, natural ventilation, simulations, water table apparatus, wind incidence angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
2629 Place Attachment and Residential Satisfaction in Old Residential Buildings: A Case of Pune City

Authors: Vaishali Anagal, Vasudha Gokhale, Sharvey Dhongde

Abstract:

Old buildings have significance in many aspects. The manifold significance may include historic, architectural and cultural aspects. In a cultural city like Pune, India, numerous residential buildings exist in the core city whose age may range between 60-100 years. These represent the city’s history and culture. Most of them are still in use as residential buildings with adaptations in various degrees. Some of these buildings are enlisted as ‘Heritage Buildings’ by local municipal authority. However, there are number of buildings that have heritage value although they are not enlisted as heritage sites. A lot of these buildings have already been pulled down for several reasons such as end of technical life, inadequacy for users, increasing floor area ratios, inflating land prices and changing lifestyles etc. Literature suggest that place attachment and residential satisfaction are positively related. It also indicates that length of residency is positively correlated with the place attachment. Residential satisfaction is associated with number of factors including socio demographic characteristics of users, housing characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and behavioral characteristics. This research paper poses an inquiry about the dynamics of co-relation between place attachment and residential satisfaction in case of old residential buildings. The motive of this enquiry is to examine if place attachment can serve as a strong ground for restoration of these old buildings and evade the devastation of emblems of cultural heritage of the city. The methodology includes questionnaire survey of users as well as a qualitative assessment regarding place attachment and residential satisfaction. About 20 residential buildings in the core city of Pune are selected for this purpose. The results of survey are analyzed and conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: place attachment, residential satisfaction, old residential buildings, housing characteristics, cultural heritage

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2628 Assessing Household Energy Savings and Consumer Behavior in Padang City

Authors: Prima Fithri, Lusi Susanti, Karin Bestarina

Abstract:

Indonesia's electrification ratio is still around 80.1%, which means that approximately 19.9% of households in Indonesia have not been getting the flow of electrical energy. Household electricity consumptions in Indonesia are generally still dominated by the public urban. In the city of Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia, about 94.10% are power users of government services (PLN). The most important thing of the issue is human resources efficient energy. Consumer behavior in utilizing electricity becomes significant. Intensive questioner survey, in-depth interview and statistical analysis are carried out to collect scientific evidences of the behavioral based changes instruments to reduce electricity consumption in household sector. The questioner was developed to include five factors assuming affect the electricity consumption pattern in household sector. They are: attitude, energy price, household income, knowledge and other determinants. The survey was carried out in Padang, West Sumatra Province Indonesia. About 210 questioner papers were proportionally distributed to households in 11 districts in Padang. Stratified sampling was used as a method to select respondents. The results show that the household size, income, payment methods and size of house are factors affecting electricity saving behavior in residential sector. Household expenses on electricity are strongly influenced by gender, type of job, level of education, size of house, income, payment method and level of installed power. These results provide a scientific evidence for stakeholders on the potential of controlling electricity consumption and designing energy policy by government in residential sector.

Keywords: electricity, energy saving, household, behavior, policy

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2627 Factors Affecting Sense of Community in Residential Communities Case Study: Residential Communities in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Parvin Foroughifar

Abstract:

The concept of sense of community refers to residents’ sense of attachment and commitment to the other residents in a residential community. It is implicitly indicative of the mental image of a physical environment in which the residents enjoy strong social ties. Sense of community, a crucial factor in improving quality of life and social welfare, leads to life satisfaction in a residential community. Despite the important functions of such a notion, few empirical studies, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have been so far carried out in Iran to investigate the effective factors in sharpening the sense of community in residential communities. This survey research examined sense of community in 360 above 20-year old residents of three residential communities in Tehran, Iran using cluster sampling and questionnaire. The study yielded the result that variables of local social ties, social control and trust, sense of security, length of residence, use of public spaces, and mixed land use have a significant relationship with sense of community.

Keywords: sense of community, local social ties, sense of security, public space, residential community, Tehran

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2626 Criteria Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: An Urban Dwellers’ Perspective

Authors: Arati Siddharth Petkar, Joel E. M. Macwan

Abstract:

Preferences for residential location are of a diverse nature. Primarily they are based on the socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-demographic characteristics of the household. It also depends on character, and the growth potential of different areas in a city. In the present study, various criteria affecting residential location preferences from the Urban Dwellers’ perspective have been analyzed. The household survey has been conducted in two parts: Existing Buyers’ survey and Future Buyers’ survey. The analysis reveals that workplace location is the most governing criterion in deciding residential location from the majority of the urban dwellers perspective. For analyzing the importance of varied criteria, Analytical Hierarchy Process approach has been explored. The suggested approach will be helpful for urban planners, decision makers and developers, while designating a new residential area or redeveloping an existing one.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process (AHP), household, preferences, residential location preferences, residential land use, urban dwellers

Procedia PDF Downloads 88