Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6819

Search results for: building simulation

6819 Geometric Simplification Method of Building Energy Model Based on Building Performance Simulation

Authors: Yan Lyu, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang


In the design stage of a new building, the energy model of this building is often required for the analysis of the performance on energy efficiency. In practice, a certain degree of geometric simplification should be done in the establishment of building energy models, since the detailed geometric features of a real building are hard to be described perfectly in most energy simulation engine, such as ESP-r, eQuest or EnergyPlus. Actually, the detailed description is not necessary when the result with extremely high accuracy is not demanded. Therefore, this paper analyzed the relationship between the error of the simulation result from building energy models and the geometric simplification of the models. Finally, the following two parameters are selected as the indices to characterize the geometric feature of in building energy simulation: the southward projected area and total side surface area of the building, Based on the parameterization method, the simplification from an arbitrary column building to a typical shape (a cuboid) building can be made for energy modeling. The result in this study indicates that this simplification would only lead to the error that is less than 7% for those buildings with the ratio of southward projection length to total perimeter of the bottom of 0.25~0.35, which can cover most situations.

Keywords: building energy model, simulation, geometric simplification, design, regression

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6818 The Use of Building Energy Simulation Software in Case Studies: A Literature Review

Authors: Arman Ameen, Mathias Cehlin


The use of Building Energy Simulation (BES) software has increased in the last two decades, parallel to the development of increased computing power and easy to use software applications. This type of software is primarily used to simulate the energy use and the indoor environment for a building. The rapid development of these types of software has raised their level of user-friendliness, better parameter input options and the increased possibility of analysis, both for a single building component or an entire building. This, in turn, has led to many researchers utilizing BES software in their research in various degrees. The aim of this paper is to carry out a literature review concerning the use of the BES software IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE) in the scientific community. The focus of this paper will be specifically the use of the software for whole building energy simulation, number and types of articles and publications dates, the area of application, types of parameters used, the location of the studied building, type of building, type of analysis and solution methodology. Another aspect that is examined, which is of great interest, is the method of validations regarding the simulation results. The results show that there is an upgoing trend in the use of IDA ICE and that researchers use the software in their research in various degrees depending on case and aim of their research. The satisfactory level of validation of the simulations carried out in these articles varies depending on the type of article and type of analysis.

Keywords: building simulation, IDA ICE, literature review, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
6817 Design and Modeling of a Green Building Energy Efficient System

Authors: Berhane Gebreslassie


Conventional commericial buildings are among the highest unwisely consumes enormous amount of energy and as consequence produce significant amount Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Traditional/conventional buildings have been built for years without consideration being given to their impact on the global warming issues as well as their CO2 contributions. Since 1973, simulation of Green Building (GB) for Energy Efficiency started and many countries in particular the US showed a positive response to minimize the usage of energy in respect to reducing the CO2 emission. As a consequence many software companies developed their own unique building energy efficiency simulation software, interfacing interoperability with Building Information Modeling (BIM). The last decade has witnessed very rapid growing number of researches on GB energy efficiency system. However, the study also indicates that the results of current GB simulation are not yet satisfactory to meet the objectives of GB. In addition most of these previous studies are unlikely excluded the studies of ultimate building energy efficiencies simulation. The aim of this project is to meet the objectives of GB by design, modeling and simulation of building ultimate energy efficiencies system. This research project presents multi-level, L-shape office building in which every particular part of the building materials has been tested for energy efficiency. An overall of 78.62% energy is saved, approaching to NetZero energy saving. Furthermore, the building is implements with distributed energy resources like renewable energies and integrating with Smart Building Automation System (SBAS) for controlling and monitoring energy usage.

Keywords: ultimate energy saving, optimum energy saving, green building, sustainable materials and renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
6816 Developing a Simulation-Based Optimization Framework to Perform Energy Simulation for Indian Buildings

Authors: Sujoy Anirudha Das, Albert Thomas


Building sector is a major consumer of energy globally, and it has corresponding effects to the environment with respect to the carbon emissions. Given the fact that India is expected to add 40-billion square meter of new buildings till 2050, we need frameworks that help in reducing the overall energy consumption in the building sector. Even though several simulation-based frameworks that help in analyzing the building energy consumption are developed globally, in the Indian context, to the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of a comprehensive, yet user-friendly framework to simulate and optimize the effects of various energy influencing factors, specifically for Indian buildings. Therefore, this study is aimed at developing a simulation-based optimization framework to model the energy interactions in different types of Indian buildings by considering the dynamic nature of various energy influencing factors. This comprehensive framework can be used by various building stakeholders to test the energy effects of different factors such as, but not limited to, the various building materials, the orientation, the weather fluctuations, occupancy changes and the type of the building (e.g., office, residential). The results from the case study involving several building types would help us in gaining insights to build new energy-efficient buildings as well as retrofit the existing structures in a more convenient way to consume less energy, exclusively for an Indian scenario.

Keywords: building energy consumption, building energy simulations, energy efficient buildings, optimization framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
6815 A Simulation Tool for Projection Mapping Based on Mapbox and Unity

Authors: Noriko Hanakawa, Masaki Obana


A simulation tool has been proposed for big-scale projection mapping events. The tool has four main functions based on Mapbox and Unity utilities. The first function is building a 3D model of real cities by MapBox. The second function is a movie projection to some buildings in real cities by Unity. The third function is a movie sending function from a PC to a virtual projector. The fourth function is mapping movies with fitting buildings. The simulation tool was adapted to a real projection mapping event that was held in 2019. The event has been finished. The event had a serious problem in the movie projection to the target building. The extra tents were set in front of the target building. The tents became the obstacles to the movie projection. The simulation tool can be reappeared the problems of the event. Therefore, if the simulation tool was developed before the 2019 projection mapping event, the problem of the tents’ obstacles could be avoided with the simulation tool. In addition, we confirmed that the simulation tool is useful to make a plan of future projection mapping events in order to avoid obstacles of various extra equipment such as utility poles, planting trees, monument towers.

Keywords: projection mapping, projector position, real 3D map, avoiding obstacles

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
6814 Utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Analysis of Natural Ventilation in Buildings

Authors: A. W. J. Wong, I. H. Ibrahim


Increasing urbanisation has driven building designers to incorporate natural ventilation in the designs of sustainable buildings. This project utilises Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to investigate the natural ventilation of an academic building, [email protected], using an assessment criterion based on daily mean temperature and mean velocity. The areas of interest are the pedestrian level of first and fourth levels of the building. A reference case recommended by the Architectural Institute of Japan was used to validate the simulation model. The validated simulation model was then used for coupled simulations on [email protected] and neighbouring geometries, under two wind speeds. Both steady and transient simulations were used to identify differences in results. Steady and transient results are agreeable with the transient simulation identifying peak velocities during flow development. Under a lower wind speed, the first level was sufficiently ventilated while the fourth level was not. The first level has excessive wind velocities in the higher wind speed and the fourth level was adequately ventilated. Fourth level flow velocity was consistently lower than those of the first level. This is attributed to either simulation model error or poor building design. [email protected] is concluded to have a sufficiently ventilated first level and insufficiently ventilated fourth level. Future works for this project extend to modifying the urban geometry, simulation model improvements, evaluation using other assessment metrics and extending the area of interest to the entire building.

Keywords: buildings, CFD Simulations, natural ventilation, urban airflow

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6813 Dynamic Modeling of Energy Systems Adapted to Low Energy Buildings in Lebanon

Authors: Nadine Yehya, Chantal Maatouk


Low energy buildings have been developed to achieve global climate commitments in reducing energy consumption. They comprise energy efficient buildings, zero energy buildings, positive buildings and passive house buildings. The reduced energy demands in Low Energy buildings call for advanced building energy modeling that focuses on studying active building systems such as heating, cooling and ventilation, improvement of systems performances, and development of control systems. Modeling and building simulation have expanded to cover different modeling approach i.e.: detailed physical model, dynamic empirical models, and hybrid approaches, which are adopted by various simulation tools. This paper uses DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus simulation engine in order to; First, study the impact of efficiency measures on building energy behavior by comparing Low energy residential model to a conventional one in Beirut-Lebanon. Second, choose the appropriate energy systems for the studied case characterized by an important cooling demand. Third, study dynamic modeling of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system in EnergyPlus that is chosen due to its advantages over other systems and its availability in the Lebanese market. Finally, simulation of different energy systems models with different modeling approaches is necessary to confront the different modeling approaches and to investigate the interaction between energy systems and building envelope that affects the total energy consumption of Low Energy buildings.

Keywords: physical model, variable refrigerant flow heat pump, dynamic modeling, EnergyPlus, the modeling approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
6812 Research on the Impact on Building Temperature and Ventilation by Outdoor Shading Devices in Hot-Humid Area: Through Measurement and Simulation on an Office Building in Guangzhou

Authors: Hankun Lin, Yiqiang Xiao, Qiaosheng Zhan


Shading devices (SDs) are widely used in buildings in the hot-humid climate areas for reducing cooling energy consumption for interior temperature, as the result of reducing the solar radiation directly. Contrasting the surface temperature of materials of SDs to the glass on the building façade could give more analysis for the shading effect. On the other side, SDs are much more used as the independence system on building façade in hot-humid area. This typical construction could have some impacts on building ventilation as well. This paper discusses the outdoor SDs’ effects on the building thermal environment and ventilation, through a set of measurements on a 2-floors office building in Guangzhou, China, which install a dynamic aluminum SD-system around the façade on 2nd-floor. The measurements recorded the in/outdoor temperature, relative humidity, velocity, and the surface temperature of the aluminum panel and the glaze. After that, a CFD simulation was conducted for deeper discussion of ventilation. In conclusion, this paper reveals the temperature differences on the different material of the façade, and finds that the velocity of indoor environment could be reduced by the outdoor SDs.

Keywords: outdoor shading devices, hot-humid area, temperature, ventilation, measurement, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
6811 Toward Sustainable Building Design in Hot and Arid Climate with Reference to Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. Alwetaishi


One of the most common and traditional strategies in architecture is to design buildings passively. This is a way to ensure low building energy reliance with respect to specific micro-building locations. There are so many ways where buildings can be designed passively, some of which are applying thermal insulation, thermal mass, courtyard and glazing to wall ratio. This research investigates the impact of each of these aspects with respect to the hot and dry climate of the capital of Riyadh. Thermal Analysis Simulation (TAS) will be utilized which is powered by Environmental Design Simulation Limited company (EDSL). It is considered as one of the most powerful tools to predict energy performance in buildings. There are three primary building designs and methods which are using courtyard, thermal mass and thermal insulation. The same building size and fabrication properties have been applied to all designs. Riyadh city which is the capital of the country was taken as a case study of the research. The research has taken into account various zone directions within the building as it has a large contribution to indoor energy and thermal performance. It is revealed that it is possible to achieve nearly zero carbon building in the hot and dry region in winter with minimum reliance on energy loads for building zones facing south, west and east. Moreover, using courtyard is more beneficial than applying construction materials into building envelope. Glazing to wall ratio is recommended to be 10% and not exceeding 30% in all directions in hot and arid regions.

Keywords: sustainable buildings, hot and arid climates, passive building design, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6810 Analyzing the Effect of Materials’ Selection on Energy Saving and Carbon Footprint: A Case Study Simulation of Concrete Structure Building

Authors: M. Kouhirostamkolaei, M. Kouhirostami, M. Sam, J. Woo, A. T. Asutosh, J. Li, C. Kibert


Construction is one of the most energy consumed activities in the urban environment that results in a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions around the world. Thus, the impact of the construction industry on global warming is undeniable. Thus, reducing building energy consumption and mitigating carbon production can slow the rate of global warming. The purpose of this study is to determine the amount of energy consumption and carbon dioxide production during the operation phase and the impact of using new shells on energy saving and carbon footprint. Therefore, a residential building with a re-enforced concrete structure is selected in Babolsar, Iran. DesignBuilder software has been used for one year of building operation to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide production and energy consumption in the operation phase of the building. The primary results show the building use 61750 kWh of energy each year. Computer simulation analyzes the effect of changing building shells -using XPS polystyrene and new electrochromic windows- as well as changing the type of lighting on energy consumption reduction and subsequent carbon dioxide production. The results show that the amount of energy and carbon production during building operation has been reduced by approximately 70% by applying the proposed changes. The changes reduce CO2e to 11345 kg CO2/yr. The result of this study helps designers and engineers to consider material selection’s process as one of the most important stages of design for improving energy performance of buildings.

Keywords: construction materials, green construction, energy simulation, carbon footprint, energy saving, concrete structure, designbuilder

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6809 Applicability of Overhangs for Energy Saving in Existing High-Rise Housing in Different Climates

Authors: Qiong He, S. Thomas Ng


Upgrading the thermal performance of building envelope of existing residential buildings is an effective way to reduce heat gain or heat loss. Overhang device is a common solution for building envelope improvement as it can cut down solar heat gain and thereby can reduce the energy used for space cooling in summer time. Despite that, overhang can increase the demand for indoor heating in winter due to its function of lowering the solar heat gain. Obviously, overhang has different impacts on energy use in different climatic zones which have different energy demand. To evaluate the impact of overhang device on building energy performance under different climates of China, an energy analysis model is built up in a computer-based simulation program known as DesignBuilder based on the data of a typical high-rise residential building. The energy simulation results show that single overhang is able to cut down around 5% of the energy consumption of the case building in the stand-alone situation or about 2% when the building is surrounded by other buildings in regions which predominantly rely on space cooling though it has no contribution to energy reduction in cold region. In regions with cold summer and cold winter, adding overhang over windows can cut down around 4% and 1.8% energy use with and without adjoining buildings, respectively. The results indicate that overhang might not an effective shading device to reduce the energy consumption in the mixed climate or cold regions.

Keywords: overhang, energy analysis, computer-based simulation, design builder, high-rise residential building, climate, BIM model

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
6808 Developing Integrated Model for Building Design and Evacuation Planning

Authors: Hao-Hsi Tseng, Hsin-Yun Lee


In the process of building design, the designers have to complete the spatial design and consider the evacuation performance at the same time. It is usually difficult to combine the two planning processes and it results in the gap between spatial design and evacuation performance. Then the designers cannot complete an integrated optimal design solution. In addition, the evacuation routing models proposed by previous researchers is different from the practical evacuation decisions in the real field. On the other hand, more and more building design projects are executed by Building Information Modeling (BIM) in which the design content is formed by the object-oriented framework. Thus, the integration of BIM and evacuation simulation can make a significant contribution for designers. Therefore, this research plan will establish a model that integrates spatial design and evacuation planning. The proposed model will provide the support for the spatial design modifications and optimize the evacuation planning. The designers can complete the integrated design solution in BIM. Besides, this research plan improves the evacuation routing method to make the simulation results more practical. The proposed model will be applied in a building design project for evaluation and validation when it will provide the near-optimal design suggestion. By applying the proposed model, the integration and efficiency of the design process are improved and the evacuation plan is more useful. The quality of building spatial design will be better.

Keywords: building information modeling, evacuation, design, floor plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
6807 Simplified 3R2C Building Thermal Network Model: A Case Study

Authors: S. M. Mahbobur Rahman


Whole building energy simulation models are widely used for predicting future energy consumption, performance diagnosis and optimum control.  Black box building energy modeling approach has been heavily studied in the past decade. The thermal response of a building can also be modeled using a network of interconnected resistors (R) and capacitors (C) at each node called R-C network. In this study, a model building, Case 600, as described in the “Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Program”, ASHRAE standard 140, is studied along with a 3R2C thermal network model and the ASHRAE clear sky solar radiation model. Although building an energy model involves two important parts of building component i.e., the envelope and internal mass, the effect of building internal mass is not considered in this study. All the characteristic parameters of the building envelope are evaluated as on Case 600. Finally, monthly building energy consumption from the thermal network model is compared with a simple-box energy model within reasonable accuracy. From the results, 0.6-9.4% variation of monthly energy consumption is observed because of the south-facing windows.

Keywords: ASHRAE case study, clear sky solar radiation model, energy modeling, thermal network model

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6806 Thermal Simulation for Urban Planning in Early Design Phases

Authors: Diego A. Romero Espinosa


Thermal simulations are used to evaluate comfort and energy consumption of buildings. However, the performance of different urban forms cannot be assessed precisely if an environmental control system and user schedules are considered. The outcome of such analysis would lead to conclusions that combine the building use, operation, services, envelope, orientation and density of the urban fabric. The influence of these factors varies during the life cycle of a building. The orientation, as well as the surroundings, can be considered a constant during the lifetime of a building. The structure impacts the thermal inertia and has the largest lifespan of all the building components. On the other hand, the building envelope is the most frequent renovated component of a building since it has a great impact on energy performance and comfort. Building services have a shorter lifespan and are replaced regularly. With the purpose of addressing the performance, an urban form, a specific orientation, and density, a thermal simulation method were developed. The solar irradiation is taken into consideration depending on the outdoor temperature. Incoming irradiation at low temperatures has a positive impact increasing the indoor temperature. Consequently, overheating would be the combination of high outdoor temperature and high irradiation at the façade. On this basis, the indoor temperature is simulated for a specific orientation of the evaluated urban form. Thermal inertia and building envelope performance are considered additionally as the materiality of the building. The results of different thermal zones are summarized using the 'Degree day method' for cooling and heating. During the early phase of a design process for a project, such as Masterplan, conclusions regarding urban form, density and materiality can be drawn by means of this analysis.

Keywords: building envelope, density, masterplanning, urban form

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6805 CFD Simulations to Examine Natural Ventilation of a Work Area in a Public Building

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Jen-Hao Wu, Yu-Hsuan Juan


Natural ventilation has played an important role for many low energy-building designs. It has been also noticed as a essential subject to persistently bring the fresh cool air from the outside into a building. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to examine the natural ventilation development of a work area in a public building. The simulated results can be useful to better understand the indoor microclimate and the interaction of wind with buildings. Besides, this CFD simulation procedure can serve as an effective analysis tool to characterize the airing performance, and thereby optimize the building ventilation for strengthening the architects, planners and other decision makers on improving the natural ventilation design of public buildings.

Keywords: CFD simulations, natural ventilation, microclimate, wind environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
6804 Explore and Reduce the Performance Gap between Building Modelling Simulations and the Real World: Case Study

Authors: B. Salehi, D. Andrews, I. Chaer, A. Gillich, A. Chalk, D. Bush


With the rapid increase of energy consumption in buildings in recent years, especially with the rise in population and growing economies, the importance of energy savings in buildings becomes more critical. One of the key factors in ensuring energy consumption is controlled and kept at a minimum is to utilise building energy modelling at the very early stages of the design. So, building modelling and simulation is a growing discipline. During the design phase of construction, modelling software can be used to estimate a building’s projected energy consumption, as well as building performance. The growth in the use of building modelling software packages opens the door for improvements in the design and also in the modelling itself by introducing novel methods such as building information modelling-based software packages which promote conventional building energy modelling into the digital building design process. To understand the most effective implementation tools, research projects undertaken should include elements of real-world experiments and not just rely on theoretical and simulated approaches. Upon review of the related studies undertaken, it’s evident that they are mostly based on modelling and simulation, which can be due to various reasons such as the more expensive and time-consuming nature of real-time data-based studies. Taking in to account the recent rise of building energy software modelling packages and the increasing number of studies utilising these methods in their projects and research, the accuracy and reliability of these modelling software packages has become even more crucial and critical. This Energy Performance Gap refers to the discrepancy between the predicted energy savings and the realised actual savings, especially after buildings implement energy-efficient technologies. There are many different software packages available which are either free or have commercial versions. In this study, IES VE (Integrated Environmental Solutions Virtual Environment) is used as it is a common Building Energy Modeling and Simulation software in the UK. This paper describes a study that compares real time results with those in a virtual model to illustrate this gap. The subject of the study is a north west facing north-west (345°) facing, naturally ventilated, conservatory within a domestic building in London is monitored during summer to capture real-time data. Then these results are compared to the virtual results of IES VE, which is a commonly used building energy modelling and simulation software in the UK. In this project, the effect of the wrong position of blinds on overheating is studied as well as providing new evidence of Performance Gap. Furthermore, the challenges of drawing the input of solar shading products in IES VE will be considered.

Keywords: building energy modelling and simulation, integrated environmental solutions virtual environment, IES VE, performance gap, real time data, solar shading products

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6803 Uncertainty Analysis of a Hardware in Loop Setup for Testing Products Related to Building Technology

Authors: Balasundaram Prasaant, Ploix Stephane, Delinchant Benoit, Muresan Cristian


Hardware in Loop (HIL) testing is done to test and validate a particular product especially in building technology. When it comes to building technology, it is more important to test the products for their efficiency. The test rig in the HIL simulator may contribute to some uncertainties on measured efficiency. The uncertainties include physical uncertainties and scenario-based uncertainties. In this paper, a simple uncertainty analysis framework for an HIL setup is shown considering only the physical uncertainties. The entire modeling of the HIL setup is done in Dymola. The uncertain sources are considered based on available knowledge of the components and also on expert knowledge. For the propagation of uncertainty, Monte Carlo Simulation is used since it is the most reliable and easy to use. In this article it is shown how an HIL setup can be modeled and how uncertainty propagation can be performed on it. Such an approach is not common in building energy analysis.

Keywords: energy in buildings, hardware in loop testing, modelica modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, uncertainty propagation

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6802 Building Capacity and Personnel Flow Modeling for Operating amid COVID-19

Authors: Samuel Fernandes, Dylan Kato, Emin Burak Onat, Patrick Keyantuo, Raja Sengupta, Amine Bouzaghrane


The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the United States, forcing cities to impose stay-at-home and shelter-in-place orders. Building operations had to adjust as non-essential personnel worked from home. But as buildings prepare for personnel to return, they need to plan for safe operations amid new COVID-19 guidelines. In this paper we propose a methodology for capacity and flow modeling of personnel within buildings to safely operate under COVID-19 guidelines. We model personnel flow within buildings by network flows with queuing constraints. We study maximum flow, minimum cost, and minimax objectives. We compare our network flow approach with a simulation model through a case study and present the results. Our results showcase various scenarios of how buildings could be operated under new COVID-19 guidelines and provide a framework for building operators to plan and operate buildings in this new paradigm.

Keywords: network analysis, building simulation, COVID-19

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6801 Evaluation of Easy-to-Use Energy Building Design Tools for Solar Access Analysis in Urban Contexts: Comparison of Friendly Simulation Design Tools for Architectural Practice in the Early Design Stage

Authors: M. Iommi, G. Losco


Current building sector is focused on reduction of energy requirements, on renewable energy generation and on regeneration of existing urban areas. These targets need to be solved with a systemic approach, considering several aspects simultaneously such as climate conditions, lighting conditions, solar radiation, PV potential, etc. The solar access analysis is an already known method to analyze the solar potentials, but in current years, simulation tools have provided more effective opportunities to perform this type of analysis, in particular in the early design stage. Nowadays, the study of the solar access is related to the easiness of the use of simulation tools, in rapid and easy way, during the design process. This study presents a comparison of three simulation tools, from the point of view of the user, with the aim to highlight differences in the easy-to-use of these tools. Using a real urban context as case study, three tools; Ecotect, Townscope and Heliodon, are tested, performing models and simulations and examining the capabilities and output results of solar access analysis. The evaluation of the ease-to-use of these tools is based on some detected parameters and features, such as the types of simulation, requirements of input data, types of results, etc. As a result, a framework is provided in which features and capabilities of each tool are shown. This framework shows the differences among these tools about functions, features and capabilities. The aim of this study is to support users and to improve the integration of simulation tools for solar access with the design process.

Keywords: energy building design tools, solar access analysis, solar potential, urban planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
6800 Simulation-Based Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality and Comfort Control in Non-Residential Buildings

Authors: Torsten Schwan, Rene Unger


Simulation of thermal and electrical building performance more and more becomes part of an integrative planning process. Increasing requirements on energy efficiency, the integration of volatile renewable energy, smart control and storage management often cause tremendous challenges for building engineers and architects. This mainly affects commercial or non-residential buildings. Their energy consumption characteristics significantly distinguish from residential ones. This work focuses on the many-objective optimization problem indoor air quality and comfort, especially in non-residential buildings. Based on a brief description of intermediate dependencies between different requirements on indoor air treatment it extends existing Modelica-based building physics models with additional system states to adequately represent indoor air conditions. Interfaces to corresponding HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system and control models enable closed-loop analyzes of occupants' requirements and energy efficiency as well as profitableness aspects. A complex application scenario of a nearly-zero-energy school building shows advantages of presented evaluation process for engineers and architects. This way, clear identification of air quality requirements in individual rooms together with realistic model-based description of occupants' behavior helps to optimize HVAC system already in early design stages. Building planning processes can be highly improved and accelerated by increasing integration of advanced simulation methods. Those methods mainly provide suitable answers on engineers' and architects' questions regarding more exuberant and complex variety of suitable energy supply solutions.

Keywords: indoor air quality, dynamic simulation, energy efficient control, non-residential buildings

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6799 Thermo-Aeraulic Studies of a Multizone Building Influence of the Compactness Index

Authors: S. M. A. Bekkouche, T. Benouaz, M. K. Cherier, M. Hamdani, M. R. Yaiche, N. Benamrane


Most codes of building energy simulation neglect the humidity or well represent it with a very simplified method. It is for this reason that we have developed a new approach to the description and modeling of multizone buildings in Saharan climate. The thermal nodal method was used to apprehend thermoaeraulic behavior of air subjected to varied solicitations. In this contribution, analyzing the building geometry introduced the concept of index compactness as "quotient of external walls area and volume of the building". Physical phenomena that we have described in this paper, allow to build the model of the coupled thermoaeraulic behavior. The comparison shows that the found results are to some extent satisfactory. The result proves that temperature and specific humidity depending on compactness and geometric shape. Proper use of compactness index and building geometry parameters will noticeably minimize building energy.

Keywords: multizone model, nodal method, compactness index, specific humidity, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
6798 Using Passive Cooling Strategies to Reduce Thermal Cooling Load for Coastal High-Rise Buildings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmad Zamzam


With the development of the economy in recent years, Saudi Arabia has been maintaining high economic growth. Therefore, its energy consumption has increased dramatically. This economic growth reflected on the expansion of high-rise tower's construction. Jeddah coastal strip (cornice) has many high-rise buildings planned to start next few years. These projects required a massive amount of electricity that was not planned to be supplied by the old infrastructure. This research studies the effect of the building envelope on its thermal performance. It follows a parametric simulation methodology using Ecotect software to analyze the effect of the building envelope design on its cooling energy load for an office high-rise building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which includes building geometrical form, massing treatments, orientation and glazing type effect. The research describes an integrated passive design approach to reduce the cooling requirement for high-rise building through an improved building envelope design. The research used Ecotect to make four simulation studies; the first simulation compares the thermal performance of five high-rise buildings, presenting the basic shape of the plan. All the buildings have the same plan area and same floor height. The goal of this simulation is to find out the best shape for the thermal performance. The second simulation studies the effect of orientation on the thermal performance by rotating the same building model to find out the best and the worst angle for the building thermal performance. The third simulation studies the effect of the massing treatment on the total cooling load. It compared five models with different massing treatment, but with the same total built up area. The last simulation studied the effect of the glazing type by comparing the total cooling load of the same building using five different glass type and also studies the feasibility of using these glass types by studying the glass cost effect. The results indicate that using the circle shape as building plan could reduce the thermal cooling load by 40%. Also, using shading devices could reduce the cooling loads by 5%. The study states that using any of the massing grooving, recess or any treatment that could increase the outer exposed surface is not preferred and will decrease the building thermal performance. Also, the result shows that the best direction for glazing and openings from thermal performance viewpoint in Jeddah is the North direction while the worst direction is the East one. The best direction angle for openings - regarding the thermal performance in Jeddah- is 15 deg West and the worst is 250 deg West (110 deg East). Regarding the glass type effect, comparing to the double glass with air fill type as a reference case, the double glass with Air-Low-E will save 14% from the required amount of the thermal cooling load annually. Argon fill and triple glass will save 16% and 17% from the total thermal cooling load respectively, but for the glass cost purpose, using the Argon fill and triple glass is not feasible.

Keywords: passive cooling, reduce thermal load, Jeddah, building shape, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
6797 Building a Stochastic Simulation Model for Blue Crab Population Evolution in Antinioti Lagoon

Authors: Nikolaos Simantiris, Markos Avlonitis


This work builds a simulation platform, modeling the spatial diffusion of the invasive species Callinectes sapidus (blue crab) as a random walk, incorporating also generation, fatality, and fishing rates modeling the time evolution of its population. Antinioti lagoon in West Greece was used as a testbed for applying the simulation model. Field measurements from June 2020 to June 2021 on the lagoon’s setting, bathymetry, and blue crab juveniles provided the initial population simulation of blue crabs, as well as biological parameters from the current literature were used to calibrate simulation parameters. The scope of this study is to render the authors able to predict the evolution of the blue crab population in confined environments of the Ionian Islands region in West Greece. The first result of the simulation experiments shows the possibility for a robust prediction for blue crab population evolution in the Antinioti lagoon.

Keywords: antinioti lagoon, blue crab, stochastic simulation, random walk

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6796 Thermal Comfort Investigation Based on Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) Index Using Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation: Case Study of University of Brawijaya, Malang-Indonesia

Authors: Dewi Hardiningtyas Sugiono


Concerning towards the quality of air comfort and safety to pedestrians in the University area should be increased as Indonesia economics booming. Hence, the University management needs guidelines of thermal comfort to innovate a new layout building. The objectives of this study is to investigate and then to evaluate the distribution of thermal comfort which is indicated by predicted mean vote (PMV) index at the University of Brawijaya (UB), Malang. The PMV figures are used to evaluate and to redesign the UB layout. The research is started with study literature and early survey to collect all information of building layout and building shape at the University of Brawijaya. The information is used to create a 3D model in CAD software. The model is simulated by Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software to measure the PMV factors of air temperature, relative humidity and air speed in some locations. Validation is done by comparing between PMV value from observation and PMV value from simulation. The resuls of the research shows the most sensitive of microclimatic factors is air temperature surrounding the UB building. Finally, the research is successfully figure out the UB layout and provides further actions to increase the thermal comfort.

Keywords: thermal comfort, heat index (HI), CFD, layout

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6795 Study on Beta-Ray Detection System in Water Using a MCNP Simulation

Authors: Ki Hyun Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Chan Jong Park, Koan Sik Joo


In the modern days, the use of radioactive substances is on the rise in the areas like chemical weaponry, industrial usage, and power plants. Although there are various technologies available to detect and monitor radioactive substances in the air, the technologies to detect underwater radioactive substances are scarce. In this study, computer simulation of the underwater detection system measuring beta-ray, a radioactive substance, has been done through MCNP. CaF₂, YAP(Ce) and YAG(Ce) have been used in the computer simulation to detect beta-ray as scintillator. Also, the source used in the computer simulation is Sr-90 and Y-90, both of them emitting only pure beta-ray. The distance between the source and the detector was shifted from 1mm to 10mm by 1 mm in the computer simulation. The result indicated that Sr-90 was impossible to measure below 1 mm since its emission energy is low while Y-90 was able to be measured up to 10mm underwater. In addition, the detector designed with CaF₂ had the highest efficiency among 3 scintillators used in the computer simulation. Since it was possible to verify the detectable range and the detection efficiency according to modeling through MCNP simulation, it is expected that such result will reduce the time and cost in building the actual beta-ray detector and evaluating its performances, thereby contributing the research and development.

Keywords: Beta-ray, CaF₂, detector, MCNP simulation, scintillator

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6794 Geographic Information System for District Level Energy Performance Simulations

Authors: Avichal Malhotra, Jerome Frisch, Christoph van Treeck


The utilization of semantic, cadastral and topological data from geographic information systems (GIS) has exponentially increased for building and urban-scale energy performance simulations. Urban planners, simulation scientists, and researchers use virtual 3D city models for energy analysis, algorithms and simulation tools. For dynamic energy simulations at city and district level, this paper provides an overview of the available GIS data models and their levels of detail. Adhering to different norms and standards, these models also intend to describe building and construction industry data. For further investigations, CityGML data models are considered for simulations. Though geographical information modelling has considerably many different implementations, extensions of virtual city data can also be made for domain specific applications. Highlighting the use of the extended CityGML models for energy researches, a brief introduction to the Energy Application Domain Extension (ADE) along with its significance is made. Consequently, addressing specific input simulation data, a workflow using Modelica underlining the usage of GIS information and the quantification of its significance over annual heating energy demand is presented in this paper.

Keywords: CityGML, EnergyADE, energy performance simulation, GIS

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6793 156vdc to 110vac Sinusoidal Inverter Simulation and Implementation

Authors: Phinyo Mueangmeesap


This paper describes about pure sinusoidal inverter simulation and implementation from high voltage DC (156 Vdc). This simulation is to study and improve the efficiency of the inverter. By reducing the loss of power from boost converter in current inverter. The simulation is done by using the H-bridge circuit with pulse width modulate (PWM) signal and low-pass filter circuit. To convert the DC into AC. This paper used the PSCad for simulation. The result of simulation can be used to create prototype inverter by converting 156 Vdc to 110Vac. The inverter gives the output signal similar to the output from a simulation.

Keywords: inverter simulation, PWM signal, single-phase inverter, sinusoidal inverter

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6792 An Analytical Approach of Computational Complexity for the Method of Multifluid Modelling

Authors: A. K. Borah, A. K. Singh


In this paper we deal building blocks of the computer simulation of the multiphase flows. Whole simulation procedure can be viewed as two super procedures; The implementation of VOF method and the solution of Navier Stoke’s Equation. Moreover, a sequential code for a Navier Stoke’s solver has been studied.

Keywords: Bi-conjugate gradient stabilized (Bi-CGSTAB), ILUT function, krylov subspace, multifluid flows preconditioner, simple algorithm

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6791 Applying ASHRAE Standards on the Hospital Buildings of UAE

Authors: Hanan M. Taleb


Energy consumption associated with buildings has a significant impact on the environment. To that end, and as a transaction between the inside and outside and between the building and urban space, the building skin plays an especially important role. It provides protection from the elements; demarcates private property and creates privacy. More importantly, it controls the admission of solar radiation. Therefore, designing the building skin sustainably will help to achieve optimal performance in terms of both energy consumption and thermal comfort. Unfortunately, with accelerating construction expansion, many recent buildings do not pay attention to the importance of the envelope design. This piece of research will highlight the importance of this part of the creation of buildings by providing evidence of a significant reduction in energy consumption if the envelopes are redesigned. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to enhance the performance of the hospital envelope in order to achieve sustainable performance. A hospital building sited in Abu Dhabi, in the UAE, has been chosen to act as a case study. A detailed analysis of the annual energy performance of the case study will be performed with the use of a computerised simulation; this is in order to explore their energy performance shortcomings. The energy consumption of the base case will then be compared with that resulting from the new proposed building skin. The results will inform architects and designers of the savings potential from various strategies.

Keywords: ASHREA, building skin, building envelopes, hospitals, Abu Dhabi, UAE, IES software

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6790 Aerodynamic Analysis by Computational Fluids Dynamics in Building: Case Study

Authors: Javier Navarro Garcia, Narciso Vazquez Carretero


Eurocode 1, part 1-4, wind actions, includes in its article 1.5 the possibility of using numerical calculation methods to obtain information on the loads acting on a building. On the other hand, the analysis using computational fluids dynamics (CFD) in aerospace, aeronautical, and industrial applications is already in widespread use. The application of techniques based on CFD analysis on the building to study its aerodynamic behavior now opens a whole alternative field of possibilities for civil engineering and architecture; optimization of the results with respect to those obtained by applying the regulations, the possibility of obtaining information on pressures, speeds at any point of the model for each moment, the analysis of turbulence and the possibility of modeling any geometry or configuration. The present work compares the results obtained on a building, with respect to its aerodynamic behavior, from a mathematical model based on the analysis by CFD with the results obtained by applying Eurocode1, part1-4, wind actions. It is verified that the results obtained by CFD techniques suppose an optimization of the wind action that acts on the building with respect to the wind action obtained by applying the Eurocode1, part 1-4, wind actions. In order to carry out this verification, a 45m high square base truncated pyramid building has been taken. The mathematical model on CFD, based on finite volumes, has been calculated using the FLUENT commercial computer application using a scale-resolving simulation (SRS) type large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model for an atmospheric boundary layer wind with turbulent component in the direction of the flow.

Keywords: aerodynamic, CFD, computacional fluids dynamics, computational mechanics

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