Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 667

Search results for: spray drying

667 Comparative Survival Rates of Yeasts during Freeze-Drying, Traditional Drying and Spray Drying

Authors: Latifa Hamoudi-Belarbi, L'Hadi Nouri, Khaled Belkacemi

Abstract:

The effect of three methods of drying (traditional drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying) on the survival of concentrated cultures of Geotrichum fragrans and Wickerhamomyces anomalus was studied. The survival of yeast cultures was initially compared immediately after freeze-drying using HES 12%(w/v)+Sucrose 7% (w/v) as protectant, traditional drying in dry rice cakes and finally spray-drying with whey proteins. The survival of G. fragrans and W. anomalus was studied during 4 months of storage at 4°C and 25°C, in the darkness, under vacuum and at 0% relative humidity. The results demonstrated that high survival was obtained using traditional method of preservation in rice cakes (60% for G. fragrans and 65% for W. anomalus) and freeze-drying in (68% for G. fragrans and 74% for W. anomalus). However, poor survival was obtained by spray-drying method in whey protein with 20% for G. fragrans and 29% for W. anomalus. During storage at 25°C, yeast cultures of G. fragrans and W. anomalus preserved by traditional and freeze-drying methods showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 3 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 4 months of storage at 25°C. During storage at 4°C, preservation of yeasts cultures using traditional method of preservation provided better survival than freeze-drying. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the traditional method to preserve yeasts cultures compared to the high cost methods like freeze-drying and spray-drying.

Keywords: freeze-drying, traditional drying, spray drying, yeasts

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
666 Effect of Temperature and Feed Solution on Microencapsulation of Quercetin by Spray Drying Technique

Authors: S. Lekhavat, U. Srimongkoluk, P. Ratanachamnong, G. Laungsopapun

Abstract:

Quercetin was encapsulated with whey protein and high methoxyl pectin by spray drying technique. Feed solution, consisting of 0.1875 0.125 and 0.0625 % w/w quercetin, respectively, was prepared and then sprays at outlet temperature of 70, 80 and 90 °C. Quercetin contents either in feed solution or in spray dried powder were determined by HPLC technique. Physicochemical properties such as viscosity and total soluble solid of feed solution as well as moisture content and water activity of spray dried powder were examined. Particle morphology was imaged using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that feed solution has total soluble solid and viscosity in range of 1.73-5.60 ºBrix and 2.58-8.15 cP, in that order. After spray drying, the moisture content and water activity value of powder are in range of 0.58-2.72 % and 0.18-0.31, respectively. Quercetin content in dried sample increased along with outlet drying temperature but decreased when total soluble solid increased. It was shown that particles are likely to shrivel when spray drying at high temperature. The suggested conditions for encapsulation of quercetin are feed solution with 0.0625 % (w/w) quercetin and spray drying at drying outlet temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: drying temperature, particle morphology, spray drying, quercetin

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
665 Effect of Humidity on In-Process Crystallization of Lactose During Spray Drying

Authors: Amirali Ebrahimi, T. A. G. Langrish

Abstract:

The effect of various humidities on process yields and degrees of crystallinity for spray-dried powders from spray drying of lactose with humid air in a straight-through system have been studied. It has been suggested by Williams–Landel–Ferry kinetics (WLF) that a higher particle temperature and lower glass-transition temperature would increase the crystallization rate of the particles during the spray-drying process. Freshly humidified air produced by a Buchi-B290 spray dryer as a humidifier attached to the main spray dryer decreased the particle glass-transition temperature (Tg), while allowing the particle temperature (Tp) to reach higher values by using an insulated drying chamber. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis were used to measure the degree of crystallinity for the spray-dried lactose powders. The results showed that higher Tp-Tg, as a result of applying humid air, improved the process yield from 21 ± 4 to 26 ± 2% and crystallinity of the particles by decreasing the latent heat of crystallization from 43 ± 1 to 30 ± 11 J/g and the sorption peak height from 7.3 ± 0.7% to 6 ± 0.7%.

Keywords: lactose, crystallization, spray drying, humid air

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
664 Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying

Authors: Hyeongdo Jeong, Jong Kook Lee

Abstract:

Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.

Keywords: zirconia, solid content, granulation, spray drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
663 Preparation of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) Powder Using Spray Drying Technique

Authors: Shubham Mandliya, Pooja Pandey, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

Amla (Phyllanthus emblica), a plant of Euphorbiaceous is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Amla is very high in vitamin C content. Spray drying of fruit juices represents another alternative way to improve the physicochemical stability and increase their shelf life. Samples of amla powder were produced using the spray drying method to investigate the effect of inlet temperatures and maltodextrin levels. The spray dryer model used was a laboratory scale dryer and samples were run at different temperatures and concentrations. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the spray-drying process for the development of amla powder. The resultant powders were then analyzed for vitamin C, moisture, solubility and dispersibility. The spray dried amla powder contains higher amounts of vitamin C when compared to commercial fruit juice powders. SEM analysis revealed that lower maltodextrin levels and higher inlet air temperatures resulted in smaller but smoother particles. At lower temperature, vitamin C content is high as compared to higher temperature. Spray drying is an effective as well as an economic method which can be commercially used for making powder rather than by tray or solar drying as more fraction is retained with less cost.

Keywords: Amla powder, physiochemical properties, response surface methodology, spray drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
662 Survival of Four Probiotic Strains in Acid, Bile Salt and After Spray Drying

Authors: Rawichar Chaipojjana, Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to select the survival of probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047, Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500, Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 1465) were cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 35ºC for 15 hours before being inoculated into acidic condition (5 M HCl, pH 2) for 2 hours and bile salt (0.3%, pH 5.8) for 8 hour. The survived probiotics were counted in MRS agar. Among four stains, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 was the highest tolerance specie. Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 reduced 6.74±0.07 log CFU/ml after growing in acid and 5.52±0.05 log CFU/ml after growing in bile salt. Then, double emulsion of microorganisms was chosen to encapsulate before spray drying. Spray drying was done with the inlet temperature 170ºC and outlet temperature 80ºC. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 after spray drying decreased from 9.63 ± 0.32 to 8.31 ± 0.11 log CFU/ml comparing with non-encapsulated, 9.63 ± 0.32 to 4.06 ± 0.08 log CFU/ml. Therefore, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 would be able to survive in gastrointestinal and spray drying condition.

Keywords: probiotic, acid, bile salt, spray drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
661 Colour Formation and Maillard Reactions in Spray-Dried Milk Powders

Authors: Zelin Zhou, Timothy Langrish

Abstract:

Spray drying is the final stage of milk powder production. Traditionally, the quality of spray-dried milk powders has mainly been assessed using their physical properties, such as their moisture contents, while chemical changes occurring during the spray drying process have often been ignored. With growing concerns about food quality, it is necessary to establish a better understanding of heat-induced degradation due to the spray-drying process of skim milk. In this study, the extent of thermal degradation for skim milk in a pilot-scale spray dryer has been investigated using different inlet gas temperatures. The extent of heat-induced damage has been measured by the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products and the loss of soluble proteins at pH 4.6 as assessed by a fluorometric method. A significant increase in the extent of thermal degradation has been found when the inlet gas temperature increased from 170°C to 190°C, suggesting protein unfolding may play an important role in the kinetics of heat-induced degradation for milk in spray dryers. Colour changes of the spray-dried skim milk powders have also been analysed using a standard lighting box. Colourimetric analysis results were expressed in CIELAB colour space with the use of the E index (E) and the Chroma (C) for measuring the difference between colours and the intensity of the colours. A strong linear correlation between the colour intensity of the spray-dried skim milk powders and the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products has been observed.

Keywords: colour formation, Maillard reactions, spray drying, skim milk powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
660 Characterization of Shear and Extensional Rheology of Fibre Suspensions Prior to Atomization

Authors: Siti N. M. Rozali, A. H. J. Paterson, J. P. Hindmarsh

Abstract:

Spray drying of fruit juices from liquid to powder is desirable as the powders are easier to handle, especially for storage and transportation. In this project, pomace fibres will be used as a drying aid during spray drying, replacing the commonly used maltodextrins. The main attraction of this drying aid is that the pomace fibres are originally derived from the fruit itself. However, the addition of micro-sized fibres to fruit juices is expected to affect the rheology and subsequent atomization behaviour during the spray drying process. This study focuses on the determination and characterization of the rheology of juice-fibre suspensions specifically inside a spray dryer nozzle. Results show that the juice-fibre suspensions exhibit shear thinning behaviour with a significant extensional viscosity. The shear and extensional viscosities depend on several factors which include fibre fraction, shape, size and aspect ratio. A commercial capillary rheometer is used to characterize the shear behaviour while a portable extensional rheometer has been designed and built to study the extensional behaviour. Methods and equipment will be presented along with the rheology results. Rheology or behaviour of the juice-fibre suspensions provides an insight into the limitations that will be faced during atomization, and in the future, this finding will assist in choosing the best nozzle design that can overcome the limitations introduced by the fibre particles thus resulting in successful spray drying of juice-fibre suspensions.

Keywords: extensional rheology, fibre suspensions, portable extensional rheometer, shear rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
659 Producing Lutein Powder from Algae by Extraction and Drying

Authors: Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish

Abstract:

Lutein is a type of carotene believed to be beneficial to the eyes. This study aims to explore the possibility of using a closed cycle spray drying system to produce lutein. The system contains a spray dryer, a condenser, a heater, and a pressure seal. Hexane, ethanol, and isopropanol will be used as organic solvents to compare the extraction effects. Several physical and chemical methods of cell disruption will be compared. By continuously sweeping the system with nitrogen, the oxygen content will be controlled below 2%, reducing the concentration of organic solvent below the explosion limit and preventing lutein from being oxidized. Lutein powder will be recovered in the collection device. The volatile organic solvent will be cooled in the condenser and deposited in the bottom until it is discharged from the bottom of the condenser.

Keywords: closed cycle spray drying system, Chlorella vulgaris, organic solvent, solvent recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
658 The Study of Spray Drying Process for Skimmed Coconut Milk

Authors: Jaruwan Duangchuen, Siwalak Pathaveerat

Abstract:

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) belongs to the family Arecaceae. Coconut juice and meat are consumed as food and dessert in several regions of the world. Coconut juice contains low proteins, and arginine is the main amino acid content. Coconut meat is the endosperm of coconut that has nutritional value. It composes of carbohydrate, protein and fat. The objective of this study is utilization of by-products from the virgin coconut oil extraction process by using the skimmed coconut milk as a powder. The skimmed coconut milk was separated from the coconut milk in virgin coconut oil extraction process that consists approximately of protein 6.4%, carbohydrate 7.2%, dietary fiber 0.27 %, sugar 6.27%, fat 3.6 % and moisture content of 86.93%. This skimmed coconut milk can be made to powder for value - added product by using spray drying. The factors effect to the yield and properties of dry skimmed coconut milk in spraying process are inlet, outlet air temperature and the maltodextrin concentration. The percentage of maltodextrin content (15, 20%), outlet air temperature (80 ºC, 85 ºC, 90 ºC) and inlet air temperature (190 ºC, 200 ºC, 210 ºC) were conducted to the skimmed coconut milk spray drying process. The spray dryer was kept air flow rate (0.2698 m3 /s). The result that shown 2.22 -3.23% of moisture content, solubility, bulk density (0.4-0.67g/mL), solubility, wettability (4.04 -19.25 min) for solubility in the water, color, particle size were analyzed for the powder samples. The maximum yield (18.00%) of spray dried coconut milk powder was obtained at 210 °C of temperature, 80°C of outlet temperature and 20% maltodextrin for 27.27 second for drying time. For the amino analysis shown that the high amino acids are Glutamine (16.28%), Arginine (10.32%) and Glycerin (9.59%) by using HPLP method (UV detector).

Keywords: skimmed coconut milk, spray drying, virgin coconut oil process (VCO), maltodextrin

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
657 Spray Drying and Physico-Chemical Microbiological Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez

Abstract:

The propolis are substances obtained from the beehive have an action against pathogens, prooxidant substances and free radicals because of its polyphenols content, this has motivated the use of these compounds in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to their organoleptic properties and their ability to react with other compounds, their application has been limited; therefore, the objective of this research was to propose a mechanism to protect propolis and mitigate side effects granted by its components. To achieve the stated purpose ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from three samples from Santander were obtained and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were evaluated in order to choose the extract with the biggest potential. Subsequently mixtures of the extract with maltodextrin were prepared by spray drying varying concentration and temperature, finally the yield, the physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of the products were measured. It was concluded that Socorro propolis was the best for the production of microencapsulated due to their activity against pathogenic strains, for its large percentage of DPPH radical inactivation and for its high phenolic content. In spray drying, the concentration of bioactive had a greater impact than temperature and the conditions set allowed a good performance and the production of particles with high antioxidant potential and little chance of proliferation of microorganisms. Also, it was concluded that the best conditions that allowed us to obtain the best particles were obtained after drying a mixture 1:2 ( EEP: Maltodextrin), besides the concentration is the most important variable in the spray drying process, at the end we obtained particles of different sizes and shape and the uniformity of the surface depend on the temperature. After watching the previously mentioned microparticles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) it was concluded that most of the particles produced during the spray dry process had a spherical shape and presented agglomerations due to the moisture content of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP), the morphology of the microparticles contributed to the stability of the final product and reduce the loss of total phenolic content.

Keywords: spray drying, propolis, maltodextrin, encapsulation, scanning electron microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
656 Preservation of Sensitive Biological Products: An Insight into Conventional and Upcoming Drying Techniques

Authors: Jannika Dombrowski, Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik

Abstract:

Several drying techniques are used to preserve sensitive substances such as probiotic lactic acid bacteria. With the aim to better understand differences between these processes, this work gives new insights into structural variations resulting from different preservation methods and their impact on product quality and storage stability. Industrially established methods (freeze drying, spray drying) were compared to upcoming vacuum, microwave-freeze, and microwave-vacuum drying. For freeze and microwave-freeze dried samples, survival and activity maintained 100%, whereas vacuum and microwave-vacuum dried cultures achieved 30-40% survival. Spray drying yielded in lowest viability. The results are directly related to temperature and oxygen content during drying. Interestingly, most storage stable products resulted from vacuum and microwave-vacuum drying due to denser product structures as determined by helium pycnometry and SEM images. Further, lower water adsorption velocities were responsible for lower inactivation rates. Concluding, resulting product structures as well as survival rates and storage stability mainly depend on the type of water removal instead of energy input. Microwave energy compared to conductive heating did not lead to significant differences regarding the examined factors. Correlations could be proven for three investigated microbial strains. The presentation will be completed by an overview on the energy efficiency of the presented methods.

Keywords: drying techniques, energy efficiency, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, survival rates, structure characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
655 Formulation of Film Forming Transdermal Spray Containing Fluconazole Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Paresh M. Patel, Amit A. Patel, R. H. Parikh

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to fabricate modified transport fluconazole that belongs to BCS class II and have a poor applicability on topical infection. So to improve topical application, transdermal spray could play a vital role by using ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® S100 as film-forming polymers. Concentration of Eudragit® S100, ethyl cellulose and permeation enhancer (camphor and menthol) were selected as independent variables, whereas drying time, viscosity and in-vitro drug release were selected as dependent variables in factorial design. The viscosity, drying time and in-vitro drug release of the optimize batch B15 was 40.1 cps, 47 sec. and 90.79% respectively. The film of optimized batch was flexible and dermal-adhesive.

Keywords: Eudragit, ethyl cellulose, fluconazole, transdermal spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
654 Sorghum Polyphenols Encapsulated by Spray Drying, Using Modified Starches as Wall Materials

Authors: Adriana Garcia G., Alberto A. Escobar P., Amira D. Calvo L., Gabriel Lizama U., Alejandro Zepeda P., Fernando Martínez B., Susana Rincón A.

Abstract:

Different studies have recently been focused on the use of antioxidants such as polyphenols because of to its anticarcinogenic capacity. However, these compounds are highly sensible to environmental factors such as light and heat, so lose its long-term stability, besides possess an astringent and bitter taste. Nevertheless, the polyphenols can be protected by microcapsule formulation. In this sense, a rich source of polyphenols is sorghum, besides presenting a high starch content. Due to the above, the aim of this work was to obtain modified starches from sorghum by extrusion to encapsulate polyphenols the sorghum by spray drying. Polyphenols were extracted by ethanol solution from sorghum (Pajarero/red) and determined by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, obtaining GAE at 30 mg/g. Moreover, was extracted starch of sorghum (Sinaloense/white) through wet milling (yield 32 %). The hydrolyzed starch was modified with three treatments: acetic anhydride (2.5g/100g), sodium tripolyphosphate (4g/100g), and sodium tripolyphosphate/ acetic anhydride (2g/1.25g by each 100 g) by extrusion. Processing conditions of extrusion were as follows: barrel temperatures were of 60, 130 and 170 °C at the feeding, transition, and high-pressure extrusion zones, respectively. Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), showed bands exhibited of acetyl groups (1735 cm-1) and phosphates (1170 cm-1, 910 cm-1 and 525 cm-1), indicating the respective modification of starch. Besides, all modified starches not developed viscosity, which is a characteristic required for use in the encapsulation of polyphenols using the spray drying technique. As result of the modification starch, was obtained a water solubility index (WSI) from 33.8 to 44.8 %, and crystallinity from 8 to 11 %, indicating the destruction of the starch granule. Afterwards, microencapsulation of polyphenols was developed by spray drying, with a blend of 10 g of modified starch, 60 ml polyphenol extract and 30 ml of distilled water. Drying conditions were as follows: inlet air temperature 150 °C ± 1, outlet air temperature 80°C ± 5. As result of the microencapsulation: were obtained yields of 56.8 to 77.4 % and an efficiency of encapsulation from 84.6 to 91.4 %. The FTIR analysis showed evidence of microcapsules loaded with polyphenols in bands 1042 cm-1, 1038 cm-1 and 1148 cm-1. Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed transition temperatures from 144.1 to 173.9 °C. For the order hand, analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were observed rounded surfaces with concavities, typical feature of microcapsules produced by spray drying, how result of rapid evaporation of water. Finally, the modified starches were obtained by extrusion with good characteristics for use as cover materials by spray drying, where the phosphorylated starch was the best treatment in this work, according to the encapsulation yield, efficiency, and transition temperature.

Keywords: encapsulation, extrusion, modified starch, polyphenols, spray drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
653 Cold Spray Coating and Its Application for High Temperature

Authors: T. S. Sidhu

Abstract:

Amongst the existing coatings methods, the cold spray is new upcoming process to deposit coatings. As from the name itself, the cold spray coating takes place at very low temperature as compare to other thermal spray coatings. In all other thermal spray coating process the partial melting of the coating powder particles takes place before deposition, but cold spray process takes place in solid state. In cold spray process, the bonding of coating power with substrate is not metallurgical as in other thermal spray processes. Due to supersonic speed and less temperature of spray particles, solid state, dense, and oxide free coatings are produced. Due to these characteristics, the cold spray coatings have been used to protect the materials against hot corrosion. In the present study, the cold spray process, cold spray fundaments, its types, and its applications for high temperatures are discussed in the light of presently available literature. In addition, the assessment of cold spray with the competitive technologies has been conferred with available literature.

Keywords: cold spray coating, hot corrosion, thermal spray coating, high-temperature materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
652 Spray Nebulisation Drying: Alternative Method to Produce Microparticulated Proteins

Authors: Josef Drahorad, Milos Beran, Ondrej Vltavsky, Marian Urban, Martin Fronek, Jiri Sova

Abstract:

Engineering efforts of researchers of the Food research institute Prague and the Czech Technical University in spray drying technologies led to the introduction of a demonstrator ATOMIZER and a new technology of Carbon Dioxide-Assisted Spray Nebulization Drying (CASND). The equipment combines the spray drying technology, when the liquid to be dried is atomized by a rotary atomizer, with Carbon Dioxide Assisted Nebulization - Bubble Dryer (CAN-BD) process in an original way. A solution, emulsion or suspension is saturated by carbon dioxide at pressure up to 80 bar before the drying process. The atomization process takes place in two steps. In the first step, primary droplets are produced at the outlet of the rotary atomizer of special construction. In the second step, the primary droplets are divided in secondary droplets by the CO2 expansion from the inside of primary droplets. The secondary droplets, usually in the form of microbubbles, are rapidly dried by warm air stream at temperatures up to 60ºC and solid particles are formed in a drying chamber. Powder particles are separated from the drying air stream in a high efficiency fine powder separator. The product is frequently in the form of submicron hollow spheres. The CASND technology has been used to produce microparticulated protein concentrates for human nutrition from alternative plant sources - hemp and canola seed filtration cakes. Alkali extraction was used to extract the proteins from the filtration cakes. The protein solutions after the alkali extractions were dried with the demonstrator ATOMIZER. Aerosol particle size distribution and concentration in the draying chamber were determined by two different on-line aerosol spectrometers SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer). The protein powders were in form of hollow spheres with average particle diameter about 600 nm. The particles were characterized by the SEM method. The functional properties of the microparticulated protein concentrates were compared with the same protein concentrates dried by the conventional spray drying process. Microparticulated protein has been proven to have improved foaming and emulsifying properties, water and oil absorption capacities and formed long-term stable water dispersions. This work was supported by the research grants TH03010019 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: carbon dioxide-assisted spray nebulization drying, canola seed, hemp seed, microparticulated proteins

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
651 The Use of Food Industry Bio-Products for Sustainable Lactic Acid Bacteria Encapsulation

Authors: Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Vita Krungleviciute, Elena Bartkiene

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microbial supplements that increase the nutritional, therapeutic, and safety value of food and feed. Often LAB strains are incubated in an expensive commercially available de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium; the cultures are centrifuged, and the cells are washing with sterile water. Potato juice and apple juice industry bio-products are industrial wastes which may constitute a source of digestible nutrients for microorganisms. Due to their low cost and good chemical composition, potato juice and apple juice production bio- products could have a potential application in LAB encapsulation. In this study, pure LAB (P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus) were multiplied in a crushed potato juice and apple juice industry bio-products medium. Before using, bio-products were sterilized and filtered. No additives were added to mass, except apple juice industry bioproducts were diluted with sterile water (1/5; v/v). The tap of sterilised mass, and LAB cell suspension (5 mL), containing of 8.9 log10 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL of the P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus was used to multiply the LAB for 72 h. The final colony number in the potato juice and apple juice bio- products substrate was on average 9.60 log10 cfu/g. In order to stabilize the LAB, several methods of dehydration have been tested: lyophilisation (MilrockKieffer Lane, Kingston, USA) and dehydration in spray drying system (SD-06, Keison, Great Britain). Into the spray drying system multiplied LAB in a crushed potato juice and apple juice bio-products medium was injected in peristaltic way (inlet temperature +60 °C, inlet air temperature +150° C, outgoing air temperature +80 °C, air flow 200 m3/h). After lyophilisation (-48 °C) and spray drying (+150 °C) the viable cell concentration in the fermented potato juice powder was 9.18 ± 0.09 log10 cfu/g and 9.04 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and in apple mass powder 8.03 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g and 7.03 ± 0.03 log10 cfu/g, respectively. Results indicated that during the storage (after 12 months) at room temperature (22 +/- 2 ºC) LAB count in dehydrated products was 5.18 log10 cfu/g and 7.00 log10 cfu/g (in spray dried and lyophilized potato juice powder, respectively), and 3.05 log10 cfu/g and 4.10 log10 cfu/g (in spray dried and lyophilized apple juice industry bio-products powder, respectively). According to obtained results, potato juice could be used as alternative substrate for P. acidilactici and P. pentosaceus cultivation, and by drying received powders can be used in food/feed industry as the LAB starters. Therefore, apple juice industry by- products before spray drying and lyophilisation should be modified (i. e. by using different starches) in order to improve its encapsulation.

Keywords: bio-products, encapsulation, lactic acid bacteria, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
650 Microencapsulation for Enhancing the Survival of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus during Spray Drying of Sweetened Yoghurt

Authors: Dibyakanta Seth, Hari Niwas Mishra, Sankar Chandra Deka

Abstract:

Microencapsulation is an established method of protecting bacteria from the adverse conditions. An improved extrusion spraying technique was used to encapsulate mixed bacteria culture of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus using sodium alginate as the coating material. The effect of nozzle air pressure (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa), sodium alginate concentration (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3% w/v), different concentration of calcium chloride (0.1, 0.2, 1 M) and initial cell loads (10⁷, 10⁸, 10⁹ cfu/ml) on the viability of encapsulated bacteria were investigated. With the increase in air pressure the size of microcapsules decreased, however the effect was non-significant. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the viability of encapsulated cells when the concentration of calcium chloride was increased. Increased level of sodium alginate significantly increased the survival ratio of encapsulated bacteria (P < 0.01). Encapsulation with 3% alginate was treated as optimum since a higher concentration of alginate increased the gel strength of the solution and thus was difficult to spray. Under optimal conditions 3% alginate, 10⁹ cfu/ml cell load, 20 min hardening time in 0.1 M CaCl2 and 400 kPa nozzle air pressure, the viability of bacteria cells was maximum compared to the free cells. The microcapsules made at the optimal condition when mixed with yoghurt and subjected to spray drying at 148°C, the survival ratio was 2.48×10⁻¹ for S. thermophilus and 7.26×10⁻¹ for L. bulgaricus. In contrast, the survival ratio of free cells of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were 2.36×10⁻³ and 8.27×10⁻³, respectively. This study showed a decline in viable cells count of about 0.5 log over a period of 7 weeks while there was a decline of about 1 log in cultures which were incorporated as free cells in yoghurt. Microencapsulation provided better protection at higher acidity compared to free cells. This study demonstrated that microencapsulation of yoghurt culture in sodium alginate is an effective technique of protection against extreme drying conditions.

Keywords: extrusion, microencapsulation, spray drying, sweetened yoghurt

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
649 Persian Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.) Dehydration in Natural and Industrial Conditions

Authors: Hamid Tavakolipour, Mohsen Mokhtarian, Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of various drying methods (sun drying, shade drying and industrial drying) on final moisture content, shell splitting degree, shrinkage and color change were studied. Sun drying resulted higher degree of pistachio nuts shell splitting on pistachio nuts relative other drying methods. The ANOVA results showed that the different drying methods did not significantly effects on color change of dried pistachio nut. The results illustrated that pistachio nut dried by industrial drying had the lowest moisture content. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted with five famous drying models namely Newton, Page, Silva et al., Peleg and Henderson and Pabis. The results indicated that Peleg and Page models gave better results compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio’s pistachio nut in industrial drying and open sun (or shade drying) methods, respectively.

Keywords: industrial drying, pistachio, quality properties, traditional drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
648 Plackett-Burman Design for Microencapsulation of Blueberry Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Feyza Tatar, Alime Cengiz, Dilara Sandikçi, Muhammed Dervisoglu, Talip Kahyaoglu

Abstract:

Blueberries are known for their bioactive properties such as high anthocyanin contents, antioxidant activities and potential health benefits. However, anthocyanins are sensitive to environmental conditions during processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray drying conditions on the blueberry microcapsules by Plackett-Burman experimental design. Inlet air temperature (120 and 180°C), feed pump rate (20% and 40%), DE of maltodextrin (6 and 15 DE), coating concentration (10% and 30%) and source of blueberry (Duke and Darrow) were independent variables, tested at high (+1) and low (-1) levels. Encapsulation efficiency (based on total phenol) of blueberry microcapsules was the dependent variable. In addition, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility, water activity and bulk density were measured for blueberry powders. The antioxidant activity of blueberry powders ranged from 72 to 265 mmol Trolox/g and anthocyanin content was changed from 528 to 5500 mg GAE/100g. Encapsulation efficiency was significantly affected (p<0.05) by inlet air temperature and coating concentration. Encapsulation efficiency increased with increasing inlet air temperature and decreasing coating concentration. The highest encapsulation efficiency could be produced by spray drying at 180°C inlet air temperature, 40% pump rate, 6 DE of maltodextrin, 13% maltodextrin concentration and source of duke blueberry.

Keywords: blueberry, microencapsulation, Plackett-Burman design, spray drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
647 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics Investigation in Spray Cooling Systems Using Nanofluids

Authors: Lee Derk Huan, Nur Irmawati

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of nanofluids used in spray cooling systems. The effect of spray height, type of nanofluids and concentration of nanofluids are numerically investigated. Five different nanofluids such as AgH2O, Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and TiO2 with volume fraction range of 0.5% to 2.5% are used. The results revealed that the heat transfer performance decreases as spray height increases. It is found that TiO2 has the highest transfer coefficient among other nanofluids. In dilute spray conditions, low concentration of nanofluids is observed to be more effective in heat removal in a spray cooling system.

Keywords: numerical investigation, spray cooling, heat transfer, nanofluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
646 Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Mustafa Erbas

Abstract:

The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.

Keywords: beef slice, drying models, effective diffusivity, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
645 The Influence of Water on the Properties of Cellulose Fibre Insulation

Authors: Pablo Lopez Hurtado, Antroine Rouilly, Virginie Vandenbossche

Abstract:

Cellulose fibre insulation is an eco-friendly building material made from recycled paper fibres, treated with borates for fungal and fire resistance. It is comparable in terms of thermal and acoustic performance to mineral wool insulation and other insulation materials based on non-renewable resources. The main method of application consists in separating and blowing the fibres in attics or closed wall cavities. Another method, known as the “wet spray method” is gaining interest. With this method the fibres are projected with pulverized water, which stick to the wall cavities. The issue with the wet spray technique is that the water dosage could be difficult to control. A high water dosage implies not only a longer drying time, depending on ambient conditions, but also a change in the performance of the material itself. In our work we studied the thermal and mechanical properties of wet spray-cellulose insulation in order to understand how water dosage could affect these properties. The material was first characterized to study the chemical and physical properties of the fibres. Then representative samples of wet sprayed cellulose with varying applied water dosage were subject to thermal conductivity and compression testing in order to better understand how changes in the fibres induced by drying can affect these properties.

Keywords: cellulose fibre, recycled paper, moisture sorption, thermal insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
644 Effects of Spray Dryer Atomizer Speed on Casein Micelle Size in Whole Fat Milk Powder and Physicochemical Properties of White Cheese

Authors: Mohammad Goli, Akram Sharifi, Mohammad Yousefi Jozdani, Seyed Ali Mortazavi

Abstract:

An industrial spray dryer was used, and the effects of atomizer speed on the physicochemical properties of milk powder, the textural and sensory characteristics of white cheese made from this milk powder, were evaluated. For this purpose, whole milk was converted into powder by using three different speeds (10,000, 11,000, and 12,000 rpm). Results showed that with increasing atomizer speed in the spray dryer, the average size of casein micelle is significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas no significant effect is observed on the chemical properties of milk powder. White cheese characteristics indicated that with increasing atomizer speed, texture parameters, such as hardness, mastication, and gumminess, were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Sensory evaluation also revealed that cheese samples prepared with dried milk produced at 12,000 rpm were highly accepted by panelists. Overall, the findings suggested that 12,000 rpm is the optimal atomizer speed for milk powder production.

Keywords: spray drying, powder technology, atomizer speed, particle size, white cheese physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
643 Improvement of Oxidative Stability of Edible Oil by Microencapsulation Using Plant Proteins

Authors: L. Le Priol, A. Nesterenko, K. El Kirat, K. Saleh

Abstract:

Introduction and objectives: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-3 and omega-6 are widely recognized as being beneficial to the health and normal growth. Unfortunately, due to their highly unsaturated nature, these molecules are sensitive to oxidation and thermic degradation leading to the production of toxic compounds and unpleasant flavors and smells. Hence, it is necessary to find out a suitable way to protect them. Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a low-cost encapsulation technology and most commonly used in the food industry. Many compounds can be used as wall materials, but there is a growing interest in the use of biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides, over the last years. The objective of this study is to increase the oxidative stability of sunflower oil by microencapsulation in plant protein matrices using spray-drying technique. Material and methods: Sunflower oil was used as a model substance for oxidable food oils. Proteins from brown rice, hemp, pea, soy and sunflower seeds were used as emulsifiers and microencapsulation wall materials. First, the proteins were solubilized in distilled water. Then, the emulsions were pre-homogenized using a high-speed homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax) and stabilized by using a high-pressure homogenizer (HHP). Drying of the emulsion was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer. The oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil was determined by performing accelerated oxidation tests with a Rancimat. The size of the microparticles was measured using a laser diffraction analyzer. The morphology of the spray-dried microparticles was acquired using environmental scanning microscopy. Results: Pure sunflower oil was used as a reference material. Its induction time was 9.5 ± 0.1 h. The microencapsulation of sunflower oil in pea and soy protein matrices significantly improved its oxidative stability with induction times of 21.3 ± 0.4 h and 12.5 ± 0.4 h respectively. The encapsulation with hemp proteins did not significantly change the oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil. Sunflower and brown rice proteins were ineffective materials for this application, with induction times of 7.2 ± 0.2 h and 7.0 ± 0.1 h respectively. The volume mean diameter of the microparticles formulated with soy and pea proteins were 8.9 ± 0.1 µm and 16.3 ± 1.2 µm respectively. The values for hemp, sunflower and brown rice proteins could not be obtained due to the agglomeration of the microparticles. ESEM images showed smooth and round microparticles with soy and pea proteins. The surfaces of the microparticles obtained with sunflower and hemp proteins were porous. The surface was rough when brown rice proteins were used as the encapsulating agent. Conclusion: Soy and pea proteins appeared to be efficient wall materials for the microencapsulation of sunflower oil by spray drying. These results were partly explained by the higher solubility of soy and pea proteins in water compared to hemp, sunflower, and brown rice proteins. Acknowledgment: This work has been performed, in partnership with the SAS PIVERT, within the frame of the French Institute for the Energy Transition (Institut pour la Transition Energétique (ITE)) P.I.V.E.R.T. (www.institut-pivert.com) selected as an Investments for the Future (Investissements d’Avenir). This work was supported, as part of the Investments for the Future, by the French Government under the reference ANR-001-01.

Keywords: biopolymer, edible oil, microencapsulation, oxidative stability, release, spray-drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
642 Quantitative Characterization of Single Orifice Hydraulic Flat Spray Nozzle

Authors: Y. C. Khoo, W. T. Lai

Abstract:

The single orifice hydraulic flat spray nozzle was evaluated with two global imaging techniques to characterize various aspects of the resulting spray. The two techniques were high resolution flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A CCD camera with 29 million pixels was used to capture shadowgraph images to realize ligament formation and collapse as well as droplet interaction. Quantitative analysis was performed to give the sizing information of the droplets and ligaments. This camera was then applied with a PIV system to evaluate the overall velocity field of the spray, from nozzle exit to droplet discharge. PIV images were further post-processed to determine the inclusion angle of the spray. The results from those investigations provided significant quantitative understanding of the spray structure. Based on the quantitative results, detailed understanding of the spray behavior was achieved.

Keywords: spray, flow visualization, PIV, shadowgraph, quantitative sizing, velocity field

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
641 Experimental Study on Drying Parameters of Freeze Drying Systems

Authors: Ali Osman Suiçmez, Emrah Deniz

Abstract:

In this study, control experiments were made on a freeze drying system of which were built a prototype. In experiments, apple slices in different geometrical shapes were dried and drying curves were gained. Then, the shapes which were the fastest for drying were determined. Twenty samples for each apple shapes were put in the prototype and dried. After the experiments, the humidity ratio of the samples and water activity values of the samples have been obtained. Obtained results show that the prototype is working and by comparing the results the shape which dried fastest was determined.

Keywords: freeze drying, vacuum, energy consumption, drying process, apple

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
640 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven

Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer

Abstract:

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.

Keywords: microwave drying, eggplant, drying rate, drying efficiency, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
639 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer

Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert

Abstract:

Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses

Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
638 Effect of Drying on the Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma

Abstract:

The drying of hydraulics materials is unavoidable and conducted to important spontaneous deformations. In this study, we show that it is possible to describe the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete by a simple expression. A multiple regression model was developed for the prediction of the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete. The assessment of the proposed model has been done by a set of statistical tests. The model developed takes in consideration the main parameters of confection and conservation. There was a very good agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the multiple regression model and experimental results. The developed model adjusts easily to all hydraulic concrete types.

Keywords: hydraulic concretes, drying, shrinkage, prediction, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 194