Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Kwok W. Mui

26 Transformation in Palliative Care Delivery in Surgery

Authors: W. L. Tsang, H. Y. Li, S. L. Wong, T. Y. Kwok, S. C. Yuen, S. S. Kwok, P. S. Ko, S. Y. Lau

Abstract:

Introduction: Palliative care is no doubt necessary in surgery. When one looks at studies of what patients with life-threatening illness want and compares to what they experience in surgical units, the gap is huge. Surgical nurses, being patient advocates, should engage with patients and families sooner rather than later in their illness trajectories to consider how to manage the illness, not just their capacity to survive. Objective: This clinical practice guide aims to fill the service gap of palliative care in surgery by producing a quality-driven, evidence-based yet straightforward clinical practice guide based on a focus strategy. Methodology: In line with Guide to Good Nursing Practice: End-of-Life Care recommended by Nursing Council of Hong Kong and the strategic goal of improving quality of palliative care proposed in HA Strategic Plan 2017-2022, multiple phases of work were undertaken from July 2015 to December 2017. A pragmatic clinical practice guide for surgical patients facing life-threatening conditions was developed based on assessments on knowledge of and attitudes towards end-of-life care of surgical nurses. Key domains, including preparation for bereavement, nursing care for imminently dying patients and at the dying scene were crystallized according to the results of the assessments and the palliative care checklist formulated by UCH Palliative Care Team. After a year of rollout, its content was refined through analyses of implementation in routine practice and consensus opinions from frontline nurses. Results and Outcomes: This clinical practice guide inspires surgical nurses with the art of care to provide for patients’ comfort, function, and longevity. It provides practical directions and assists nurses to master the skills on advance care planning and learn how to be clear with patients, families and themselves about the realities of the disease pictures. Through the implementation, patients and families are included in the decision process, and their wishes are honored. The delivery of explicit and high-quality palliative care maintains good nurse-to-patient relations and enhances satisfaction of hospital care of patients and families. Conclusion: Surgical nursing has always been up to the unique challenges of the era. This clinical practice guide has become an island of credibility for our nurses as they traverse the often stormy waters of life-limiting illness.

Keywords: palliative care delivery, palliative care in surgery, hospice care, end-of-life care

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25 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong

Abstract:

Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: nitrite, sensor, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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24 An Application-Based Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Calculator for Residential Buildings

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

Abstract:

Based on an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) index established by previous work that indicates the overall IEQ acceptance from the prospect of an occupant in residential buildings in terms of four IEQ factors - thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual and aural comforts, this study develops a user-friendly IEQ calculator for iOS and Android users to calculate the occupant acceptance and compare the relative performance of IEQ in apartments. The calculator allows the prediction of the best IEQ scenario on a quantitative scale. Any indoor environments under the specific IEQ conditions can be benchmarked against the predicted IEQ acceptance range. This calculator can also suggest how to achieve the best IEQ acceptance among a group of residents.

Keywords: calculator, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), residential buildings, 5-star benchmarks

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23 Environmental Parameters Influence on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients’ Quality of Life

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Nai K. K. Fong

Abstract:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fifth leading cause of death in Hong Kong. Investigators are eager to explore the environmental risk factors for COPD such as air pollution and occupational exposure. Through a cross-sectional survey, this study investigates the impact of air quality to the quality of life of patients with the COPD in terms of the scores of the (Chinese) chronic respiratory questionnaire (CCRQ) and the measurements of indoor air quality (IAQ) and Moser’s activities of daily living (ADL). Strong relationships between a number of indoor/outdoor environmental parameters were found and CRQ sub-scores for patients of COPD and thus indoor air pollutants must be monitored for future studies related to QOL for patients with COPD.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), indoor air pollutants, quality of life, chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ)

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22 Optimization of Reliability and Communicability of a Random Two-Dimensional Point Patterns Using Delaunay Triangulation

Authors: Sopheak Sorn, Kwok Yip Szeto

Abstract:

Reliability is one of the important measures of how well the system meets its design objective, and mathematically is the probability that a complex system will perform satisfactorily. When the system is described by a network of N components (nodes) and their L connection (links), the reliability of the system becomes a network design problem that is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we address the network design problem for a random point set’s pattern in two dimensions. We make use of a Voronoi construction with each cell containing exactly one point in the point pattern and compute the reliability of the Voronoi’s dual, i.e. the Delaunay graph. We further investigate the communicability of the Delaunay network. We find that there is a positive correlation and a negative correlation between the homogeneity of a Delaunay's degree distribution with its reliability and its communicability respectively. Based on the correlations, we alter the communicability and the reliability by performing random edge flips, which preserve the number of links and nodes in the network but can increase the communicability in a Delaunay network at the cost of its reliability. This transformation is later used to optimize a Delaunay network with the optimum geometric mean between communicability and reliability. We also discuss the importance of the edge flips in the evolution of real soap froth in two dimensions.

Keywords: Communicability, Delaunay triangulation, Edge Flip, Reliability, Two dimensional network, Voronio

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21 Sustainable Engineering: Synergy of BIM and Environmental Assessment Tools in Hong Kong Construction Industry

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit

Abstract:

The construction industry plays an important role in environmental and carbon emissions as it consumes a huge amount of natural resources and energy. Sustainable engineering involves the process of planning, design, procurement, construction and delivery in which the whole building and construction process resulting from building and construction can be effectively and sustainability managed to achieve the use of natural resources. Implementation of sustainable technology development and innovation, adoption of the advanced construction process and facilitate the facilities management to implement the energy and waste control more accurately and effectively. Study and research in the relationship of BIM and environment assessment tools lack a clear discussion. In this paper, we will focus on the synergy of BIM technology and sustainable engineering in the AEC industry and outline the key factors which enhance the use of advanced innovation, technology and method and define the role of stakeholders to achieve zero-carbon emission toward the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to well below 2ᵒC above pre-industrial levels. A case study of the adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and environmental assessment tools in Hong Kong will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: sustainability, sustainable engineering, BIM, LEED

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20 A Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach for the Decision of Maintenance Priorities of Building Entities: A Case Study in a Facilities Management Company

Authors: Wai Ho Darrell Kwok

Abstract:

Building entities are valuable assets of a society, however, all of them are suffered from the ravages of weather and time. Facilitating onerous maintenance activities is the only way to either maintain or enhance the value and contemporary standard of the premises. By the way, maintenance budget is always bounded by the corresponding threshold limit. In order to optimize the limited resources allocation in carrying out maintenance, there is a substantial need to prioritize maintenance work. This paper reveals the application of Fuzzy AHP in a Facilities Management Company determining the maintenance priorities on the basis of predetermined criteria, viz., Building Status (BS), Effects on Fabrics (EF), Effects on Sustainability (ES), Effects on Users (EU), Importance of Usage (IU) and Physical Condition (PC) in dealing with categorized 8 predominant building components maintenance aspects for building premises. From the case study, it is found that ‘building exterior repainting or re-tiling’, ‘spalling concrete repair works among exterior area’ and ‘lobby renovation’ are the top three maintenance priorities from facilities manager and maintenance expertise personnel. Through the application of the Fuzzy AHP for maintenance priorities decision algorithm, a more systemic and easier comparing scalar linearity factors being explored even in considering other multiple criteria decision scenarios of building maintenance issue.

Keywords: building maintenance, fuzzy AHP, maintenance priority, multi-criteria decision making

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19 Challenge of Net-Zero Carbon Construction and Measurement of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Reduction to Climate Change, Economy and Job Growths in Hong Kong and Australia

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit

Abstract:

The Paris Agreement 2015 addressed climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to substantially reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to limit the global temperature increase in this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) was held in Glasgow in 2021. In the Submit, all countries agreed to the Glasgow Climate Pact to keep 1.5 degrees and finalized the outstanding elements of the Paris Agreement. The basic approach of waste strategy, recycling policy, circular economy strategy, net-zero strategy and sustainability strategy will be discussed. Different researchers defined the waste strategy as to provide the capacity to handle the waste as a primary approach, and recycling policy is to manage the waste resources in a more efficient way, circular economy strategy is to minimize waste and maximize their value, net-zero strategy is the action to take for carbon neutrality and finally, sustainability is to achieve longevity without impact to the environment and our planet. In this paper, a more holistic study of the importance of the basic factors in terms of carbon emission, waste generation and conservation of energy will be critically and systematically reviewed and analyzed. Recommendations based on the finding can provide further research and future discussion for different stakeholders in the industry.

Keywords: net-zero carbon, climate change, carbon emission, energy consumption

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18 Development of Sustainable Building Environmental Model (SBEM) in Hong Kong

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, F. Xiao, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

Abstract:

This study addresses a concept of the Sustainable Building Environmental Model (SBEM) developed to optimize energy consumption in air conditioning and ventilation (ACV) systems without any deterioration of indoor environmental quality (IEQ). The SBEM incorporates two main components: an adaptive comfort temperature control module (ACT) and a new carbon dioxide demand control module (nDCV). These two modules take an innovative approach to maintain satisfaction of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) with optimum energy consumption, they provide a rational basis of effective control. A total of 2133 sets of measurement data of indoor air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (Rh) and carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) were conducted in some Hong Kong offices to investigate the potential of integrating the SBEM. A simulation was used to evaluate the dynamic performance of the energy and air conditioning system with the integration of the SBEM in an air-conditioned building. It allows us make a clear picture of the control strategies and performed any pre-tuned of controllers before utilized in real systems. With the integration of SBEM, it was able to save up to 12.3% in simulation and 15% in field measurement of overall electricity consumption, and maintain the average carbon dioxide concentration within 1000ppm and occupant dissatisfaction in 20%.

Keywords: sustainable building environmental model (SBEM), adaptive comfort temperature (ACT), new demand control ventilation (nDCV), energy saving

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17 Hybrid Adaptive Modeling to Enhance Robustness of Real-Time Optimization

Authors: Hussain Syed Asad, Richard Kwok Kit Yuen, Gongsheng Huang

Abstract:

Real-time optimization has been considered an effective approach for improving energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In model-based real-time optimization, model mismatches cannot be avoided. When model mismatches are significant, the performance of the real-time optimization will be impaired and hence the expected energy saving will be reduced. In this paper, the model mismatches for chiller plant on real-time optimization are considered. In the real-time optimization of the chiller plant, simplified semi-physical or grey box model of chiller is always used, which should be identified using available operation data. To overcome the model mismatches associated with the chiller model, hybrid Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) method is used for online real-time training of the chiller model. HGAs combines Genetic Algorithms (GAs) method (for global search) and traditional optimization method (i.e. faster and more efficient for local search) to avoid conventional hit and trial process of GAs. The identification of model parameters is synthesized as an optimization problem; and the objective function is the Least Square Error between the output from the model and the actual output from the chiller plant. A case study is used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method. It has been shown that the proposed approach is able to provide reliability in decision making, enhance the robustness of the real-time optimization strategy and improve on energy performance.

Keywords: energy performance, hybrid adaptive modeling, hybrid genetic algorithms, real-time optimization, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning

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16 A Hybrid Simulation Approach to Evaluate Cooling Energy Consumption for Public Housings of Subtropics

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chi T. Cheung

Abstract:

Cooling energy consumption in the residential sector, different from shopping mall, office or commercial buildings, is significantly subject to occupant decisions where in-depth investigations are found limited. It shows that energy consumptions could be associated with housing types. Surveys have been conducted in existing Hong Kong public housings to understand the housing characteristics, apartment electricity demands, occupant’s thermal expectations, and air–conditioning usage patterns for further cooling energy-saving assessments. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid cooling energy prediction model, which integrated by EnergyPlus (EP) and artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate cooling energy consumption in public residential sector. Sensitivity tests are conducted to find out the energy impacts with changing building parameters regarding to external wall and window material selection, window size reduction, shading extension, building orientation and apartment size control respectively. Assessments are performed to investigate the relationships between cooling demands and occupant behavior on thermal environment criteria and air-conditioning operation patterns. The results are summarized into a cooling energy calculator for layman use to enhance the cooling energy saving awareness in their own living environment. The findings can be used as a directory framework for future cooling energy evaluation in residential buildings, especially focus on the occupant behavioral air–conditioning operation and criteria of energy-saving incentives.

Keywords: artificial neural network, cooling energy, occupant behavior, residential buildings, thermal environment

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15 Exploring the Visual Representations of Neon Signs and Its Vernacular Tacit Knowledge of Neon Making

Authors: Brian Kwok

Abstract:

Hong Kong is well-known for its name as "the Pearl of the Orient", due to its spectacular night-view with vast amount of decorative neon lights on the streets. Neon signs are first used as the pervasive media of communication for all kinds of commercial advertising, ranging from movie theatres to nightclubs and department stores, and later appropriated by artists as medium of artwork. As a well-established visual language, it displays texts in bilingual format due to British's colonial influence, which are sometimes arranged in an opposite reading order. Research on neon signs as a visual representation is rare but significant because they are part of people’s collective memories of the unique cityscapes which associate the shifting values of people's daily lives and culture identity. Nevertheless, with the current policy to remove abandoned neon signs, their total number dramatically declines recently. The Buildings Department found an estimation of 120,000 unauthorized signboards (including neon signs) in Hong Kong in 2013, and the removal of such is at a rate of estimated 1,600 per year since 2006. In other words, the vernacular cultural values and historical continuity of neon signs will gradually be vanished if no immediate action is taken in documenting them for the purpose of research and cultural preservation. Therefore, the Hong Kong Neon Signs Archive project was established in June of 2015, and over 100 neon signs are photo-documented so far. By content analysis, this project will explore the two components of neon signs – the use of visual languages and vernacular tacit knowledge of neon makers. It attempts to answer these questions about Hong Kong's neon signs: 'What are the ways in which visual representations are used to produce our cityscapes and streetscapes?'; 'What are the visual languages and conventions of usage in different business types?'; 'What the intact knowledge are applied when producing these visual forms of neon signs?'

Keywords: cityscapes, neon signs, tacit knowledge, visual representation

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14 Relative Importance of Contact Constructs to Acute Respiratory Illness in General Population in Hong Kong

Authors: Kin On Kwok, Vivian Wei, Benjamin Cowling, Steven Riley, Jonathan Read

Abstract:

Background: The role of social contact behavior measured in different contact constructs in the transmission of respiratory pathogens with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remains unclear. We, therefore, aim to depict the individual pattern of ARI in the community and investigate the association between different contact dimensions and ARI in Hong Kong. Methods: Between June 2013 and September 2013, 620 subjects participated in the last two waves of recruitment of the population based longitudinal phone social contact survey. Some of the subjects in this study are from the same household. They are also provided with the symptom diaries to self-report any acute respiratory illness related symptoms between the two days of phone recruitment. Data from 491 individuals who were not infected on the day of phone recruitment and returned the symptom diaries after the last phone recruitment were used for analysis. Results: After adjusting different follow-up periods among individuals, the overall incidence rate of ARI was 1.77 per 100 person-weeks. Over 75% ARI episodes involve running nose, cough, sore throat, which are followed by headache (55%), malagia (35%) and fever (18%). Using a generalized estimating equation framework accounting for the cluster effect of subjects living in the same household, we showed that both daily number of locations visited with contacts and the number of contacts, explained the ARI incidence rate better than only one single contact construct. Conclusion: Our result suggests that it is the intertwining property of contact quantity (number of contacts) and contact intensity (ratio of subject-to-contact) that governs the infection risk by a collective set of respiratory pathogens. Our results provide empirical evidence that multiple contact constructs should be incorporated in the mathematical transmission models to feature a more realistic dynamics of respiratory disease.

Keywords: acute respiratory illness, longitudinal study, social contact, symptom diaries

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13 Implementing of Indoor Air Quality Index in Hong Kong

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Tsz W. Tsang

Abstract:

Many Hong Kong people nowadays spend most of their lifetime working indoor. Since poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) potentially leads to discomfort, ill health, low productivity and even absenteeism in workplaces, a call for establishing statutory IAQ control to safeguard the well-being of residents is urgently required. Although policies, strategies, and guidelines for workplace IAQ diagnosis have been developed elsewhere and followed with remedial works, some of those workplaces or buildings have relatively late stage of the IAQ problems when the investigation or remedial work started. Screening for IAQ problems should be initiated as it will provide information as a minimum provision of IAQ baseline requisite to the resolution of the problems. It is not practical to sample all air pollutants that exit. Nevertheless, as a statutory control, reliable, rapid screening is essential in accordance with a compromise strategy, which balances costs against detection of key pollutants. This study investigates the feasibility of using an IAQ index as a parameter of IAQ control in Hong Kong. The index is a screening parameter to identify the unsatisfactory workplace IAQ and will highlight where a fully effective IAQ monitoring and assessment is needed for an intensive diagnosis. There already exist a number of representative common indoor pollutants based on some extensive IAQ assessments. The selection of pollutants is surrogate to IAQ control consists of dilution, mitigation, and emission control. The IAQ Index and assessment will look at high fractional quantities of these common measurement parameters. With the support of the existing comprehensive regional IAQ database and the IAQ Index by the research team as the pre-assessment probability, and the unsatisfactory IAQ prevalence as the post-assessment probability from this study, thresholds of maintaining the current measures and performing a further IAQ test or IAQ remedial measures will be proposed. With justified resources, the proposed IAQ Index and assessment protocol might be a useful tool for setting up a practical public IAQ surveillance programme and policy in Hong Kong.

Keywords: assessment, index, indoor air quality, surveillance programme

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12 Synthesis of Double Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticles and Its Application in Paper-Based Chromatography

Authors: Ka Ho Yau, Jan Frederick Engels, Kwok Kei Lai, Reinhard Renneberg

Abstract:

Lateral flow test is a prevalent technology in various sectors such as food, pharmacology and biomedical sciences. Colloidal gold (CG) is widely used as the signalling molecule because of the ease of synthesis, bimolecular conjugation and its red colour due to intrinsic SPRE. However, the production of colloidal gold is costly and requires vigorous conditions. The stability of colloidal gold are easily affected by environmental factors such as pH, high salt content etc. Silica nanoparticles are well known for its ease of production and stability over a wide range of solvents. Using reverse micro-emulsion (w/o), silica nanoparticles with different sizes can be produced precisely by controlling the amount of water. By incorporating different water-soluble dyes, a rainbow colour of the silica nanoparticles could be produced. Conjugation with biomolecules such as antibodies can be achieved after surface modification of the silica nanoparticles with organosilane. The optimum amount of the antibodies to be labelled was determined by Bradford Assay. In this work, we have demonstrated the ability of the dye-doped silica nanoparticles as a signalling molecule in lateral flow test, which showed a semi-quantitative measurement of the analyte. The image was further analysed for the LOD=10 ng of the analyte. The working range and the linear range of the test were from 0 to 2.15μg/mL and from 0 to 1.07 μg/mL (R2=0.988) respectively. The performance of the tests was comparable to those using colloidal gold with the advantages of lower cost, enhanced stability and having a wide spectrum of colours. The positives lines can be imaged by naked eye or by using a mobile phone camera for a better quantification. Further research has been carried out in multicolour detection of different biomarkers simultaneously. The preliminary results were promising as there was little cross-reactivity being observed for an optimized system. This approach provides a platform for multicolour detection for a set of biomarkers that enhances the accuracy of diseases diagnostics.

Keywords: colorimetric detection, immunosensor, paper-based biosensor, silica

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11 Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Examinations: Clinical Use and Technical Challenges

Authors: Janet Wing-Chong Wai, Alex Chiu-Wing Lee, Hailey Hoi-Ching Tsang, Jeffrey Chiu, Kwok-Wing Tang

Abstract:

Background: Mammography has limited sensitivity and specificity though it is the primary imaging technique for detection of early breast cancer. Ultrasound imaging and contrast-enhanced MRI are useful adjunct tools to mammography. The advantage of breast MRI is high sensitivity for invasive breast cancer. Therefore, indications for and use of breast magnetic resonance imaging have increased over the past decade. Objectives: 1. Cases demonstration on different indications for breast MR imaging. 2. To review of the common artifacts and pitfalls in breast MR imaging. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including all patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI examination in our centre, performed from Jan 2011 to Dec 2017. The clinical data and radiological images were retrieved from the EPR (electronic patient record), RIS (Radiology Information System) and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). Results and Discussion: Cases including (1) Screening of the contralateral breast in patient with a new breast malignancy (2) Breast augmentation with free injection of unknown foreign materials (3) Finding of axillary adenopathy with an unknown site of primary malignancy (4) Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy: before, during, and after chemotherapy to evaluate treatment response and extent of residual disease prior to operation. Relevant images will be included and illustrated in the presentation. As with other types of MR imaging, there are different artifacts and pitfalls that can potentially limit interpretation of the images. Because of the coils and software specific to breast MR imaging, there are some other technical considerations that are unique to MR imaging of breast regions. Case demonstration images will be available in presentation. Conclusion: Breast MR imaging is a highly sensitive and reasonably specific method for the detection of breast cancer. Adherent to appropriate clinical indications and technical optimization are crucial for achieving satisfactory images for interpretation.

Keywords: MRI, breast, clinical, cancer

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10 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Cross-Sectional Study among Chinese Children

Authors: Jing-Jing Wang, Yang Gao, Heather H. M. Kwok, Wendy Y. J. Huang

Abstract:

Objectives: Intellectual disability (ID) ranks among the top 20 most costly disorders. A child with ID creates a wide set of challenges to the individual, family, and society, and overweight and obesity aggravate those challenges. People with ID have the right to attain optimal health like the rest of the population. They should be given priority to eliminate existing health inequities. Childhood obesity epidemic and associated factors among children, in general, has been well documented, while knowledge about overweight and obesity in children with ID is scarce. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 524 Chinese children with ID (males: 68.9%, mean age: 12.2 years) in Hong Kong in 2015. Children’s height and weight were measured at school. Parents, in the presence of their children, completed a self-administered questionnaire at home about the children’s physical activity (PA), eating habits, and sleep duration in a typical week as well as parenting practices regarding children’s eating and PA, and their socio-demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression estimated the potential risk factors for children being overweight. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with ID was 31.3%, which was higher than their general counterparts (18.7%-19.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed that the risk factors of overweight and obese in children with ID included: comorbidity with autism, the maternal side being overweight or obese, parenting practices with less pressure to eat more, children having shorter sleep duration, longer periods of sedentary behavior, and higher intake frequencies of sweetened food, fried food, and meats, fish, and eggs. Children born in other places, having snacks more frequently, and having irregular meals were also more likely to be overweight or obese, with marginal significance. Conclusions: Children with ID are more vulnerable to being overweight or obese than their typically developing counterparts. Identified risk factors in this study highlight a multifaceted approach to the involvement of parents as well as the modification of some children’s questionable behaviors to help them achieve a healthy weight.

Keywords: prevalence, risk factors, obesity, children with disability

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9 Dream Work: Examining the Effectiveness of Dream Interpretation in Gaining Psychological Insight into Young Adults in Korea

Authors: Ahn Christine Myunghee, Sim Wonjin, Cho Kristina, Ahn Mira, Hong Yeju, Kwok Jihae, Lim Sooyeon, Park Hansol

Abstract:

With a sharp increase in the prevalence rate for mental health issues in Korea, there is a need for specific and effective intervention strategies in counseling and psychotherapy for use with Korean clients. With the cultural emphasis on restraining emotional expression and not disclosing personal and familial problems to outsiders, clients often find it difficult to discuss their emotional issues even to therapists. Exploring a client’s internal psychological processes bypassing this culture-specific mode of therapeutic communication often becomes a challenge in the therapeutic setting. Given this socio-cultural context, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of using dream work to individuals in Korea. The current study conducted one 60-90 minute dream session and analyzed the dream content of 39 Korean young adults to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hill dream model in accessing the intra-psychic materials, determining essential emotional themes, and learning how the individuals interpreted the contents of their dreams. The transcribed data, which included a total of 39 sessions from 39 volunteer university students, were analyzed by the Consensus Qualitative Research (CQR) approach in terms of domains and core ideas. Self-report measures on Dream Salience, Gains from Dream Interpretations and the Session Evaluation Scale were administered before and after each of their dream sessions. The results indicated that dream work appears to be an effective way to understand unconscious motivations, thoughts, and feelings related to a person’s sense of self, and also how these people relate to other people. Current findings need to be replicated with clients referred for counseling and psychotherapy to determine if the dream work is an appropriate and useful intervention in counseling settings. Limitations of the current study and suggestions for future follow-ups are included in the discussion.

Keywords: dream work, dream interpretation, Korean, young adults, CQR

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8 Use of Telephone Counselling in Employee Assistance Program

Authors: Andy S.K. Cheng, Samuel Leung, Cindy Kwok, Hector Tsang

Abstract:

Background: Telephone counselling is one of the essential interventions that can be found in most of the Employee Assistance Programs (EAP). The purposes of this study were to (1) explore the trend of the telephone counselling from 2003-2016 in Hong Kong; (2) explore which EAP issue requires more follow-up; and 3) examine the relationship between the EAP issues and demographic data such as gender and job ranking. Method: Date of EAP services usage was collected from EAP providers in Hong Kong during 2003-2016. EAP issues were categorized into two domains, namely workplace issues and personal issues. Each domain has 12 sub-categories. Two hypotheses were formulated in this study (1) there was a gender difference in EAP issues and the follow-up hours; and (2) there was a significant difference between job ranking, EAP issues and follow-up hours. Results: A total of eight hundred and ninety-three valid cases were identified for analysis. Of them, three hundred and forty-three cases sought for follow-up. The duration of follow-up by hours was calculated for each of the follow-up cases. The results of the study shows that the top three workplace issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) workload, (2) supervisor-subordinate relationship; and (3) team member’s relationship. On the other hand, the top three personal issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) parenting/parent-child relationship, (2) family care, and (3) marital relationship. Two-way ANOVA was performed to compare the total follow-up hours (excluding first intake) between gender and EAP issues. There was no statistical significance for gender (p =.891), but a statistically significant main effect for EAP issues (p <.001) was found. Post-hoc analysis (Tukey’s test) showed that total follow-up hour in personal issues was statistically significant higher than that in handling workplace issues (p <.001). However, there was no statistically significant interaction effect between gender and EAP issues (p=.879) and between job ranking and EAP issues (p=.843). Conclusion: Telephone counselling is a very common intervention in addressing EAP issues arising from workplace and personal level in Hong Kong. It was frequently used to handle interpersonal relationships and the service usage was independent of gender and job ranking.

Keywords: employee assistance program, follow-up time, interpersonal relationships, telephone counselling

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7 Digital Transformation: Actionable Insights to Optimize the Building Performance

Authors: Jovian Cheung, Thomas Kwok, Victor Wong

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Buildings are entwined with smart city developments. Building performance relies heavily on electrical and mechanical (E&M) systems and services accounting for about 40 percent of global energy use. By cohering the advancement of technology as well as energy and operation-efficient initiatives into the buildings, people are enabled to raise building performance and enhance the sustainability of the built environment in their daily lives. Digital transformation in the buildings is the profound development of the city to leverage the changes and opportunities of digital technologies To optimize the building performance, intelligent power quality and energy management system is developed for transforming data into actions. The system is formed by interfacing and integrating legacy metering and internet of things technologies in the building and applying big data techniques. It provides operation and energy profile and actionable insights of a building, which enables to optimize the building performance through raising people awareness on E&M services and energy consumption, predicting the operation of E&M systems, benchmarking the building performance, and prioritizing assets and energy management opportunities. The intelligent power quality and energy management system comprises four elements, namely the Integrated Building Performance Map, Building Performance Dashboard, Power Quality Analysis, and Energy Performance Analysis. It provides predictive operation sequence of E&M systems response to the built environment and building activities. The system collects the live operating conditions of E&M systems over time to identify abnormal system performance, predict failure trends and alert users before anticipating system failure. The actionable insights collected can also be used for system design enhancement in future. This paper will illustrate how intelligent power quality and energy management system provides operation and energy profile to optimize the building performance and actionable insights to revitalize an existing building into a smart building. The system is driving building performance optimization and supporting in developing Hong Kong into a suitable smart city to be admired.

Keywords: intelligent buildings, internet of things technologies, big data analytics, predictive operation and maintenance, building performance

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6 Factors Impacting Training and Adult Education Providers’ Business Performance: The Singapore Context

Authors: Zan Chen, D. Kwok

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The SkillsFuture Singapore’s mission to develop a responsive and forward-looking Training and Adult Education (TAE) and workforce development system is undergirded by how successful TAE providers are in their business performance and strategies that strengthen their operational efficiency and processes. Therefore, understanding the factors that drive the business performance of TAE providers is critical to the success of SkillsFuture Singapore’s initiatives. This study aims to investigate how business strategy, work autonomy, work intensity and professional development support impact the business performance of private TAE providers. Specifically, the three research questions are: (1) Are there significant relationships between the above-mentioned four factors and TAE providers’ business performance?; (2) Are there significant differences on the four factors between low and high TAE providers’ business performance groups?; and (3) To what extent and in what manner do the four factors predict TAE providers’ business performance? This was part of the first national study on organizations and professionals working in the Training and Adult Education (TAE) sector. Data from 265 private TAE providers where respondents were Chief Executive Officers representatives from the Senior Management were analyzed. The results showed that business strategy (the extent that the organization leads the way in terms of developing new products and services; uses up-to-date learning technologies; customizes its products and services to the client’s needs), work autonomy (the extent that the staff personally have an influence on how hard they work; deciding what tasks they are to do; deciding how they are to do the tasks, and deciding the quality standards to which they work) and professional development support (both monetary and non-monetary support and incentives) had positive and significant relationships with business performance. However, no significant relationship is found between work intensity and business performance. A business strategy, work autonomy and professional development support were significantly higher in the high business performance group compared to the low-performance group among the TAE providers. Results of hierarchical regression analyses controlling for the size of the TAE providers showed significant impacts of business strategy, work autonomy and professional development support on TAE providers’ business performance. Overall, the model accounted for 27% of the variance in TAE providers’ business performance. This study provides policymakers with insights into improving existing policies, designing new initiatives and implementing targeting interventions to support TAE providers. The findings also have implications on how the TAE providers could better formulate their organizational strategies and business models. Finally, limitations of study, along with directions for future research will be discussed in the paper.

Keywords: adult education, business performance, business strategy, training, work autonomy

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5 Sexual Diversity Training for Hong Kong Teachers Preliminary Themes Identified from Qualitative Interviews

Authors: Diana K. Kwok

Abstract:

Despite the fact that Hong Kong government aims to develop an inclusive society, sexual minority students continue to encounter sexual prejudice without legal protection. They also have difficulties accessing relevant services from mental health and educational professionals, who do not receive systematic training to work with sexual minority students. Informed by the literature on sexual prejudice, heterosexual hegemony, genderism, as well as code of practice for frontline practitioners, the authors explored self-perceived knowledge of teachers and sexual minorities on sexuality and sexual prejudice, and how they perceive prejudice towards sexual minorities in Chinese cultural context. Semi-structure qualitative interviews were carried out with 31 school personnel informants (school teachers and counseling team members) and 25 sexual minority informants on their understanding of sexuality knowledge, their perception of sexual prejudice within school context in Hong Kong, as well as their suggested themes on teachers training on sexual prejudice reduction. This presentation specifically focuses on transcripts from sexual minority informants. Data analysis was carried out through NVivo, and followed the procedures spelt out in the qualitative research literature. Trustworthiness of the study was addressed through various strategies. Preliminary themes emerged from transcript content analysis: 1) A gap of knowledge between sexual minority informants and teachers; 2) Perception on sexual prejudice within cultural context; 3) Heterosexual hegemony and genderism within school system; 4) Needs for mandatory training: contents and strategies. The sexual minority informants found that teachers they encountered were predominantly adopted concepts of binary sex and dichotomous gender. Informants also indicated that the teachings of Confucianism cultural values, religiosity in Hong Kong might well be important cultural forces contributing to sexual prejudice manifested in school context. Although human rights and social justice concepts were embedded in professional code of practice of teachers and school helping professionals, informants found that teachers they encountered may face a dilemma when supporting sexual minority students navigating heterosexual hegemony and genderism in, as a consequence of their personal, institutional, cultural and religious backgrounds. Acknowledgments: The sexual prejudice project was funded by the Hong Kong Research Grant Council (ECS28401614), 2015 to 2017.

Keywords: sexual prejudice, Chinese teachers, Chinese sexual minorities, teacher training

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4 Acrylic Microspheres-Based Microbial Bio-Optode for Nitrite Ion Detection

Authors: Siti Nur Syazni Mohd Zuki, Tan Ling Ling, Nina Suhaity Azmi, Chong Kwok Feng, Lee Yook Heng

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Nitrite (NO2-) ion is used prevalently as a preservative in processed meat. Elevated levels of nitrite also found in edible bird’s nests (EBNs). Consumption of NO2- ion at levels above the health-based risk may cause cancer in humans. Spectrophotometric Griess test is the simplest established standard method for NO2- ion detection, however, it requires careful control of pH of each reaction step and susceptible to strong oxidants and dyeing interferences. Other traditional methods rely on the use of laboratory-scale instruments such as GC-MS, HPLC and ion chromatography, which cannot give real-time response. Therefore, it is of significant need for devices capable of measuring nitrite concentration in-situ, rapidly and without reagents, sample pretreatment or extraction step. Herein, we constructed a microspheres-based microbial optode for visual quantitation of NO2- ion. Raoutella planticola, the bacterium expressing NAD(P)H nitrite reductase (NiR) enzyme has been successfully extracted by microbial technique from EBN collected from local birdhouse. The whole cells and the lipophilic Nile Blue chromoionophore were physically absorbed on the photocurable poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxysuccinimide) [poly (nBA-NAS)] microspheres, whilst the reduced coenzyme NAD(P)H was covalently immobilized on the succinimide-functionalized acrylic microspheres to produce a reagentless biosensing system. Upon the NiR enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of NAD(P)H to NAD(P)+, NO2- ion is reduced to ammonium hydroxide, and that a colour change from blue to pink of the immobilized Nile Blue chromoionophore is perceived as a result of deprotonation reaction increasing the local pH in the microspheres membrane. The microspheres-based optosensor was optimized with a reflectance spectrophotometer at 639 nm and pH 8. The resulting microbial bio-optode membrane could quantify NO2- ion at 0.1 ppm and had a linear response up to 400 ppm. Due to the large surface area to mass ratio of the acrylic microspheres, it allows efficient solid state diffusional mass transfer of the substrate to the bio-recognition phase, and achieve the steady state response as fast as 5 min. The proposed optical microbial biosensor requires no sample pre-treatment step and possesses high stability as the whole cell biocatalyst provides protection to the enzymes from interfering substances, hence it is suitable for measurements in contaminated samples.

Keywords: acrylic microspheres, microbial bio-optode, nitrite ion, reflectometric

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3 A Delphi Study to Build Consensus for Tuberculosis Control Guideline to Achieve Who End Tb 2035 Strategy

Authors: Pui Hong Chung, Cyrus Leung, Jun Li, Kin On Kwok, Ek Yeoh

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Introduction: Studies for TB control in intermediate tuberculosis burden countries (IBCs) comprise a relatively small proportion in TB control literature, as compared to the effort put in high and low burden counterparts. It currently lacks of consensus in the optimal weapons and strategies we can use to combat TB in IBCs; guidelines of TB control are inadequate and thus posing a great obstacle in eliminating TB in these countries. To fill-in the research and services gap, we need to summarize the findings of the effort in this regard and to seek consensus in terms of policy making for TB control, we have devised a series of scoping and Delphi studies for these purposes. Method: The scoping and Delphi studies are conducted in parallel to feed information for each other. Before the Delphi iterations, we have invited three local experts in TB control in Hong Kong to participate in the pre-assessment round of the Delphi study to comments on the validity, relevance, and clarity of the Delphi questionnaire. Result: Two scoping studies, regarding LTBI control in health care workers in IBCs and TB control in elderly of IBCs respectively, have been conducted. The result of these two studies is used as the foundation for developing the Delphi questionnaire, which tapped on seven areas of question, namely: characteristics of IBCs, adequacy of research and services in LTBI control in IBCs, importance and feasibility of interventions for TB control and prevention in hospital, screening and treatment of LTBI in community, reasons of refusal to/ default from LTBI treatment, medical adherence of LTBI treatment, and importance and feasibility of interventions for TB control and prevention in elderly in IBCs. The local experts also commented on the two scoping studies conducted, thus act as the sixth phase of expert consultation in Arksey and O’Malley framework of scoping studies, to either nourish the scope and strategies used in these studies or to supplement ideas for further scoping or systematic review studies. In the subsequent stage, an international expert panel, comprised of 15 to 20 experts from IBCs in Western Pacific Region, will be recruited to join the two-round anonymous Delphi iterations. Four categories of TB control experts, namely clinicians, policy makers, microbiologists/ laboratory personnel, and public health clinicians will be our target groups. A consensus level of 80% is used to determine the achievement of consensus on particular issues. Key messages: 1. Scoping review and Delphi method are useful to identify gaps and then achieve consensus in research. 2. Lots of resources are put in the high burden countries now. However, the usually neglected intermediate-burden countries with TB is an indispensable part for achieving the ambitious WHO End TB 2035 target.

Keywords: dephi questionnaire, tuberculosis, WHO, latent TB infection

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2 Experiences of Students in a Cultural Competence Learning Project in Hong Kong- Themes from Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Diana Kwok

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Introduction: There is a rising concern on the educational needs of school guidance teachers, counselors, and sex educators to work effectively with students from multicultural groups, such as racial minorities, gender minorities, sexual minorities, and disability groups etc., and to respect cultural diversities. A specialized training model, the multicultural framework based on contact theory is recognized as necessary training model for professional training programs. Methodology: While the major focus of this project is on improving teaching and learning in teacher training courses within the department of Special Education and Counselling, it specifically aims to enhance the cultural competence of 102 participants enrolled in counseling and sexuality education courses by integrating the following teaching and learning strategies: 1) Panel presentation; 2) Case studies; 3) Experiential learning. Data sources from the participants consisted of the following: (a) questionnaires (MCKAS and ATLG) administered in classes; (b) weekly reflective journals, and c) focus group interviews with panel members. The focus group interviews with panel members were documented. Qualitatively, the weekly reflections were content analyzed. The presentation in this specific conference put focus on themes we found from qualitative content analysis of weekly reflective journals from 102 participants. Findings: Content analysis had found the following preliminary emergent themes: Theme I) Cultural knowledge and challenges to personal limitation. Students had gained a new perspective that specific cultural knowledge involved unique values and worldview. Awareness of limitation of counsellors is very important after actively acquiring the cultural knowledge. Theme 2 - Observation, engagement and active learning. Through the sharing and case studies, as well as visits to the communities, students recognized that observation and listening to the needs of cultural group members were the essential steps before taking any intervention steps. Theme 3 - Curiosity and desire for further inter-group dialogue. All students expressed their desire, curiosity, and motivation to have further inter-group dialogue in their future work settings. Theme 4: Experience with teaching and learning strategies. Students shared their perspectives on how teaching and learning strategies had facilitated their acquisition of cultural competence. Results of this analysis suggests that diverse teaching and learning strategies based on contact perspective had stimulated their curiosity to re-examine their values and motivated them to acquire cultural knowledge relevant to the cultural groups. Acknowledgment: The teaching and learning project was funded by the Teaching and Development Grant, Hong Kong Institute of Education (Project Number T0142).

Keywords: cultural competence, Chinese teacher students, teaching and learning, contacts

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1 Inferring Influenza Epidemics in the Presence of Stratified Immunity

Authors: Hsiang-Yu Yuan, Marc Baguelin, Kin O. Kwok, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Edwin Leeuwen, Steven Riley

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Traditional syndromic surveillance for influenza has substantial public health value in characterizing epidemics. Because the relationship between syndromic incidence and the true infection events can vary from one population to another and from one year to another, recent studies rely on combining serological test results with syndromic data from traditional surveillance into epidemic models to make inference on epidemiological processes of influenza. However, despite the widespread availability of serological data, epidemic models have thus far not explicitly represented antibody titre levels and their correspondence with immunity. Most studies use dichotomized data with a threshold (Typically, a titre of 1:40 was used) to define individuals as likely recently infected and likely immune and further estimate the cumulative incidence. Underestimation of Influenza attack rate could be resulted from the dichotomized data. In order to improve the use of serosurveillance data, here, a refinement of the concept of the stratified immunity within an epidemic model for influenza transmission was proposed, such that all individual antibody titre levels were enumerated explicitly and mapped onto a variable scale of susceptibility in different age groups. Haemagglutination inhibition titres from 523 individuals and 465 individuals during pre- and post-pandemic phase of the 2009 pandemic in Hong Kong were collected. The model was fitted to serological data in age-structured population using Bayesian framework and was able to reproduce key features of the epidemics. The effects of age-specific antibody boosting and protection were explored in greater detail. RB was defined to be the effective reproductive number in the presence of stratified immunity and its temporal dynamics was compared to the traditional epidemic model using use dichotomized seropositivity data. Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) was used to measure the fitness of the model to serological data with different mechanisms of the serological response. The results demonstrated that the differential antibody response with age was present (ΔDIC = -7.0). The age-specific mixing patterns with children specific transmissibility, rather than pre-existing immunity, was most likely to explain the high serological attack rates in children and low serological attack rates in elderly (ΔDIC = -38.5). Our results suggested that the disease dynamics and herd immunity of a population could be described more accurately for influenza when the distribution of immunity was explicitly represented, rather than relying only on the dichotomous states 'susceptible' and 'immune' defined by the threshold titre (1:40) (ΔDIC = -11.5). During the outbreak, RB declined slowly from 1.22[1.16-1.28] in the first four months after 1st May. RB dropped rapidly below to 1 during September and October, which was consistent to the observed epidemic peak time in the late September. One of the most important challenges for infectious disease control is to monitor disease transmissibility in real time with statistics such as the effective reproduction number. Once early estimates of antibody boosting and protection are obtained, disease dynamics can be reconstructed, which are valuable for infectious disease prevention and control.

Keywords: effective reproductive number, epidemic model, influenza epidemic dynamics, stratified immunity

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