Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7549

Search results for: residential area

7549 Compact Settlement: The Direction of Chinese Future Urban Residential Area Sustainable Development

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu

Abstract:

Residential area construction links many problems such as population resources, ecology, social values, public services and transportation in the city. After Chinese housing reform, a large number of residential area development accompanied by the loss of agricultural and ecological land. To explore the future of Chinese urban residential area, this article concentrates on how the 'Compact Settlement' behaves in improving the living environment and saving the resources. Through the research of residential area in Hangzhou, there are some determines that increasing the development intensity of the area can indeed bring some improvement in the overall environment. In conclusion, possible design alternatives are discussed for leading Chinese urban development towards a more sustainable path.

Keywords: compact city development, environmental sustainability, residential area, Hangzhou

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7548 Suburban Large Residential Area Development Strategy with an Example of Liangzhu Culture Village in Hangzhou

Authors: Liang Fang

Abstract:

The development of the large suburban residential area is a product of the leap development during the rapid urbanization process in China. On the process of the large-scale development of large settlements in a short time, various problems arose in the suburban residential area, such as spatial layout being disorder, basic facilities construction lagging behind and being unreasonable, residential neighborhood space and street culture missing. Aimed at the contradictions mentioned above, exploring a way is imminent to construct appropriate residential area. We select a typical Liangzhu Culture Village in Hangzhou and put forward functional composite residential area of fine development strategy, along which business promotes and assists community autonomy and then a good community culture is constructed. All in all, the development and construction mode, contributing to an all-people and full-time participation, is beneficial to create a harmonious community of sustainable development, which gives good implication to a single enterprise development city real estate projects.

Keywords: community autonomy, development and construction mode, functional composite, suburban large residential area

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7547 Research on Residential Block Fabric: A Case Study of Hangzhou West Area

Authors: Wang Ye, Wei Wei

Abstract:

Residential block construction of big cities in China began in the 1950s, and four models had far-reaching influence on modern residential block in its development process, including unit compound and residential district in 1950s to 1980s, and gated community and open community in 1990s to now. Based on analysis of the four models’ fabric, the article takes residential blocks in Hangzhou west area as an example and carries on the studies from urban structure level and block special level, mainly including urban road network, land use, community function, road organization, public space and building fabric. At last, the article puts forward semi-open sub-community strategy to improve the current fabric.

Keywords: Hangzhou west area, residential block model, residential block fabric, semi-open sub-community strategy

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7546 Micro-Transformation Strategy Of Residential Transportation Space Based On The Demand Of Residents: Taking A Residential District In Wuhan, China As An Example

Authors: Hong Geng, Zaiyu Fan

Abstract:

With the acceleration of urbanization and motorization in China, the scale of cities and the travel distance of residents are constantly expanding, and the number of cars is continuously increasing, so the urban traffic problem is more and more serious. Traffic congestion, environmental pollution, energy consumption, travel safety and direct interference between traffic and other urban activities are increasingly prominent problems brought about by motorized development. This not only has a serious impact on the lives of the residents but also has a major impact on the healthy development of the city. The paper found that, in order to solve the development of motorization, a number of problems will arise; urban planning and traffic planning and design in residential planning often take into account the development of motorized traffic but neglects the demand for street life. This kind of planning has resulted in the destruction of the traditional communication space of the residential area, the pollution of noise and exhaust gas, and the potential safety risks of the residential area, which has disturbed the previously quiet and comfortable life of the residential area, resulting in the inconvenience of residents' life and the loss of street vitality. Based on these facts, this paper takes a residential area in Wuhan as the research object, through the actual investigation and research, from the perspective of micro-transformation analysis, combined with the concept of traffic micro-reconstruction governance. And research puts forward the residential traffic optimization strategies such as strengthening the interaction and connection between the residential area and the urban street system, street traffic classification and organization.

Keywords: micro-transformation, residential traffic, residents demand, traffic microcirculation

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7545 Research on Road Openness in the Old Urban Residential District Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study on Kunming within the First Loop Road

Authors: Haoyang Liang, Dandong Ge

Abstract:

With the rapid development of Chinese cities, traffic congestion has become more and more serious. At the same time, there are many closed old residential area in Chinese cities, which seriously affect the connectivity of urban roads and reduce the density of urban road networks. After reopening the restricted old residential area, the internal roads in the original residential area were transformed into urban roads, which was of great help to alleviate traffic congestion. This paper uses the spatial syntactic theory to analyze the urban road network and compares the roads with the integration and connectivity degree to evaluate whether the opening of the roads in the residential areas can improve the urban traffic. Based on the road network system within the first loop road in Kunming, the Space Syntax evaluation model is established for status analysis. And comparative analysis method will be used to compare the change of the model before and after the road openness of the old urban residential district within the first-ring road in Kunming. Then it will pick out the areas which indicate a significant difference for the small dimensions model analysis. According to the analyzed results and traffic situation, the evaluation of road openness in the old urban residential district will be proposed to improve the urban residential districts.

Keywords: Space Syntax, Kunming, urban renovation, traffic jam

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7544 Residential Architecture and Its Representation in Movies: Bangkok's Spatial Research in the Study of Thai Cinematography

Authors: Janis Matvejs

Abstract:

Visual representation of a city creates unique perspectives that allow to interpret the urban environment and enable to understand a space that is culturally created and territorially organized. Residential complexes are an essential part of cities and cinema is a specific representation form of these areas. There has been very little research done on exploring how these areas are depicted in the Thai movies. The aim of this research is to interpret the discourse of residential areas of Bangkok throughout the 20th and 21st centuries and to examine essential changes in the residential structure. Specific cinematic formal techniques in relation to the urban image were used. The movie review results were compared with changes in Bangkok’s residential development. Movie analysis displayed that residential areas are frequently used in Thai cinematography and they make up an integral part of the urban visual perception.

Keywords: Bangkok, cinema, residential area, representation, visual perception

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7543 Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements of Urban Areas in Denizli City and Showing the Distributions of Heavy Metal Pollution

Authors: Ali Aydin

Abstract:

Three hundred and fifty soil samples were collected around the urban and residential area, for the purpose of a magnetic susceptibility study on pollution in Denizli City, Turkiye. Measurements of volume-specific magnetic susceptibility (к) and mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) show a significant variation range from place to place collected soil samples. In this study, we did a primary magnetic study near the high heavy traffic pollution in a part of Denizli city, Turkiye which was said the most polluted city in Aegean Region of Turkey. The magnetic susceptibility measurements increased from the garden area to residential area and reached the high levels near the industrial areas of the city. Magnetic particle concentration and grain size sourced exhaust gasses, and other pollution sources increase with the increasing distance from a residential area, indicating the high traffic road area.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, pollution, magnetic particle, Denizli

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7542 Residential High-Rises and Meaningful Places: Missing Actions in the Isle of Dogs Regeneration

Authors: Elena Kalcheva, Ahmad Taki, Yuri Hadi

Abstract:

Urban regeneration often includes residential high-rises as a way of optimum use of land. However, high-rises are in many cases connected to placelessness, this is not due to some intrinsic characteristic of the typology, but more to a failure to provide meaningful places in connection to them. The reason to study the Isle of the Dogs regeneration is the successful process that led to vibrant area with strong identity and social sustainability. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the gaps into the sound strategy for the development of the area and in its implementation which will make the place more sustainable. The paper addresses four research questions: are the residential high-rises supporting a proper physical form; is there deployed properly scaled mix of land uses and functions in connection with residential high-rises; are there possible quality activities in quality places near the residential high-rises; and is there a strong sense of place created with the residential high-rise buildings and their surroundings. The methodology relies on observational survey of the researched area together with structured questions, to evaluate the external qualities of the residential high-rises and their surroundings. Visual information can help identify the mistakes and the omissions of the provided project examples. It can provide insight on how can be improved imageability, legibility and human scale. In this connection, the paper argues that although the quality of the architecture of the high-rises is superb, there is a failure to create meaningful, high quality public realm in connection with them. As such, it does not function as well as the designers intended to do: the functional quality of the public realm is quite low. The implications of the study suggest that actions need to take place in order to improve and foster further regeneration of the area.

Keywords: high-rises, isle of the dogs, public realm, regeneration

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7541 Protective Custody in Child Protection: Reflection of Residential Care Workers in the Philippines

Authors: Hazel S. Cometa-Lamberte

Abstract:

This paper presents the residential care workers reflections in working with children who were under protective custody and placed in a residential care facility for children. Key informant interviews and focus group discussion were employed in this study to analyze the views of residential care workers on the programs and services and case management system in residential care for children. Results suggest that working in a residential care facility for children needs the interplay of both the worker’s personal and professional values, knowledge and skills in working with children. Analyzing the residential care workers experiences in handling children in residential care facilities is vital for the improvement of the policies, programs and services, the repertoire of techniques and facilitate the creation of a new social work practice framework/model in child protection specifically in residential care facilities.

Keywords: child protection, residential care, residential care workers, social workers

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7540 Criteria Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: An Urban Dwellers’ Perspective

Authors: Arati Siddharth Petkar, Joel E. M. Macwan

Abstract:

Preferences for residential location are of a diverse nature. Primarily they are based on the socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-demographic characteristics of the household. It also depends on character, and the growth potential of different areas in a city. In the present study, various criteria affecting residential location preferences from the Urban Dwellers’ perspective have been analyzed. The household survey has been conducted in two parts: Existing Buyers’ survey and Future Buyers’ survey. The analysis reveals that workplace location is the most governing criterion in deciding residential location from the majority of the urban dwellers perspective. For analyzing the importance of varied criteria, Analytical Hierarchy Process approach has been explored. The suggested approach will be helpful for urban planners, decision makers and developers, while designating a new residential area or redeveloping an existing one.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process (AHP), household, preferences, residential location preferences, residential land use, urban dwellers

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7539 Measurement and Evaluation of Outdoor Lighting Environment at Night in Residential Community in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

Authors: Jiantao Weng, Yujie Zhao

Abstract:

With the improvement of living quality and demand for nighttime activities in China, the current situation of outdoor lighting environment at night needs to be assessed. Lighting environment at night plays an important role to guarantee night safety. Two typical residential communities in Hangzhou were selected. A comprehensive test method of outdoor lighting environment at night was established. The road, fitness area, landscape, playground and entrance were included. Field measurements and questionnaires were conducted in these two residential communities. The characteristics of residents’ habits and the subjective evaluation on different aspects of outdoor lighting environment at night were collected via questionnaire. A safety evaluation system on the outdoor lighting environment at night in the residential community was established. The results show that there is a big difference in illumination in different areas. The lighting uniformities of roads cannot meet the requirement of lighting standard in China. Residents pay more attention to the lighting environment of the fitness area and road than others. This study can provide guidance for the design and management of outdoor lighting environment at night.

Keywords: residential community, lighting environment, night, field measurement

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7538 The Renewal Strategy for Ancient Residential Area in Small and Medium-Sized Cities Based on Field Research of Changshu City in China

Authors: Yun Zhang, Zhu Wang

Abstract:

Renewing ancient residential areas is an integral part of the sustainable development of modern cities. Compared with a metropolis, the old areas of small and medium-sized cities is more complicated to update, as the spatial form is more fragmented. In this context, the author takes as the research object, the ancient town of Changshu City, which is a small city representative in China with a history of more than 1,200 years. Through the analysis of urban research and update projects, the spatial evolution characteristics and renewal strategies of small ancient urban settlements are studied. On this basis, it is proposed to protect the residential area from the perspective of integrity and sustainability, strengthen the core public part, control the district building, and reshape the important interface. Renewing small and medium-sized urban areas should respect the rhythm of their own urban development and gradually complete the update, not blindly copying the experience of large cities.

Keywords: ancient residential area, Changshu, city renewal strategy, small and medium-sized cities

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7537 A Study on The Relationship between Building Façade and Solar Energy Utilization Potential in Urban Residential Area in West China

Authors: T. Wen, Y. Liu, J. Wang, W. Zheng, T. Shao

Abstract:

Along with the increasing density of urban population, solar energy potential of building facade in high-density residential areas become a question that needs to be addressed. This paper studies how the solar energy utilization potential of building facades in different locations of a residential areas changes with different building layouts and orientations in Xining, a typical city in west China which possesses large solar radiation resource. Solar energy potential of three typical building layouts of residential areas, which are parallel determinant, gable misalignment, transverse misalignment, are discussed in detail. First of all, through the data collection and statistics of Xining new residential area, the most representative building parameters are extracted, including building layout, building height, building layers, and building shape. Secondly, according to the results of building parameters extraction, a general model is established and analyzed with rhinoceros 6.0 and its own plug-in grasshopper. Finally, results of the various simulations and data analyses are presented in a visualized way. The results show that there are great differences in the solar energy potential of building facades in different locations of residential areas under three typical building layouts. Generally speaking, the solar energy potential of the west peripheral location is the largest, followed by the East peripheral location, and the middle location is the smallest. When the deflection angle is the same, the solar energy potential shows the result that the West deflection is greater than the East deflection. In addition, the optimal building azimuth range under these three typical building layouts is obtained. Within this range, the solar energy potential of the residential area can always maintain a high level. Beyond this range, the solar energy potential drops sharply. Finally, it is found that when the solar energy potential is maximum, the deflection angle is not positive south, but 5 °or 15°south by west. The results of this study can provide decision analysis basis for residential design of Xining city to improve solar energy utilization potential and provide a reference for solar energy utilization design of urban residential buildings in other similar areas.

Keywords: building facade, solar energy potential, solar radiation, urban residential area, visualization, Xining city

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7536 Place Attachment and Residential Satisfaction in Old Residential Buildings: A Case of Pune City

Authors: Vaishali Anagal, Vasudha Gokhale, Sharvey Dhongde

Abstract:

Old buildings have significance in many aspects. The manifold significance may include historic, architectural and cultural aspects. In a cultural city like Pune, India, numerous residential buildings exist in the core city whose age may range between 60-100 years. These represent the city’s history and culture. Most of them are still in use as residential buildings with adaptations in various degrees. Some of these buildings are enlisted as ‘Heritage Buildings’ by local municipal authority. However, there are number of buildings that have heritage value although they are not enlisted as heritage sites. A lot of these buildings have already been pulled down for several reasons such as end of technical life, inadequacy for users, increasing floor area ratios, inflating land prices and changing lifestyles etc. Literature suggest that place attachment and residential satisfaction are positively related. It also indicates that length of residency is positively correlated with the place attachment. Residential satisfaction is associated with number of factors including socio demographic characteristics of users, housing characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and behavioral characteristics. This research paper poses an inquiry about the dynamics of co-relation between place attachment and residential satisfaction in case of old residential buildings. The motive of this enquiry is to examine if place attachment can serve as a strong ground for restoration of these old buildings and evade the devastation of emblems of cultural heritage of the city. The methodology includes questionnaire survey of users as well as a qualitative assessment regarding place attachment and residential satisfaction. About 20 residential buildings in the core city of Pune are selected for this purpose. The results of survey are analyzed and conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: place attachment, residential satisfaction, old residential buildings, housing characteristics, cultural heritage

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7535 The Analysis of Urban Part-To-Whole Relationship in Terms of Residential Areas: Example of Konya

Authors: Gevher Sayar, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

The need for shelter which is one of the essential requirement of humanity has emerged for different type of dwelling needs depend on upon different culture and location. Almost all dwellings as an element of the public improvements effect the physical appearance of the city. Dwelling zones create part of whole in terms of urban area use. Whereas in traditional texture merger of parcels create city blocks, in new settlement area city blocks become a part, so the property of each part differs. The perspective of this study is part-to-whole relationship of residential areas and diversified residential areas are illustrated. The purpose of this study is that dwelling applications which have constructed quickly as gated community in the last 20 years in new settlement area of Konya (Turkey) have compared traditional texture in terms of part-to-whole relationship. According to the perception of traditional neighborhood in Konya, the relationship of houses between street pattern and each other are suited for city culture and location. In contrast, new settlement areas cannot become integrated another part of city, they have become restricted areas, so new settlement areas have not integrated, they have separated. The perception of part forms whole has changed, roads provide the relationship of growing parts with one another and walls of gated communities has disjunctive feature. In this study, by using visual analysis photographs and technical drawings are used. Traditional texture and current dwelling have compared.

Keywords: dwelling, residential area, urban part, urban whole

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7534 Acoustics Barrier Design to Reduce Railway Noise by Using Maekawa's Method

Authors: Malinda Sabrina, Khoerul Anwar

Abstract:

Railway noise generated by pass-by train has been described as a form of environmental pollutants especially for the residential area near the railway. Many studies have shown, that environmental noise particularly transportation noise has negative effects on people which resulting in annoyance and specific health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and sleep disturbance. Therefore, various attempts are made to reduce the noise. One method of reducing such noise to acceptable noise levels is to build acoustically barrier walls. The objective of this study was to review the method of reducing railway noise and obtain the preliminary design of the acoustics barrier on the edge of railway tracks close to the residential area. The design of this barrier is using the Maekawa's method. Measurements have been performed in residential areas around the railroads in the Karawang - Indonesia with the absence of an acoustical barrier. From the observation, it was found that the railway was passed by five trains within thirty minutes. With the limited distance between the railway tracks and the location of the residential area as well as the street of residents, then it was obtained that a reduction in sound pressure level is 25 dBA. Maximum sound pressure level obtained is 86.9 dBA then by setting the barrier as high as 4 m at a distance, 2.5 m from the railway, the noise level received by residents in the settlement around the railway line becomes 61.9 dBA.

Keywords: acoustics barrier, Maekawa's method, noise attenuation, railway noise

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7533 The Social Area Disclosure to Reduce Conflicts between Community and the State: A Case of Mahakan Fortress, Bangkok

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the over 20-year attempt of Mahakan fort community to negotiate with Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) to remain in their residential area belonging to the state, and 2) to apply the new social and cultural dimension between the state and the community as an alternative for local participation in keeping their residential area. This is a qualitative research, and the findings reveal that the community claimed their ancestors’ right as owners of this piece of land for over 200 years. The community, therefore, requested to take part in the preservation of land, culture and local intellect and the area management in terms of being a learning resource on the cultural road in Rattanakosin Island. However, BMA imposed the law concerning the community area relocation in Rattanakosin Island. The result of law enforcement led to the failure of the area relocation, and the hard hit on physical structure of the area including the overall deterioration of the cultural road renovated in the year 1982, the 200 years’ celebration of Bangkok. The enforcement of law by the state required the move of the community, and the landscape improvement based on the capital city plan. However, this enforcement resulted in the unending conflicts between the community and the state, and the solution of this problem was unclear. At the same time the community has spent a long time opposing the state’s action, and preparing themselves by administrating the community behind Mahakan fortress with community administrative committee under the suggestion of external organization by registering all community members, providing funds for community administration. At the meantime the state lacked the continuation of the enforcement due to political problem and BMA’s administration problem. It is, therefore, suggested that an alternative solution to this problem lie at the negotiation between the state and the community with the purpose of the collaboration between the two to develop the area under the protective law of each side.

Keywords: Pom-Mahakan community, reduction of conflicts, social area disclosure, residential area

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7532 Prevalence of Down Syndrome: A Single-Center Study in Bandung, Indonesia

Authors: Bremmy Laksono, Riksa Parikrama, Nur A. Rosyada, Willyanti Soewondo, Dadang S. H. Effendi, Eriska Rianti, Arlette S. Setiawan, Ine Sasmita, Risti S. Primanti, Erna Kurnikasari, Yunia Sribudiani

Abstract:

Down syndrome (DS) is a chromosomal abnormality characterised by complete 21 chromosome trisomy (classical or non-disjunction), or partial 21 chromosome trisomy (mosaicism), or chromosome rearrangement involving chromosome 21 (translocation). This study was carried out to describe the frequency of DS patients in a research institution in the city of Bandung, Indonesia. This descriptive study also provides a picture of the residential location and surrounding area of their dwellings. This study involved people with DS in various age whose chromosome were evaluated by conventional karyotyping method and FISH. Data were collected from 60 patients with DS from a total 150 patients during the period of September 2015 to August 2016 who were referred to Cell Culture and Cytogenetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia. Results showed that the most common type of DS was non-disjunction (93%), followed by mosaicism (5%), no patient with translocation DS (0%), and a very rare type of tetrasomy 21 (2%). There were 39 males (65%) and 21 females (35%) of DS patient. Most of them live in suburban area beyond Bandung city (55%) while the rest live inside urban area of Bandung city (45%). They live mostly in dense area of greater Bandung area (65%) and only a few live in mid-density area (25%) and the least live in sparse populated area (10%). Their houses are mostly located in residential estate area (55%), nearby industrial area (37%), and around agricultural area (8%). Based on the study, it could be concluded that non-disjunction DS is the most common type. DS patients referred to the laboratory mostly came from dense residential zone in suburban area outside Bandung city. The low number of DS patients referred to the laboratory for chromosome analysis was the highlight to improve health service for people with genetic disorder. This study offered several information regarding area of DS patients’ residence and the condition of neighbourhood in Bandung city where they live as well.

Keywords: chromosome, descriptive, Down syndrome, prevalence

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7531 From 'Segregation' to 'Integration': The Dynamic Mechanism of Residential Segregation and the Responsive Sustainable Regeneration Methods in China

Authors: Yang Chen

Abstract:

The property-led regeneration has played an important role in the process of rapid urbanization during the past twenty years in China, but it is also been criticized unsustainable as it always focuses on the economic aspect and overlooks the social issues, especially it has exacerbated the residential segregation in the inner city. Based on author’s studying the area around Nanjing railway station, this paper demonstrates that residential segregation indeed exists in the inner city through synthetic analysis on patterns of residents’ living, consumption and welfare, and to some extent, the segregation distribution characteristics represent in a concentric ring model. According to author’s further investigation on the property right and age of the dwelling buildings, the housing-commercialization-led regeneration is defined as the mainspring of the segregation. To solve these problems, the system of sustainable community should be established in both policy and practice, above all, well-designed public facilities including green infrastructure will be appropriate to promote the residential integration and sustainable development in contemporary China.

Keywords: China, dynamic mechanism, residential segregation, sustainable regeneration

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7530 Spatial Characters Adapted to Rainwater Natural Circulation in Residential Landscape

Authors: Yun Zhang

Abstract:

Urban housing in China is typified by residential districts that occupy 25 to 40 percentage of the urban land. In residential districts, squares, roads, and building facades, as well as plants, usually form a four-grade spatial structure: district entrances, central landscapes, housing cluster entrances, green spaces between dwellings. This spatial structure and its elements not only compose the visible residential landscape but also play a major role of carrying rain water. These elements, therefore, imply ecological significance to urban fitness. Based upon theories of landscape ecology, residential landscape can be understood as a pattern typified by minor soft patch of planted area and major hard patch of buildings and squares, as well as hard corridors of roads. Use five landscape districts in Hangzhou as examples; this paper finds that the size, shape and slope direction of soft patch, the bend of roads, and the form of the four-grade spatial structure are influential for adapting to natural rainwater circulation.

Keywords: Hangzhou China, rainwater, residential landscape, spatial character, urban housing

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7529 A User-Friendly Approach for Design and Economic Analysis of Standalone PV System for the Electrification of Rural Area of Eritrea

Authors: Tedros Asefaw Gebremeskel, Xaoyi Yang

Abstract:

The potential of solar energy in Eritrea is relatively high, based on this truth, there are a number of isolated and remote villages situated far away from the electrical national grid which don’t get access to electricity. The core objective of this work is to design a most favorable and cost-effective power by means of standalone PV system for the electrification of a single housing in the inaccessible area of Eritrea. The sizing of the recommended PV system is achieved, such as radiation data and electrical load for the typical household of the selected site is also well thought-out in the design steps. Finally, the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis is conducted to evaluate the economic viability of the system. The outcome of the study promote the use of PV system for a residential building and show that PV system is a reasonable option to provide electricity for household applications in the rural area of Eritrea.

Keywords: electrification, inaccessible area, life cycle cost, residential building, stand-alone PV system

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7528 Impact of Climate Change on Energy Consumption of the Residential Building Stock in Turkey

Authors: Sadik Yigit

Abstract:

The energy consumed in the buildings constitutes a large portion of the total energy consumption in the world. In this study, it was aimed to measure the impact of climate change on the energy consumption of residential building stock by analyzing a typical mid-rise residential building in four different climate regions of Turkey. An integrated system was developed using the "Distribution Evolutionary Algorithms in Python" tool and Energy Plus. By using the developed integrated system, the energy performance of the typical residential building was analyzed under the effect of different climate change scenarios. The results indicated that predicted overheating will be experienced in the future, which will significantly increase the cooling energy loads of the buildings. In addition, design solutions to improve the future energy performance of the buildings were proposed, considering budget constraints. The results of the study will guide researchers studying in this area of research and designers in the sector in finding climate change resilient design solutions.

Keywords: energy_efficient, residential buildings, climate change, energyplus

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7527 Heat Stress Adaptive Urban Design Intervention for Planned Residential Areas of Khulna City: Case Study of Sonadanga

Authors: Tanjil Sowgat, Shamim Kobir

Abstract:

World is now experiencing the consequences of climate change such as increased heat stress due to high temperature rise. In the context of changing climate, this study intends to find out the planning interventions necessary to adapt to the current heat stress in the planned residential areas of Khulna city. To carry out the study Sonadanga residential area (phase I) of Khulna city has been taken as the study site. This residential neighbourhood covering an area of 30 acres has 206 residential plots. The study area comprises twelve access roads, one park, one playfield, one water body and two street furniture’s. This study conducts visual analysis covering green, open space, water body, footpath, drainage and street trees and furniture and questionnaire survey deals with socio-economic, housing tenancy, experience of heat stress and urban design interventions. It finds that the current state that accelerates the heat stress condition such as lack of street trees and inadequate shading, maximum uses are not within ten minutes walking distance, no footpath for the pedestrians and lack of well-maintained street furniture. It proposes that to adapt to the heat stress pedestrian facilities, buffer sidewalk with landscaping, street trees and open spaces, soft scape, natural and man-made water bodies, green roofing could be effective urban design interventions. There are evidences of limited number of heat stress adaptive planned residential area. Since current sub-division planning practice focuses on rigid land use allocation, it partly addresses the climatic concerns through creating open space and street trees. To better respond to adapt to the heat stress, urban design considerations in the context of sub-division practice would bring more benefits.

Keywords: climate change, urban design, adaptation, heat stress, water-logging

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7526 Closed Urban Block versus Open Housing Estates Structures: Sustainability Surveys in Brno, Czech Republic

Authors: M. Wittmann, G. Kopacik, A. Leitmannova

Abstract:

A prominent place in the spatial arrangement of Czech as well as other post-socialist, Central European cities belongs to 19th century closed urban blocks and the open concrete panel housing estates which were erected during the socialism era in the second half of 20th century. The characteristics of these two fundamentally diverse types of residential structures have, as we suppose, a different impact on the sustainable development of the urban area. The characteristics of these residential structures may influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also, e.g., the prices of real estates. These and many other phenomena indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicates degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. The survey results are reflected in the overall sustainability index and in the residents’ satisfaction index. The paper analyses the residential structures in the Central European city of Brno, Czech Republic. The case studies of the urban blocks near the city centre and of the housing estate Brno - Vinohrady are compared. The results imply that a considerable positive impact on the sustainable development of the area should be ascribed to the closed urban blocks near the city centre.

Keywords: City of Brno, closed urban block, open housing estate, urban structure

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7525 Environmental Effects of Interactions of Industry and Residence in District No 21 Tehran Municipality (Iran)

Authors: Farideh Gheitasi, Zahra Mirzaei Pour

Abstract:

Considering mutual interactions of industry and residence in an environmental point of view is essential in effective urban management and all the policies must be made based on the results of these interactions. So, District No 21 of Tehran Municipality (Iran) which is almost industrial combined with some residential area was selected to study the consequences of industrial and residential area neighborhood. In this paper the results of two observations conducted in two timescales in 2010 and 2015, according to completed questionnaires by residents of an industrial region in the study area, were analyzed. The questionnaires contain 19 different environmental parameters considering positive and negative effects of industry on human life. The results of this study show that 96% of the target group in 2010 believed if the companies regard the law, mutual coexistence of industry and residency is possible. While this number decreased to 21% in 2015, which indicates that the problem got worse and people became more unsatisfied with the situation.

Keywords: environment, industry, residence, pollution

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7524 The Potential for Recycling Household Wastes Generated from the Residential Areas of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

Authors: Asaolu Olugbenga Stephen, Afolabi Olusegun Temitope

Abstract:

Lack of proper solid waste management is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of waste generated per capita per day, determine the composition and identify the potentials for recycling of waste generated. Characterization of wastes from selected households in the residential areas was done for over a 7 day period. The weight of each sorted category of waste was recorded in a structured database that calculated the proportion of each waste component. The results indicated that 85.4% of the sampled waste characterized was found to be recyclable; with an estimated average waste generated of 1.82kg/capita/day. The various solid waste fractions were organic (64.6%), plastics (15.6%), metals (9.2%), glass materials (1.6%) and unclassified (8.9%). It was concluded from this study that a large proportion of the waste generated from OAU campus residential area was recyclable and that there is a need to enact policy on waste recycling within the university campus.

Keywords: recycling, household wastes, residential, solid waste management

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7523 Indoor and Outdoor Concentration of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ in Residential Building and Evaluation of Negative Air Ions (NAIs) in Indoor PM Removal

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Azam Nadali, Zahra Asadgol, Mohammad Fahiminia

Abstract:

Indoor and outdoor particulate matters (PM) were monitored in 20 residential buildings in a two-part study. In part I, the levels of indoor and outdoor PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ was measured using real time GRIMM dust monitors. In part II, the effect of negative air ions (NAIs) method was investigated on the reduction of indoor concentration of PM in these residential buildings. Hourly average concentration and standard deviation (SD) of PM₁₀ in indoor and outdoor at residential buildings were 90.1 ± 33.5 and 63.5 ± 27.4 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM₂.₅ in residential buildings were 49.5 ± 18.2 and 39.4± 18.1 µg/ m3 and for PM₁ the concentrations were 6.5 ± 10.1and 4.3 ± 7.7 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios and concentrations of all size fractions of PM were strongly correlated with wind speed and temperature whereas a good relationship was not observed between humidity and I/O ratios of PM. We estimated that nearly 71.47 % of PM₁₀, 79.86 % of PM₂.₅ and of 61.25 % of PM₁ in indoor of residential buildings can be removed by negative air ions.

Keywords: particle matter (PM), indoor air, negative air ions (NAIs), residential building

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7522 Influence of Harmonics on Medium Voltage Distribution System: A Case Study for Residential Area

Authors: O. Arikan, C. Kocatepe, G. Ucar, Y. Hacialiefendioglu

Abstract:

In this paper, influence of harmonics on medium voltage distribution system of Bogazici Electricity Distribution Inc. (BEDAS) which takes place at Istanbul/Turkey is investigated. A ring network consisting of residential loads is taken into account for this study. Real system parameters and measurement results are used for simulations. Also, probable working conditions of the system are analyzed for %50, %75 and %100 loading of transformers with similar harmonic contents. Results of the study are exhibited the influence of nonlinear loads on %THDV, P.F. and technical losses of the medium voltage distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, harmonic, technical losses, power factor, total harmonic distortion, residential load, medium voltage

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7521 Land Suitability Approach as an Effort to Design a Sustainable Tourism Area in Pacet Mojokerto

Authors: Erina Wulansari, Bambang Soemardiono, Ispurwono Soemarno

Abstract:

Designing sustainable tourism area is defined as an attempt to design an area, that brings the natural environmental conditions as components are available with a wealth of social conditions and the conservation of natural and cultural heritage. To understanding tourism area in this study is not only focus on the location of the tourist object, but rather to a tourist attraction around the area, tourism objects such as the existence of residential area (settlement), a commercial area, public service area, and the natural environmental area. The principle of success in designing a sustainable tourism area is able to integrate and balance between the limited space and the variety of activities that’s always continuously to growth up. The limited space in this area of tourism needs to be managed properly to minimize the damage of environmental as a result of tourism activities hue. This research aims to identify space in this area of tourism through land suitability approach as an effort to create a sustainable design, especially in terms of ecological. This study will be used several analytical techniques to achieve the research objectives as superimposing analysis with GIS 9.3 software and Analysis Hierarchy Process. Expected outcomes are in the form of classification and criteria of usable space in designing embodiment tourism area. In addition, this study can provide input to the order of settlement patterns as part of the environment in the area of sustainable tourism.

Keywords: sustainable tourism area, land suitability, limited space, environment, criteria

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7520 Generous Edge – Inviting the Spontaneous

Authors: Ofri Earon

Abstract:

This article is about a growing focus in the city of Copenhagen – the edge zone between the private space inside the residential building and the public space out at the residential street. A slow transition between the private living room and the public urban space creates a mutual benefit. The urban space benefits from an insertion of a homey atmosphere by the extended performance of living rooms to the exterior. The dwelling benefits from belonging to a liveable neighborliness, which means an extension of the private home to a collective home (= the neighborhood). Grounded by this reciprocal value of the edge zone, through the article, it is argued that a wide generosity of the edge zones is of interest among both planners and residents. The article introduces the idea of the edge zone and its possible implications in the development of the liveable residential city. Three examples of ongoing projects at Arkitema Architects are bought to illustrate the challenges and potentials of a generous edge zone. Every example represents a specific dwelling typology in a particular urban context: (1) multi-family residential building in a previous industrial area in the city (2) new courtyard building in the city’s outskirt (3) low and dense residential area out in the suburbia. Throughout these examples, the article seeks to discuss the significance of the edge zone in forthcoming residential areas in Denmark. The analysis of the Danish examples raises the question of why a social behavior that happens spontaneously in the south of Europe has to be carefully implemented in the architecture of north of Europe. In this light, the article ends with a discussion on how to create edge zones that are not designed for a particular usage, but rather as an architectural invitation for varied social behaviors that spontaneously occur in different moments of time by different people. Finally, the article ends with a list of recommendations for the development of the generous edge zone as an open invitation for diverse usage over time.

Keywords: dwelling, edge zone, generosity, livability, urban space

Procedia PDF Downloads 276