Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 473

Search results for: preferences

473 Payment for Pain: Differences between Hypothetical and Real Preferences

Authors: J. Trarbach, S. Schosser, B. Vogt

Abstract:

Decision-makers tend to prefer the first alternative over subsequent alternatives which is called the primacy effect. To reliably measure this effect, we conducted an experiment with real consequences for preference statements. Therefore, we elicit preferences of subjects using a rating scale, i.e. hypothetical preferences, and willingness to pay, i.e. real preferences, for two sequences of pain. Within these sequences, both overall intensity and duration of pain are identical. Hence, a rational decision-maker should be indifferent, whereas the primacy effect predicts a stronger preference for the first sequence. What we see is a primacy effect only for hypothetical preferences. This effect vanishes for real preferences.

Keywords: decision making, primacy effect, real incentives, willingness to pay

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472 Adaptive Conjoint Analysis of Professionals’ Job Preferences

Authors: N. Scheidegger, A. Mueller

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Job preferences are a well-developed research field. Many studies analyze the preferences using simple ratings with a sample of university graduates. The current study analyzes the preferences with a mixed method approach of a qualitative preliminary study and adaptive conjoint-analysis. Preconditions of accepting job offers are clarified for professionals in the industrial sector. It could be shown that, e.g. wages above the average are critical and that career opportunities must be seen broader than merely a focus on formal personnel development programs. The results suggest that, to be effective with their recruitment efforts, employers must take into account key desirable job attributes of their target group.

Keywords: conjoint analysis, employer attractiveness, job preferences, personnel marketing

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471 Building a Measure of Sensory Preferences For (Wrestling and Boxing) Players

Authors: Mohamed Nabhan

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The research aims to build a measure of sensory preferences for (wrestling and boxing) players. The researchers used the descriptive approach and a sample of (8) consisting of (40) wrestling players, (40) boxing players with different scales, and they were chosen in a deliberate random way, and the most important results were that there were statistically significant differences between wrestlers and boxers in the sensory preferences of their senses. There is no indication in the sensory preferences for the senses of “sight and hearing” and that the significance is in favor of the wrestlers in the senses of “sight and touch,” and there is a convergence in the sense of hearing. Through the value of the averagesAfter collecting the data and statistical treatments and the results reached by the researcher, it was possible to reach: The following conclusions and recommendations: There are differences between wrestling and boxing players in their sensory preferences, the senses used in learning, due to several reasons, the most important of which may be as follows:- Scales for the player and for each sport separately. The nature of the game, the performance of skills, and dealing with the opponent or competitor.Tools used in performance and training.

Keywords: sensory preferences, sensory scale, wrestling players, boxing players

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470 Brand Preferences in Saudi Arabia: Explorative Study in Jeddah

Authors: Badr Alharbi

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There is significant debate on the evolution of retail marketing as an economy matures. In penetrating new markets, global brands are efficient in establishing a presence and replacing less effective competitors by engaging in superior advertising, pricing and sometimes quality. However, national brands adapt over time and may either partner with global brands in distribution and services or directly compete more efficiently in the new, open market. This explorative study investigates brand preferences in Saudi Arabia. As a conservative society, which is nevertheless highly commercialised, Saudi Arabia markets could be fragmenting with consumer preferences and rejections based on country of origin, globalisation, or perhaps regionalisation. To investigate this, an online survey was distributed to Saudis in Jeddah to gather data on their preferences for travel, technology, clothes and accessories, eating out, vehicles, and influential brands. The results from 710 valid responses were that there are distinct regional and national brand preferences among the young Saudi men who contributed to the survey. Apart from a preference for Saudi food providers, airline preferences were the United Emirates, holiday preferences were Europe, study and work preferences were the United States, hotel preferences were United States-based, car preferences were Japanese, and clothing preferences were United States-based. The results were broadly in line with international research findings; however, the study participants varied from Arab research findings by describing themselves as innovative in their purchase selections, rarely loyal (exception of Apple products) and continually seeking new brand experiences. This survey contributes to an understanding of evolving Saudi consumer preferences.

Keywords: Saudi marketing, globalisation, country of origin, brand preferences

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469 Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Housing in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammad Abdulaziz Algrnas, Emma Mulliner

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Housing projects have been established in Saudi Arabia, by both government and private construction companies, to meet the increasing demand from Saudi inhabitants across the country. However, the real estate market supply does not meet consumer preference requirements. Preferences normally differ depending on the consumer’s situation, such as the household’s sociological characteristics (age, household size and composition), resources (income, wealth, information and experience), tastes and priorities. Collecting information about consumer attitudes, preferences and perceptions is important for the real estate market in order to better understand housing demand and to ensure that this is met by appropriate supply. The aim of this paper is to identify consumer preferences for housing in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative closed-ended questionnaire was conducted with housing consumers in Saudi Arabia in order to gain insight into consumer needs, current household situation, preferences for a number of investigated housing attributes and consumers’ perceptions around the current housing problem. 752 survey responses were obtained and analysed in order to describe preferences for housing attributes and make comparisons between groups. Factor analysis was also conducted to identify and reduce the attributes. The results indicate a difference in preference according to the gender of the respondents and depending on their region of residence.

Keywords: housing attributes, Saudi Arabia, consumer preferences, housing preferences

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468 A Survey on the Requirements of University Course Timetabling

Authors: Nurul Liyana Abdul Aziz, Nur Aidya Hanum Aizam

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Course timetabling problems occur every semester in a university which includes the allocation of resources (subjects, lecturers and students) to a number of fixed rooms and timeslots. The assignment is carried out in a way such that there are no conflicts within rooms, students and lecturers, as well as fulfilling a range of constraints. The constraints consist of rules and policies set up by the universities as well as lecturers’ and students’ preferences of courses to be allocated in specific timeslots. This paper specifically focuses on the preferences of the course timetabling problem in one of the public universities in Malaysia. The demands will be considered into our existing mathematical model to make it more generalized and can be used widely. We have distributed questionnaires to a number of lecturers and students of the university to investigate their demands and preferences for their desired course timetable. We classify the preferences thus converting them to construct one mathematical model that can produce such timetable.

Keywords: university course timetabling problem, integer programming, preferences, constraints

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467 A Design for Customer Preferences Model by Cluster Analysis of Geometric Features and Customer Preferences

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Ching-Yen Chen

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In the design cycle, a main design task is to determine the external shape of the product. The external shape of a product is one of the key factors that can affect the customers’ preferences linking to the motivation to buy the product, especially in the case of a consumer electronic product such as a mobile phone. The relationship between the external shape and the customer preferences needs to be studied to enhance the customer’s purchase desire and action. In this research, a design for customer preferences model is developed for investigating the relationships between the external shape and the customer preferences of a product. In the first stage, the names of the geometric features are collected and evaluated from the data of the specified internet web pages using the developed text miner. The key geometric features can be determined if the number of occurrence on the web pages is relatively high. For each key geometric feature, the numerical values are explored using the text miner to collect the internet data from the web pages. In the second stage, a cluster analysis model is developed to evaluate the numerical values of the key geometric features to divide the external shapes into several groups. Several design suggestion cases can be proposed, for example, large model, mid-size model, and mini model, for designing a mobile phone. A customer preference index is developed by evaluating the numerical data of each of the key geometric features of the design suggestion cases. The design suggestion case with the top ranking of the customer preference index can be selected as the final design of the product. In this paper, an example product of a notebook computer is illustrated. It shows that the external shape of a product can be used to drive customer preferences. The presented design for customer preferences model is useful for determining a suitable external shape of the product to increase customer preferences.

Keywords: cluster analysis, customer preferences, design evaluation, design for customer preferences, product design

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466 Attitudes toward Programming Languages Based on Characteristics

Authors: Mohammad Shokoohi-Yekta, Hamid Mirebrahim

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A body of research has been devoted to investigating the preferences of computer programmers. These researches used various questionnaires to find out what programming language is most popular among programmers. The problem with such research is that the programmers are usually familiar with only a few languages; therefore, disregarding a number of other languages which might have characteristics that match their preferences more closely. To overcome such a problem, we decided to investigate the preferences of programmers in regards to the characteristics of languages, which help us to discover the languages that include the most characteristics preferred by the users. We conducted a user study to measure the preferences of programmers on different characteristics of programming languages and then tried to compare existing languages in the areas of application, Web and system programming. Overall, the results of our study indicated that the Ruby programming language has the highest preference score in the two areas of application and Web, and C++ has the highest score in the system area. The results of our study can also help programming language designers know the characteristics they should consider when developing new programming languages in order to attract more programmers.

Keywords: object orientation, programming language design, programmers' preferences, characteristic

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465 Criteria Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: An Urban Dwellers’ Perspective

Authors: Arati Siddharth Petkar, Joel E. M. Macwan

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Preferences for residential location are of a diverse nature. Primarily they are based on the socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-demographic characteristics of the household. It also depends on character, and the growth potential of different areas in a city. In the present study, various criteria affecting residential location preferences from the Urban Dwellers’ perspective have been analyzed. The household survey has been conducted in two parts: Existing Buyers’ survey and Future Buyers’ survey. The analysis reveals that workplace location is the most governing criterion in deciding residential location from the majority of the urban dwellers perspective. For analyzing the importance of varied criteria, Analytical Hierarchy Process approach has been explored. The suggested approach will be helpful for urban planners, decision makers and developers, while designating a new residential area or redeveloping an existing one.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process (AHP), household, preferences, residential location preferences, residential land use, urban dwellers

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464 Undergraduates Learning Preferences: A Comparison of Science, Technology and Social Science Academic Disciplines in Relations to Teaching Designs and Strategies

Authors: Salina Budin, Shaira Ismail

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Students learn effectively in a learning environment with a suitable teaching approach that matches their learning preferences. The main objective of the study is to examine the learning preferences amongst the students in the Science and Technology (S&T), and Social Science (SS) fields of study at the Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Pulau Pinang. The measurement instrument is based on the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles which measure five elements of learning styles; environmental, sociological, emotional, physiological and psychological. Questionnaires are distributed amongst undergraduates in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Faculty of Business Management. The respondents comprise of 131 diploma students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and 111 degree students of the Faculty of Business Management. The results indicate that, both S&T and SS students share a similar learning preferences on the environmental aspect, emotional preferences, motivational level, learning responsibility, persistent level in learning and learning structure. Most of the S&T students are concluded as analytical learners and the majority of SS students are global learners. Both S&T and SS students are concluded as visual learners, preferred to be in an active mobility in a relaxing and enjoying mode with some light of refreshments during the learning process and exhibited reflective characteristics in learning. Obviously, the S&T students are considered as left brain dominant, whereas the SS students are right brain dominant. The findings highlighted that both categories of students exhibited similar learning preferences except on psychological preferences.

Keywords: learning preferences, Dunn and Dunn learning style, teaching approach, science and technology, social science

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463 Disassociating Preferences from Evaluations Towards Pseudo Drink Brands

Authors: Micah Amd

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Preferences towards unfamiliar drink brands can be predictably influenced following correlations of subliminally-presented brands (CS) with positively valenced attributes (US). Alternatively, evaluations towards subliminally-presented CS may be more variable, suggesting that CS-evoked evaluations may disassociate from CS-associated preferences following subliminal CS-US conditioning. We assessed this hypothesis over three experiments (Ex1, Ex2, Ex3). Across each experiment, participants first provided preferences and evaluations towards meaningless trigrams (CS) as a baseline, followed by conditioning and a final round of preference and evaluation measurements. During conditioning, four pairs of subliminal and supraliminal/visible CS were respectively correlated with four US categories varying along aggregate valence (e.g., 100% positive, 80% positive, 40% positive, 0% positive – for Ex1 and Ex2). Across Ex1 and Ex2, presentation durations for subliminal CS were 34 and 17 milliseconds, respectively. Across Ex3, aggregate valences of the four US categories were altered (75% positive, 55% positive, 45% positive, 25% positive). Valence across US categories was manipulated to address a supplemental query of whether US-to-CS valence transfer was summative or integrative. During analysis, we computed two sets of difference scores reflecting pre-post preference and evaluation performances, respectively. These were subjected to Bayes tests. Across all experiments, results illustrated US-to-CS valence transfer was most likely to shift evaluations for visible CS, but least likely to shift evaluations for subliminal CS. Alternatively, preferences were likely to shift following correlations with single-valence categories (e.g., 100% positive, 100% negative) across both visible and subliminal CS. Our results suggest that CS preferences can be influenced through subliminal conditioning even as CS evaluations remain unchanged, supporting our central hypothesis. As for whether transfer effects are summative/integrative, our results were more mixed; a comparison of relative likelihoods revealed that preferences are more likely to reflect summative effects whereas evaluations reflect integration, independent of visibility condition.

Keywords: subliminal conditioning, evaluations, preferences, valence transfer

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462 VaR or TCE: Explaining the Preferences of Regulators

Authors: Silvia Faroni, Olivier Le Courtois, Krzysztof Ostaszewski

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While a lot of research concentrates on the merits of VaR and TCE, which are the two most classic risk indicators used by financial institutions, little has been written on explaining why regulators favor the choice of VaR or TCE in their set of rules. In this paper, we investigate the preferences of regulators with the aim of understanding why, for instance, a VaR with a given confidence level is ultimately retained. Further, this paper provides equivalence rules that explain how a given choice of VaR can be equivalent to a given choice of TCE. Then, we introduce a new risk indicator that extends TCE by providing a more versatile weighting of the constituents of probability distribution tails. All of our results are illustrated using the generalized Pareto distribution.

Keywords: generalized pareto distribution, generalized tail conditional expectation, regulator preferences, risk measure

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461 Media Planning Decisions and Preferences through a Goal Programming Model: An Application to a Media Campaign for a Mature Product in Italy

Authors: Cinzia Colapinto, Davide La Torre

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Goal Programming (GP) and its variants were applied to marketing and specific marketing issues, such as media scheduling problems in the last decades. The concept of satisfaction functions has been widely utilized in the GP model to explicitly integrate the Decision-Maker’s preferences. These preferences can be guided by the available information regarding the decision-making situation. A GP model with satisfaction functions for media planning decisions is proposed and then illustrated through a case study related to a marketing/media campaign in the Italian market.

Keywords: goal programming, satisfaction functions, media planning, tourism management

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460 A Multilevel Approach of Reproductive Preferences and Subsequent Behavior in India

Authors: Anjali Bansal

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Reproductive preferences mainly deal with two questions: when a couple wants children and how many they want. Questions related to these desires are often included in the fertility surveys as they can provide relevant information on the subsequent behavior. The aim of the study is to observe whether respondent’s response to these questions changed over time or not. We also tried to identify socio- economic and demographic factors associated with the stability (or instability) of fertility preferences. For this purpose, we used IHDS1 (2004-05) and follow up survey IHDS2 (2011-12) data and applied bivariate, multivariate and multilevel repeated measure analysis to it to find the consistency between responses. From the analysis, we found that preferences of women changes over the course of time as from the bivariate analysis we have found that 52% of women are not consistent in their desired family size and huge inconsistency are found in desire to continue childbearing. To get a better overlook of these inconsistencies, we have computed Intra Class Correlation (ICC) which tries to explain the consistency between individuals on their fertility responses at two time periods. We also explored that husband’s desire for additional child specifically male offspring contribute to these variations. Our findings lead us to a cessation that in India, individuals fertility preferences changed over a seven-year time period as the Intra Class correlation comes out to be very small which explains the variations among individuals. Concerted efforts should be made, therefore, to educate people, and conduct motivational programs to promote family planning for family welfare.

Keywords: change, consistency, preferences, over time

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459 Parent’s Preferences about Technology-Based Therapy for Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum – a UK Survey

Authors: Athanasia Kouroupa, Karen Irvine, Sivana Mengoni, Shivani Sharma

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Exploring parents’ preferences towards technology-based interventions for children on the autism spectrum can inform future research and support technology design. The study aimed to provide a comprehensive description of parents’ knowledge and preferences about innovative technology to support children on the autism spectrum. Survey data were collected from parents (n = 267) internationally. The survey included information about the use of conventional (e.g., smartphone, iPod, tablets) and non-conventional (e.g., virtual reality, robot) technologies. Parents appeared to prefer conventional technologies such as tablets and dislike non-conventional ones. They highlighted the positive contribution technology brought to the children’s lives during the pandemic. A few parents were equally concerned that the compulsory introduction of technology during the pandemic was associated with elongated time on devices. The data suggested that technology-based interventions are not widely known, need to be financially approachable and achieve a high standard of design to engage users.

Keywords: autism, intervention, preferences, technology

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458 English Reading Preferences among Primary Pupils

Authors: Jezza Mae T. Francisco, Marianet R. Delos Santos, Crisjame C. Toribio

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This study aims to determine the reading preference for English enrichment and reading comprehension among primary students and the difference in the reading preference and comprehension for English enrichment among primary students. This study employed a Descriptive-Quantitative Correlational Research Design. This study yielded the following findings: (1) It reveals that primary students got fair on their reading comprehension, and (2) It shows that there is no significant relationship between the reading preference for English enrichment and reading comprehension of the students. It is safe to conclude that the students’ reading preference is growing evidently in various milieus. This can inform the English department curriculum planners to consider their students’ text preferences that interest them to maximize engagement within a dynamic interactive learning process.

Keywords: reading preferences, reading comprehension, primary student, English enrichment

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457 Intergenerational Influences on Automobile Brand Preferences in Pakistan

Authors: Amena Sibghatullah

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The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of Inter-generational Influence (IGI) between two successive generations in the selection of automobile brands. IGI was examined between mother-daughter dyads and father-son dyads. A total sample of 320 respondents (80 fathers and their 80 sons, 80 mothers, and their 80 daughters) from the upper-middle class was selected. Three important findings from this study are; (a) the difference in proportion of agreements Brand-In-Use versus Brand-In-Mind appeared to be statistically significant in the Automobile product category. Thus agreements Brand-In-Use situation between parent and child has more agreements than Brand-In-Mind situation; (b) the difference in proportions between women and men (women means mother-daughter dyad agreement, and men means father-son dyad agreement) is statistically significant in automobile brand preferences. This means that mother-daughter dyad brand preferences, both brand-in-mind and brand-in-use are more significant than that of a father-son dyad, and (c) dominance of the top three brands has been exhibited in automobiles both Brand-In-Use and Brand-In-Mind. These three brands hold more than 57% of auto brand preferences. This means that the three brands occupy distinct and strong positions in the minds of consumers. These results reflect that there is significant evidence of IGI presence between parent and adult child. Marketers of auto brands need to understand this sort of influence on their target consumers.

Keywords: autombile brands, branding, intergenerational influence, preferences

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456 Institutional Preferences of Elites and Society: Paradoxes of Economic Development in Georgia

Authors: Inga Balarjishvili, Ia Natsvlishvili

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Article aims to discuss the controversial character of the institutional preferences of elites and society in modern Georgia. Desktop research method is used to formulate the findings and analyze the outcomes. It is accepted that transformation process in Post-Soviet Georgia went with the prevalence of elites’ institutional preferences over the needs of the society that induced voluntarism in the process of formation of institutions. Hypothesis of 'quasi-inclusion trap' is put forward in the article as an effect of authoritarian modernization that is proved by instable paces of wealth and economic growth in the post-authoritarian period. On the one hand, monopolization of institutional choice by the elites, blocking formation of inclusive political and economic institutions for fear of losing status-quo worsen perspectives for achieving free availability regime. On the other hand, consciousness of the society is dominated by informal institutions, judicial nihilism and orientation on 'self-survival values.' This hinders its consolidation as a 'collective principal' against 'institutional utilitarianism,' result of which is hindered economic development.

Keywords: elites, hypothesis of 'quasi-inclusion trap', institutional preferences, post-Soviet Georgia

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455 Attitudes of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities towards Occupational Preferences

Authors: Limor Gadot, Orly Sarid

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Integration of young adults with disabilities (YAWD) into workplaces provides an opportunity for social and occupational mobility, enabling them to financial independence. To enhance integration, it is important to understand their occupational preferences as well as the factors that influencing it such as demographic variables, self-assessed health, beliefs about work, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Planned behavior theory was chosen as a basis for this study. A cross-sectional study, based on preliminary sample of 37 YAWD who have been recognized by the National Insurance Institute and are engaged in a year of national service. The finding shows that most of the participants were single (97%) women (60%); average age was 22(+ 2) years, approximately half were secular. Most of the participants had disabilities resulting from CP (96%). Self-assessed health was correlated positively and significantly with behavioral intentions to work in the free market (r = .33, p = .05), and significant negative correlation with behavioral intentions to work in supported settings (r =.-40, p = .01), and sheltered settings (r =-.36, p = .03): individuals who perceived themselves as having more severe disabilities showed a greater tendency to choose a workplace with more rehabilitative inputs. Furthermore, women showed a greater tendency than men to perceive their disability as impairing their future intention to work: t (36) = 2.23, p < .05. Beliefs about work were positively associated with normative beliefs (r = .308, p = .06). The findings indicate that, especially with women, perceptions of health are related to occupational preferences. Moreover, the findings indicate that the relationship between subjective norms about work and normative beliefs about integrating in a workplace that prevail in the individual's environment affects occupational preferences. The contribution of the study lies in the development of new responses and interventions to encourage adults with disabilities to work.

Keywords: young adults, disabilities, work preferences, occupational preferences

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454 The Oppressive Boss and Employees' Authoritarianism: The Relation between Suppression of Voice by Employers and Employees' Preferences for Authoritarian Political Leadership

Authors: Antonia Stanojević, Agnes Akkerman

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In contemporary society, economically active people typically spend most of their waking hours doing their job. Having that in mind, this research examines how socialization at the workplace shapes political preferences. Innovatively, it examines, in particular, the possible relationship between employees’ voice suppression by the employer and the formation of their political preferences. Since the employer is perceived as an authority figure, their behavior might induce spillovers to attitudes about political authorities and authoritarian governance. Therefore, a positive effect of suppression of voice by employers on employees' preference for authoritarian governance is expected. Furthermore, this relation is expected to be mediated by two mechanisms: system justification and power distance. Namely, it is expected that suppression of voice would create a power distance organizational climate and increase employees’ acceptance of unequal distribution of power, as well as evoke attempts of oppression rationalization through system justification. The hypotheses will be tested on the data gathered within the first wave of Work and Politics Dataset 2017 (N=6000), which allows for a wide range of demographic and psychological control variables. Although a cross-sectional analysis to be used at this point does not allow for causal inferences, the confirmation of expected relationships would encourage and justify further longitudinal research on the same panel dataset, in order to get a clearer image of the causal relationship between employers' suppression of voice and workers' political preferences.

Keywords: authoritarian values, political preferences, power distance, system justification, voice suppression

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453 Association of Laterality and Sports Specific Rotational Preference with Number of Injuries in Artistic Gymnasts

Authors: Teja Joshi

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Laterality has shown to play a role in performance as well as injuries especially in unilateral sports disciplines. Uniquely, Artistic Gymnastics involves combination of unilateral, bilateral and complex multi-planer elements as well as gymnastics specific rotational preference. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore if any such preferences are associated with number of injuries in artistic gymnasts. To explore the association between lateral preferences, rotational preferences and injuries incidence in artistic gymnastics. Artistic gymnasts above 16 years of age, were invited to participate in an online survey. The survey included consent, lateral preference inventory, injury data collection according to anatomical locations and rotational preference for selected gymnastics elements performed on the floor exercise. SPSS version 24 was used to analyse Non-parametric data using Kruskal-Wallis (K- independent test) test. Multiple regression was performed to identify the predictor for injuries and their side in gymnasts. Total number of injuries per gymnast was associated with handedness (p value-0.049) and no significant association was noted for footdness (p value-0.207), eyedness (p value-0.491) and eardness (p value-0.798). Additionally, rotational preferences did not influence number of injuries (p value-0.521). In multiple regression, eyedness was identified as a predicting factor to determine the number of injuries. Rotational preferences were neither determined as a national strategy nor a product of lateral preference. Dominant hand had higher number of injuries in artistic gymnasts. Rotational preference is independent of laterality, number of injuries and nationality.

Keywords: sports injury, rotational preference, gymnastics, handedness

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452 Intelligent Process and Model Applied for E-Learning Systems

Authors: Mafawez Alharbi, Mahdi Jemmali

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E-learning is a developing area especially in education. E-learning can provide several benefits to learners. An intelligent system to collect all components satisfying user preferences is so important. This research presents an approach that it capable to personalize e-information and give the user their needs following their preferences. This proposal can make some knowledge after more evaluations made by the user. In addition, it can learn from the habit from the user. Finally, we show a walk-through to prove how intelligent process work.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, architecture, e-learning, software engineering, processing

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451 Examination of Activity Preferences in Leisure Time of Y and Z Generations

Authors: Esma Ozkan, Sumeyye Belhan

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The aim of this study is to examine the activity preferences of individuals in Y and Z generation. 90 Y and 90 Z generation individuals with a mean age of 32,76 ± 4,76 and 15,35 ± 2,61 years respectively, participated in the study and their activity preferences assessed. Results show that Y and Z generations preferred swimming and cycling among health related activities. For leisure activities, listening to music was favored by 87.5% and 100% of the Y and Z generations respectively. Reading (90%) was the most popular among Y generation and the second preferred for Z generation after technology (77.5%). Therefore, school based occupational therapy including activity analysis is key to enable adolescents to engage in proper activities. Inviting/visiting friends and family (socialization) was chosen by 100% of Y generation compared to 75% for Z generation. Since our culture and traditions are based on eating and socializing, these activities are well regarded across generations in Turkish society. Educational activities were preferred by 35% of Z generation compared to 75% in Y generation. Also, Z generation was more interested in history compared to sciences. Educational system changes, due to domestic politics and society, may have caused such differences among generations.

Keywords: activity preference, lifestyle, values, Y and Z generations

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450 Consumer Preferences when Buying Second Hand Luxury Items

Authors: K. A. Schuck, J. K. Perret, A. Mehn, K. Rommel

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Consumers increasingly consider sustainability aspects in their consumption behavior. Although, few fashion brands are already active in the second-hand luxury market with their own online platforms. Separating between base and high-end luxury brands, two online discrete choice experiments determine the drivers behind consumers’ willingness-to-pay for platform characteristics like the type of ownership, giving brands the opportunity to elicit a financial scope they can operate within.

Keywords: choice experiment, luxury, preferences, second-hand, platform, online

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449 Integrating Human Preferences into the Automated Decisions of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Arwa Khannoussi, Alexandru-Liviu Olteanu, Pritesh Narayan, Catherine Dezan, Jean-Philippe Diguet, Patrick Meyer, Jacques Petit-Frere

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Due to the nature of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) missions, it is important that the decisions of a UAV stay consistent with the priorities of an operator, while at the same time allowing them to be easily audited and explained. We propose a multi-layer decision engine that integrates the operator (human) preferences by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) methods. A software implementation of a UAV simulator and of the decision engine is presented to highlight the advantage of using such techniques on high-level decisions. We demonstrate that, with such a preference-based decision engine, the decisions of the UAV are compatible with the priorities of the operator, which in turn increases her/his confidence in its autonomous behavior.

Keywords: autonomous UAV, multi-criteria decision aiding, multi-layers decision engine, operator's preferences, traceable decisions, UAV simulation

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448 The Use of Instructional Media in a Thai EFL Classroom: Student Teachers' Preferences and Attitudes

Authors: Khanita Limhan

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Due to the fact that the instructional media is a very crucial implement in English as Foreign Language (EFL) teaching and learning because it simply motivates or demotivates the learners to learn English. Furthermore, it could enormously involve the learners in the real language. The mixed-method research investigates undergraduate student teachers at the Faculty of Education in aspects of the preferences and attitudes towards the use of instructional media in a Thai EFL classroom. Therefore, there were 21 female and 4 male students, who are being educated to be secondary English teachers in Thai educational system, participated in this study. Moreover, the data was gathered from six open-ended questions; obviously, all were given at least 30 - 45 minutes to express their preferences and thoughts in their native tongue at the end of the English for English teacher course. The results of this study indicated that 64 % of student teachers preferred to study English grammar through songs and music; 54% of them desire to learn English grammar through English movies; and 40% of them want to acquire English grammar by watching short documentaries. Since, the participants illustrated that they feel neither anxious nor bored; however, they feel very excited and fun while studying. In addition, they pointed out that they could improve their listening proficiency; obtain new vocabulary; and comprehend the cultural content authentically from the instructional media. It can be concluded that the use of instructional media affects students and teachers’ motivations and attitudes on English teaching and learning.

Keywords: attitudes, preferences, student teachers, instructional media

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447 An Unexpected Helping Hand: Consequences of Redistribution on Personal Ideology

Authors: Simon B.A. Egli, Katja Rost

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Literature on redistributive preferences has proliferated in past decades. A core assumption behind it is that variation in redistributive preferences can explain different levels of redistribution. In contrast, this paper considers the reverse. What if it is redistribution that changes redistributive preferences? The core assumption behind the argument is that if self-interest - which we label concrete preferences - and ideology - which we label abstract preferences - come into conflict, the former will prevail and lead to an adjustment of the latter. To test the hypothesis, data from a survey conducted in Switzerland during the first wave of the COVID-19 crisis is used. A significant portion of the workforce at the time unexpectedly received state money through the short-time working program. Short-time work was used as a proxy for self-interest and was tested (1) on the support given to hypothetical, ailing firms during the crisis and (2) on the prioritization of justice principles guiding state action. In a first step, several models using OLS-regressions on political orientation were estimated to test our hypothesis as well as to check for non-linear effects. We expected support for ailing firms to be the same regardless of ideology but only for people on short-time work. The results both confirm our hypothesis and suggest a non-linear effect. Far-right individuals on short-time work were disproportionally supportive compared to moderate ones. In a second step, ordered logit models were estimated to test the impact of short-time work and political orientation on the rankings of the distributive justice principles need, performance, entitlement, and equality. The results show that being on short-time work significantly alters the prioritization of justice principles. Right-wing individuals are much more likely to prioritize need and equality over performance and entitlement when they receive government assistance. No such effect is found among left-wing individuals. In conclusion, we provide moderate to strong evidence that unexpectedly finding oneself at the receiving end changes redistributive preferences if personal ideology is antithetical to redistribution. The implications of our findings on the study of populism, personal ideologies, and political change are discussed.

Keywords: COVID-19, ideology, redistribution, redistributive preferences, self-interest

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446 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media- A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

Abstract:

Social media continue to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users preferences may influence their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic version of user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: culture, social media, user interface design, Facebook, Saudi Arabia

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445 Decision Support Tool for Green Roofs Selection: A Multicriteria Analysis

Authors: I. Teotónio, C.O. Cruz, C.M. Silva, M. Manso

Abstract:

Diverse stakeholders show different concerns when choosing green roof systems. Also, green roof solutions vary in their cost and performance. Therefore, decision-makers continually face the difficult task of balancing benefits against green roofs costs. Decision analysis methods, as multicriteria analysis, can be used when the decision‑making process includes different perspectives, multiple objectives, and uncertainty. The present study adopts a multicriteria decision model to evaluate the installation of green roofs in buildings, determining the solution with the best trade-off between costs and benefits in agreement with the preferences of the users/investors. This methodology was applied to a real decision problem, assessing the preferences between different green roof systems in an existing building in Lisbon. This approach supports the decision-making process on green roofs and enables robust and informed decisions on urban planning while optimizing buildings retrofitting.

Keywords: decision making, green roofs, investors preferences, multicriteria analysis, sustainable development

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444 Learning Activities in Teaching Nihon-Go in the Philippines: Basis for a Proposed Action Plan

Authors: Esperanza C. Santos

Abstract:

Japanese Language was traditionally considered as a means of imparting culture and training aesthetic experience in students and therefore as something beyond the practical aims of language teaching and learning. Due to the complexity of foreign languages, lots of language learners and teachers shared deep reservations about the potentials of foreign language in enhancing the communication skills of the students. In spite of the arguments against the use of Foreign Language (Nihon-go) in the classroom, the researcher strongly support the use of Nihon-go in teaching communication skills as the researcher believes that Nihon-go is a valuable resource to be exploited in the classroom in order to help the students explore the language in an interesting and challenging way. The focus of this research is to find out the relationship between the preferences, opinions, and perceptions with the communication skills. This study also identifies the significance of the relationship between preferences, opinions and perceptions and communications skills in the activities employed in Foreign language (Nihon-go) among the junior and senior students in Foreign Language 2 at the Imus Institute, Imus Cavite during the academic year 2013-2014. The results of the study are expected to encourage further studies that particularly focused on the communication skills as brought about by the identified factors namely: preferences, opinions, and perceptions on the benefits factor namely the language acquisition; access to Japanese culture and students' interpretative ability. Therefore, this research is in its quest for the issues and concerns on how to effectively teach different learning activities in a Nihon-go class.

Keywords: preferences, opinions, perceptions, language acquisition

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