Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Meksem Nabila

26 Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Extract of the Eucalyptus camaldulensis stemming from the Algerian Northeast

Authors: Meksem Nabila, Bordjiba Ouahiba, Meraghni Messaouda, Meksem Amara Leila, Djebar Mohhamed Reda

Abstract:

The problems of protection of the cultures are being more and more important that they interest great number of farmers and scientists because of the excessive use of the organic phytosanitary products of synthesis that causes fatal damages on the environment. To reduce the inconveniences produced by these pesticides, the use of "biopesticides" originated from plants could be an alternative. The aim of this work is the valuation of a botanical species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis from Northeastern Algeria which extracts are supposed to have an antimicrobial activity, similar to pesticides. The extraction of secondary metabolites from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was realized using methanol and water, and measurements of total polyphenols were made by spectrometric method. Determination of the antimicrobial activity of the extracts at issue was realized in vitro on phyto-pathogenic fungal and bacterial stumps. Tests of comparison were included in the essays by using the chemical pesticidal products of synthesis. The obtained results show that the plant contains polyphenols with an efficiency mattering of the order of 22 %. These polyphenols have a strong fungicidal and bactericidal pesticidal activity against various microbial stumps and the values of the zones of inhibition are more important compared with that obtained in the presence of the chemicals of synthesis (fungicide).

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, polyphenols, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, biopesticide

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25 The Evaluation of the Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf)

Authors: Meksem Amara Leila, Ferfar Meriem, Meksem Nabila, Djebar Mohammed Reda

Abstract:

The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants.In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalse, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: Toxicity, triticum durum, sulfonylurea, oxydative stress

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24 The Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf)

Authors: L. Meksem Amara, M. Ferfar, N. Meksem, M. R. Djebar

Abstract:

The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants. In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalase, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: Toxicity, triticum durum, sulfonylurea, oxydative stress

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23 Carbon Nanocomposites : Structure, Characterization and Environmental Application

Authors: Bensacia Nabila, Hadj-Ziane Amel, Sefah Karima

Abstract:

Carbon nanocomposites have received more attention in the last years in view of their special properties such as low density, high specific surface area, and thermal and mechanical stability. Taking into account the importance of these materials, many studies aimed at improving the synthesis process have been conducted. However, the presence of impurities could affect significantly the properties of these materials, and the characterization of these compounds is an important challenge to assure the quality of the new carbon nanocomposites. The present study aims to develop a new recyclable decontaminating material for dyes removal. This new material consists of an active element based on carbon nanotubes wrapped in a microcapsule of iron oxide. The adsorbent is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and the surface area was measured by the BET method.

Keywords: Dyes, elimination, carbon nanocomposite, chitozen

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22 Economic and Technical Study for Hybrid (PV/Wind) Power System in the North East of Algeria

Authors: Nabila Louai, Fouad Khaldi, Houria Benharchache

Abstract:

In this paper, the case of meeting a household’s electrical energy demand with hybrid systems has been examined. The objective is to study technological feasibility and economic viability of the electrification project by a hybrid system (PV/ wind) of a residential home located in Batna-Algeria and to reduce the emissions from traditional power by using renewable energy. An autonomous hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV)/battery power system and a PV/Wind grid connected system, has been carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) simulation software. As a result, it has been found that electricity from the grid can be supplied at a lower price than electricity from renewable energy at this moment.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Hybrid System, household, batna, techno-economy

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21 Effects of Exhaust Gas Emitted by the Fleet on Public Health in the Region of Annaba (Algeria): Ecotoxicological Test on Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

Authors: Aouissi Nora, Meksem Leila

Abstract:

This work focused on the study of air pollution generated by the transport sector in the region of Annaba. Our study is based on two parts: the first one concerns an epidemiological investigation in the area of Annaba situated in the east Algerian coast, which deals with the development of the fleet and its impact on public health. To get a more precise idea of the impact of road traffic on public health, we consulted the computing center office of the National Social Insurance Fund. The information we were given by this office refers to the number of reported asthma and heart disease after medical examination during the period 2006-2010. The second part was devoted to the study of the toxicity of exhaust gases on some physical and biochemical parameters of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). After germination and three-leaf stage, the pots are placed in a box of volume (0,096 m3) having an input which is linked directly to the exhaust pipe of a truck, and an outlet to prevent asphyxiation plant. The experience deals with 30 pots: 10 pots are exposed for 5 minutes to exhaust smoke; the other 10 are exposed for 15 minutes, and the remaining 10 for 30 minutes. The epidemiological study shows that the levels of pollutants emitted by the fleet are responsible for the increase of people respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. As for biochemical analyses of vegetation, they clearly show the toxicity of pollutants emitted by the exhaust gases, with an increase in total protein, proline and stimulation of detoxification enzyme (catalase).

Keywords: Biochemistry, Air Pollution, Epidemiology, Toxicity

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20 Validity Study of The Zimbardo’s Stanford Time Perspective Inventory in Indonesia Students Context

Authors: Anggi Permana, Zahrah Nabila Putri, Anisa Dwi Arifani, Veany Aprillia

Abstract:

This research aims to evaluate the validity of Zimbardo’s Stanford Time Perspective Inventory (STPI) in Indonesian context. The model of validity used in this study is the criterion-based validity, in which the associated variables are depression and subjective well-being (SWB). BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) was used to measure depression, while PANAS (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale) and SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale) were used to measure subjective well-being. The analysis showed that STPI variables are closely related to STPI Dimension, Present Hedonistic showed pro validity to SWB, Future indicated contra validity to SWB, and Present Fatalistic revealed contra validity to depression and pro validity to SWB. The subjects of this research are from the same university.

Keywords: subjective well-being, BDI, PANAS, STPI, SWLS

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19 Identifying Characteristics of Slum in Palembang Riverbanks Area, Indonesia

Authors: Rhaptyalyani Herno Della, Nyimas Septi Rika Putri, Rika Nabila

Abstract:

The growth of population and economic activities in urban areas needs support economic development, needs to be balanced with adequate environmental infrastructure development. Settlement can avoid from rundown condition and uninhabitable if the development of urban area accordance with healthy development. Identifying database of slum in this study reference to the Review of the Spatial Plan Development of Palembang City, Laws of Public Works Department about Technical Guidelines on the Quality Improvement Housing and Slum and Urban Spatial Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. A case study for identifying in Palembang riverbanks area are located in two districts; Ilir Timur I and Ilir Timur II. This study do the identification of slum areas based on several variables about physical and non physical aspect, then the result of identification are used to define a policy that can be used to improve the area.

Keywords: Infrastructure, slum, urban area, riverbanks area

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18 Enhancement Dynamic Cars Detection Based on Optimized HOG Descriptor

Authors: Mansouri Nabila, Ben Jemaa Yousra, Motamed Cina, Watelain Eric

Abstract:

Research and development efforts in intelligent Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) seek to save lives and reduce the number of on-road fatalities. For traffic and emergency monitoring, the essential but challenging task is vehicle detection and tracking in reasonably short time. This purpose needs first of all a powerful dynamic car detector model. In fact, this paper presents an optimized HOG process based on shape and motion parameters fusion. Our proposed approach mains to compute HOG by bloc feature from foreground blobs using configurable research window and pathway in order to overcome the shortcoming in term of computing time of HOG descriptor and improve their dynamic application performance. Indeed we prove in this paper that HOG by bloc descriptor combined with motion parameters is a very suitable car detector which reaches in record time a satisfactory recognition rate in dynamic outside area and bypasses several popular works without using sophisticated and expensive architectures such as GPU and FPGA.

Keywords: Motion, computing time, car-detector, HOG

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17 Simulation to Detect Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve in Coronary Artery Idealized Models

Authors: Nabila Jaman, K. E. Hoque, S. Sawall, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most lethal diseases of the cardiovascular diseases. Coronary arteries stenosis and bifurcation angles closely interact for myocardial infarction. We want to use computer-aided design model coupled with computational hemodynamics (CHD) simulation for detecting several types of coronary artery stenosis with different locations in an idealized model for identifying virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR). The vFFR provides us the information about the severity of stenosis in the computational models. Another goal is that we want to imitate patient-specific computed tomography coronary artery angiography model for constructing our idealized models with different left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) bifurcation angles. Further, we want to analyze whether the bifurcation angles has an impact on the creation of narrowness in coronary arteries or not. The numerical simulation provides the CHD parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), velocity magnitude and pressure gradient (PGD) that allow us the information of stenosis condition in the computational domain.

Keywords: CAD, CHD, vFFR, bifurcation angles, coronary stenosis

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16 The Effects of Music and Gender on Recall Ability on College Students: A Study in Students from Universitas Indonesia

Authors: Hestika D. Waraningrum, Indriani N. Khairunnisa, Nabila Isnandini, Nadine Yasminah, Sekar A. Winesa

Abstract:

Each individual’s ability to recall, whether they are male or female, is allegedly influenced by the environmental circumstances during the recalling process. The presence of a distraction is one of the environmental variables that affect recall ability in its capacity in the Short Term Memory. This study was made to see the difference in number of words that was successfully recalled by male participants and female participants with the presence of music as a distraction and also without music as a distraction. Data was taken using an experimental procedure from 75 female and male undergraduate students of Universitas Indonesia. The study design used was a 2x2 Factorial ANOVA, which aimed to see the difference between two variables, which were gender (male vs female) and the presence of a distraction (music serving as a distraction vs absence of music). The results indicated that there were no significant mean differences in the ability to recall between male and female participants. There are no significant mean differences between the presence and the absence of music as a distraction, but a significant interaction was found between gender and distraction with the ability to recall.

Keywords: Music, Gender, recall, college

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15 The Effect of Thymoquinone and Sorafenib Combination on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Nabila N. El-Maraghy, Amany Essa, Yousra Abdel–Mottaleb, Nada Ismail

Abstract:

The use of combination of chemotherapy and natural products to influence the cell death with low doses of chemotherapeutic agents and few side effects has recently emerged as a new method of cancer therapy. Aim: Evaluation the modulatory effect of Thymoquinone on HepG2 cells treated with Sorafenib. Methods: Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 cell line was treated with Sorafenib and TQ individually and in combination. The effect of these treatments on cell viability (MTT assay), apoptosis (Expression of Caspase-3) and oxidative markers (GSH content and extent of lipid peroxidation) was determined. Results: When compared the effect of both agents alone and the combination of the IC50 of Sorafenib and the IC50 TQ, the combination resulted in reduction of cell inhibition and apoptosis and antagonize their actions on GSH content and extent of lipid peroxidation which are increased. This study showed potent anti-tumor activity of both TQ and Sorafenib separately on HepG2 but upon combination surprisingly they interacted and give antagonistic effect. Conclusion: Co-treatment resulted in antagonistic interaction between Sorafenib and Thymoquinone.

Keywords: Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Antagonism, thymoquinone, sorafenib

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14 Avidity and IgE versus Igg and IgM in Diagnosis of Maternal Toxoplasmosis

Authors: Ghada A. Gamea, Nabila A. Yaseen, Ahmed A. Othman, Ahmed S. Tawfik

Abstract:

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious complications in pregnant women, leading to abortion, stillbirth, and congenital anomalies in the fetus. Definitive diagnosis of T. gondii acute infection is therefore critical for the clinical management of a mother and her fetus. This study was conducted on 250 pregnant females in the first trimester who were inpatients or outpatients at Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department at Tanta University Hospital. Screening of the selected females was done for the detection of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM), and all subjects were submitted to history taking through a questionnaire including personal data, risk factors for Toxoplasma, complaint and history of the present illness. Thirty-eight samples, including 18 IgM +ve and 20 IgM-ve cases were further investigated by the avidity and IgE ELISA tests. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was (42.8%) based on the presence of IgG antibodies in their sera. Contact with cats and consumption of raw or undercooked meat are important risk factors that were associated with toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. By serology, it could be observed that in the IgM +ve group, only one case (5.6%) showed an acute pattern by using the avidity test, though 10 (55.6%) cases were found to be acute by the IgE assay. On the other hand, in the IgM –ve group, 3 (15%) showed low avidity, but none of them was positive by using the IgE assay. In conclusion, there is no single serological test that can be used to confirm whether T. gondii infection is recent or was acquired in the distant past. A panel of tests for detection of toxoplasmosis will certainly have higher discriminatory power than any test alone.

Keywords: Diagnosis, toxoplasmosis, Serology, seroprevalence

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13 Property of Fermented Sweet Potato Flour and Its Suitability for Composite Noodle

Authors: Neti Yuliana, Srisetyani, Siti Nurdjanah, Dewi Sartika, Yoan Martiansari, Putri Nabila

Abstract:

Naturally sweet potato flour usually requires a modification process to improve its inherent property for expanding its application in food system. The study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour (SPF), to increase its utilization for composite noodle production, trough fermentation of sweet potato slices before its flouring process. Fermentation were prepared with five different starters: pickle brine, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , and mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Samples were withdrawn every 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The fermented flours were characterized for swelling power, solubility, paste transmittance, pH, sensory properties (acidic aroma and whiteness), and the amount of broken composite noodle strips. The results indicated that there was no significant effect of different starters on fermented SPF characteristic and on the amount of broken noodle strip, while length of fermentation significantly affected. Longer fermentation, reaching 48-72 h, increased swelling power, pH, acidic aroma and whiteness of flour and reduced solubility, paste transmittance, and the amount of broken noodle strip. The results suggested that fermentation within 48-72 h period of time could provide great composite SPF for noodle.

Keywords: sweet potato, starters, fermented flour, composite noodle

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12 Applied of LAWA Classification for Assessment of the Water by Nutrients Elements: Case Oran Sebkha Basin

Authors: Boualla Nabila

Abstract:

The increasing demand on water, either for the drinkable water supply, or for the agricultural and industrial custom, requires a very thorough hydrochemical study to protect better and manage this resource. Oran is relatively a city with the worst quality of the water. Recently, the growing populations may put stress on natural waters by impairing the quality of the water. Campaign of water sampling of 55 points capturing different levels of the aquifer system was done for chemical analyzes of nutriments elements. The results allowed us to approach the problem of contamination based on the largely uniform nationwide approach LAWA (LänderarbeitsgruppeWasser), based on the EU CIS guidance, has been applied for the identification of pressures and impacts, allowing for easy comparison. Groundwater samples were analyzed, also, for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate. The analytical results obtained in this hydrochemistry study were interpreted using Durov diagram. Based on these representations, the anomaly of high groundwater salinity observed in Oran Sebkha basin was explained by the high chloride concentration and to the presence of inverse cation exchange reaction. Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca-HCO3 recharge water through mixing with the pre-existing groundwater to give mixed water of Mg-SO4 and Mg-Cl types that eventually reached a final stage of evolution represented by a Na-Cl water type.

Keywords: Water Quality, Contamination, nutrients elements, approach LAWA, durov diagram

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11 The Instablity of TetM Gene Encode Tetracycline Resistance Gene in Lactobacillus casei FNCC 0090

Authors: Sarah Devi Silvian, Hanna Shobrina Iqomatul Haq, Fara Cholidatun Nabila, Agustin Krisna Wardani

Abstract:

Bacteria ability to survive in antibiotic is controlled by the presence of gene that encodes the antibiotic resistance protein. The instability of the antibiotic resistance gene can be observed by exposing the bacteria under the lethal dose of antibiotic. Low concentration of antibiotic can induce mutation, which may take a role in bacterial adaptation through the antibiotic concentration. Lactobacillus casei FNCC 0090 is one of the probiotic bacteria that has an ability to survive in tetracycline by expressing the tetM gene. The aims of this study are to observe the possibilities of mutation happened in L.casei FNCC 0090 by exposing in sub-lethal dose of tetracycline and also observing the instability of the tetM gene by comparing the sequence between the wild type and mutant. L.casei FNCC 0090 has a lethal dose in 60 µg/ml, low concentration is applied to induce the mutation, the range from 10 µg/ml, 15 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml, 45 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml. L.casei FNCC 0090 is exposed to the low concentration from lowest to the highest concentration to induce the adaptation. Plasmid is isolated from the highest concentration culture which is 50 µg/ml by using modified alkali lysis method with the addition of lysozyme. The tetM gene is isolated by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, then PCR amplicon is purified and sequenced. Sequencing is done on both samples, wild type and mutant. Both sequences are compared and the mutations can be traced in the presence of nucleotides changes. The changing of the nucleotides means that the tetM gene is instable.

Keywords: probiotic, tetracycline, L. casei FNCC 0090, tetM

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10 Avoiding Gas Hydrate Problems in Qatar Oil and Gas Industry: Environmentally Friendly Solvents for Gas Hydrate Inhibition

Authors: Nabila Mohamed, Santiago Aparicio, Bahman Tohidi, Mert Atilhan

Abstract:

Qatar's one of the biggest problem in processing its natural resource, which is natural gas, is the often occurring blockage in the pipelines caused due to uncontrolled gas hydrate formation in the pipelines. Several millions of dollars are being spent at the process site to dehydrate the blockage safely by using chemical inhibitors. We aim to establish national database, which addresses the physical conditions that promotes Qatari natural gas to form gas hydrates in the pipelines. Moreover, we aim to design and test novel hydrate inhibitors that are suitable for Qatari natural gas and its processing facilities. From these perspectives we are aiming to provide more effective and sustainable reservoir utilization and processing of Qatari natural gas. In this work, we present the initial findings of a QNRF funded project, which deals with the natural gas hydrate formation characteristics of Qatari type gas in both experimental (PVTx) and computational (molecular simulations) methods. We present the data from the two fully automated apparatus: a gas hydrate autoclave and a rocking cell. Hydrate equilibrium curves including growth/dissociation conditions for multi-component systems for several gas mixtures that represent Qatari type natural gas with and without the presence of well known kinetic and thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors. Ionic liquids were designed and used for testing their inhibition performance and their DFT and molecular modeling simulation results were also obtained and compared with the experimental results. Results showed significant performance of ionic liquids with up to 0.5 % in volume with up to 2 to 4 0C inhibition at high pressures.

Keywords: Natural Gas, Ionic Liquids, Gas Hydrates, inhibition, thermodynamic inhibitors, kinetic inhibitors

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9 Implementation of a Quality Management Approach in the Laboratory of Quality Control and the Repression of Fraud (CACQE) of the Wilaya of Bechar

Authors: Khadidja Mebarki, Naceur Boussouar, Nabila Ihaddadene, M. Akermi

Abstract:

Food products are particularly sensitive, since they concern the health of the consumer, whether it’s be from the health point of view or commercial, this kind of product must be subjected to rigorous controls, in order to prevent any fraud. Quality and safety are essential for food security, public health and economic development. The strengthening of food security is essential to increase food security which is considered reached when all individuals can at any time access safe and nutritious food they need to lead healthy and active lives. The objective of this project is to initiate a quality approach in the laboratories of the quality control and the repression of fraud. It will be directed towards the application of good laboratory practices, traceability, management of quality documents (quality, procedures and specification manual) and quality audits. And to prepare the ground for a possible accreditation by ISO 17025 standard of BECHAR laboratory’s. The project will take place in four main stages: 1- Preparation of an audit grid; 2- Realization of a quality audit according to the method of 5 M completed by a section on quality documentation; 3- Drafting of an audit report and proposal for recommendations; 4- Implementation of corrective actions on the ground. This last step consisted in the formalization of the cleaning disinfection plan; work on good hygiene practices, establishment of a mapping of processes and flow charts of the different processes of the laboratory, classifying quality documents and formalizing the process of document management. During the period of the study within the laboratory, all facets of the work were almost appreciated, as we participated in the expertise performed in within it.

Keywords: Management, Quality, ISO 17025 accreditation, GLP

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8 Effect of Nitrogen and/or Bio-Fertilizer on the Yield, Total Flavonoids, Carbohydrate Contents, Essential Oil Quantity and Constituents of Dill Plants

Authors: Mohammed S. Aly, Abou-Zeid N. El-Shahat, Nabila Y. Naguib, Huussie A. Said-Al Ahl, Atef M. Zakaria, Mohamed A. Abou Dahab

Abstract:

This study was conducted during two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 to evaluate the response of Anethum graveolens L. plants to nitrogen fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizer on fruits yield, total flavonoids and carbohydrates content, essential oil yield and constituents. Results cleared that the treatment of 60 Kg N/feddan without and with bio-fertilizer gave the highest umbels number per plant through the two seasons and these increments were significant in comparison with control plants. Meanwhile, fruits weight (g/plant) showed significant increase with the treatments of nitrogen fertilizers alone and combined with bio-fertilizers compared with control plants in the first and second season. Maximum increments were resulted with the previous treatment (60 Kg N/fed). Fruits yield (Kg/fed) revealed the same trend of fruits weight (g/plant). Total flavonoids contents were significantly increased with all of used treatments. Maximum increase was noticed with bio-fertilizers combined with 60 Kg N/fed during two seasons. Total carbohydrate contents showed significant increase with applied nitrogen fertilizers treatments as alone, meanwhile total carbohydrate contents were increased non-significantly with the other used treatments during the two seasons in comparison with control plants content. The treatment of bio-fertilizer and in most of nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly increased essential oil percentage, content and yield. The treatment of 60 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizer gave the best values. All identified compounds were observed in the essential oil of all treatments. The major compounds were limonene, carvone and dillapiole. The most effective fertilization on limonene content was 40 Kg N/fed and/or bio-fertilizers. Meanwhile 20 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizers increased carvone, but most of fertilization treatments except those of bio-fertlizers and 40 Kg N/fed increased dillapiole content.

Keywords: fertilizer, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Essential Oil, dill

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7 Synthesis and Characterization of PH Sensitive Hydrogel and Its Application in Controlled Drug Release of Tramadol

Authors: Naima Bouslah, Leila Bounabi, Farid Ouazib, Nabila Haddadine

Abstract:

Conventional release dosage forms are known to provide an immediate release of the drug. Controlling the rate of drug release from polymeric matrices is very important for a number of applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical area. Hydrogels are polymers in three-dimensional network arrangement, which can absorb and retain large amounts of water without dissolution. They have been frequently used to develop controlled released formulations for oral administration because they can extend the duration of drug release and thus reduce dose to be administrated improving patient compliance. Tramadol is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. When taken as an immediate-release oral formulation, the onset of pain relief usually occurs within about an hour. In the present work, we synthesized pH-responsive hydrogels of (hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid), (HEMA-AA) for control drug delivery of tramadol in the gastro-intestinal tractus. The hydrogels with different acrylic acid content, were synthesized by free radical polymerization and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR spectroscopy has shown specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the carbonyl groups of the hydrogels and hydroxyl groups of tramadol. Both the XRD and DSC studies revealed that the introduction of tramadol in the hydrogel network induced the amorphization of the drug. The swelling behaviour, absorptive kinetics and the release kinetics of tramadol in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) were also investigated. The hydrogels exhibited pH-responsive behavior in the swelling study. The (HEMA-AA) hydrogel swelling was much higher in pH =7.4 medium. The tramadol release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). Using suitable mathematical models, the apparent diffusional coefficients and the corresponding kinetic parameters have been calculated.

Keywords: Hydrogels, drug delivery, tramadol, biopolymres

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6 Submarines Unmanned Vehicle for Underwater Exploration and Monitoring System in Indonesia

Authors: Nabila Dwi Agustin, Ria Septitis Mentari, Nugroho Adi Sasongko

Abstract:

Indonesia is experiencing a crisis in the development of defense equipment. Most of Indonesia's defense equipment must import its parts from other countries. Moreover, the area of Indonesia is 2/3 of its territory is the sea areas. For the protection of marine areas, Indonesia relies solely on submarines in monitoring conditions and whether or not intruders enter their territory. In fact, we know the submarine has a large size so that the expenses are getting bigger, the time it takes longer and needs a big maneuver to operate the submarine. Indeed, the submarine can only be operated for deeper seas. Many other countries enter the underwater world of Indonesia but Indonesia could not do anything due to the limitations of underwater monitoring system. At the same time, reconnaissance and monitor for shallow seas cannot be done by submarine. Equipment that can be used for surveillance of shallow underwater areas shall be made. This study reviewed the current research and development initiative of the submarine unmanned vehicle (SUV) or unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) in Indonesia. This can explore underwater without the need for an operator to operate in it, but we can monitor it from a long distance. UUV has several advantages that size can be reduced as we desired, rechargeable ship batteries, has a detection sonar commonly found on a submarine and agile movement to detect at shallow sea depth. In the sonar sensors consisted of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System), the sonar system runs more efficiently and effectively to monitor the target. UUV that has been developed will be very useful if the equipment is used around the outlying islands and outer from Indonesia especially the island frequented by foreign submarines without us know. The impact of this may not be felt now but it will allow foreign countries to attack Indonesia from within for the future. In addition, UUV needs to be equipped with a anti-radar system so that submarines of other countries crossing borders cannot detect it and Indonesia anti-submarine vessels can take further security measures. As the recommendation, Indonesia should take decisive steps in the state border rules, especially submarines of other countries that deliberately cross the borders of the state. This decisive action not only by word alone but also action as well. Indonesia government should show the strength and sovereignty as the entire society unites and applies the principle of universal peace.

Keywords: submarine, submarine unmanned vehicle, development of defense equipment, the border of Indonesia

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5 New Insulation Material for Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Nabila Ihaddadene, Razika Ihaddadene, Abdelwahaab Betka

Abstract:

1973 energy crisis (rising oil prices) pushed the world to consider other alternative energy resources to existing conventional energies consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons. Renewable energies such as solar, the wind and geothermal have received renewed interest, especially to preserve nature ( the low-temperature rise of global environmental problems). Solar energy as an available, cheap and environmental friendly alternative source has various applications such as heating, cooling, drying, power generation, etc. In short, there is no life on earth without this enormous nuclear reactor, called the sun. Among available solar collector designs, flat plate collector (FPC) is low-temperature applications (heating water, space heating, etc.) due to its simple design and ease of manufacturing. Flat plate collectors are permanently fixed in position and do not track the sun (non-concentrating collectors). They operate by converting solar radiation into heat and transferring that heat to a working fluid (usually air, water, water plus antifreeze additive) flowing through them. An FPC generally consists of the main following components: glazing, absorber plate of high absorptivity, fluid tubes welded to or can be an integral part of the absorber plate, insulation and container or casing of the above-mentioned components. Insulation is of prime importance in thermal applications. There are three main families of insulation: mineral insulation; vegetal insulation and synthetic organic insulation. The old houses of the inhabitants of North Africa were built of brick made of composite material that is clay and straw. These homes are characterized by their thermal comfort; i.e. the air inside these houses is cool in summer and warm in winter. So, the material composed from clay and straw act as a thermal insulation. In this research document, the polystyrene used as insulation in the ET200 flat plate solar collector is replaced by the cheapest natural material which is clay and straw. Trials were carried out on a solar energy demonstration system (ET 200). This system contains a solar collector, water storage tank, a high power lamp simulating solar energy and a control and command cabinet. In the experimental device, the polystyrene is placed under the absorber plate and in the edges of the casing containing the components of the solar collector. In this work, we have replaced the polystyrene of the edges by the composite material. The use of the clay and straw as insulation instead of the polystyrene increases temperature difference (T2-T1) between the inlet and the outlet of the absorber by 0.9°C; thus increases the useful power transmitted to water in the solar collector. Tank Water is well heated when using the clay and straw as insulation. However, it is less heated when using the polystyrene as insulation. Clay and straw material improves also the performance of the solar collector by 5.77%. Thus, it is recommended to use this cheapest non-polluting material instead of synthetic insulation to improve the performance of the solar collector.

Keywords: Solar Collector, Clay, polystyrene, straw, insulation material

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4 Urban Seismic Risk Reduction in Algeria: Adaptation and Application of the RADIUS Methodology

Authors: Mehdi Boukri, Mohammed Naboussi Farsi, Mounir Naili, Omar Amellal, Mohamed Belazougui, Ahmed Mebarki, Nabila Guessoum, Brahim Mezazigh, Mounir Ait-Belkacem, Nacim Yousfi, Mohamed Bouaoud, Ikram Boukal, Aboubakr Fettar, Asma Souki

Abstract:

The seismic risk to which the urban centres are more and more exposed became a world concern. A co-operation on an international scale is necessary for an exchange of information and experiments for the prevention and the installation of action plans in the countries prone to this phenomenon. For that, the 1990s was designated as 'International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR)' by the United Nations, whose interest was to promote the capacity to resist the various natural, industrial and environmental disasters. Within this framework, it was launched in 1996, the RADIUS project (Risk Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Urban Areas Against Seismic Disaster), whose the main objective is to mitigate seismic risk in developing countries, through the development of a simple and fast methodological and operational approach, allowing to evaluate the vulnerability as well as the socio-economic losses, by probable earthquake scenarios in the exposed urban areas. In this paper, we will present the adaptation and application of this methodology to the Algerian context for the seismic risk evaluation in urban areas potentially exposed to earthquakes. This application consists to perform an earthquake scenario in the urban centre of Constantine city, located at the North-East of Algeria, which will allow the building seismic damage estimation of this city. For that, an inventory of 30706 building units was carried out by the National Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (CGS). These buildings were digitized in a data base which comprises their technical information by using a Geographical Information system (GIS), and then they were classified according to the RADIUS methodology. The study area was subdivided into 228 meshes of 500m on side and Ten (10) sectors of which each one contains a group of meshes. The results of this earthquake scenario highlights that the ratio of likely damage is about 23%. This severe damage results from the high concentration of old buildings and unfavourable soil conditions. This simulation of the probable seismic damage of the building and the GIS damage maps generated provide a predictive evaluation of the damage which can occur by a potential earthquake near to Constantine city. These theoretical forecasts are important for decision makers in order to take the adequate preventive measures and to develop suitable strategies, prevention and emergency management plans to reduce these losses. They can also help to take the adequate emergency measures in the most impacted areas in the early hours and days after an earthquake occurrence.

Keywords: Mitigation, Seismic risk, urban areas, Algeria, Constantine, RADIUS, earthquake scenario

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3 Early Initiation of Breastfeeding and Its Determinants among Non-Caesarean Deliveries at Primary and Secondary Health Facilities: A Case Observational Study

Authors: Farhana Karim, Abdullah N. S. Khan, Mohiuddin A. K. Chowdhury, Nabila Zaka, Alexander Manu, Shams El Arifeen, Sk Masum Billah

Abstract:

Breastfeeding, an integral part of newborn care, can reduce 55-87% of all-cause neonatal mortality and morbidity. Early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth can avert 22% of newborn mortality. Only 45% of world’s newborns and 42% of newborns in South-Asia are put to the breast within one hour of birth. In Bangladesh, only a half of the mothers practice early initiation of breastfeeding which is less likely to be practiced if the baby is born in a health facility. This study aims to generate strong evidence for early initiation of breastfeeding practices in the government health facilities and to explore the associated factors influencing the practice. The study was conducted in selected health facilities in three neighbouring districts of Northern Bangladesh. Total 249 normal vaginal delivery cases were observed for 24 hours since the time of birth. The outcome variable was initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour while the explanatory variables included type of health facility, privacy, presence of support person, stage of labour at admission, need for augmentation of labour, complications during delivery, need for episiotomy, spontaneous cry of the newborn, skin-to-skin contact with mother, post-natal contact with the service provider, receiving a post-natal examination and counselling on breastfeeding during postnatal contact. The simple descriptive statistics were employed to see the distribution of samples according to socio-demographic characteristics. Kruskal-Wallis test was carried out for testing the equality of medians among two or more categories of each variable and P-value is reported. A series of simple logistic regressions were conducted with all the potential explanatory variables to identify the determining factors for breastfeeding within 1 hour in a health facility. Finally, multiple logistic regression was conducted including the variables found significant at bi-variate analyses. Almost 90% participants initiated breastfeeding at the health facility and median time to initiate breastfeeding was 38 minutes. However, delivering in a sub-district hospital significantly delayed the breastfeeding initiation in comparison to delivering in a district hospital. Maintenance of adequate privacy and presence of separate staff for taking care of newborn significantly reduced the time in early breastfeeding initiation. Initiation time was found longer if the mother had an augmented labour, obstetric complications, and the newborn needed resuscitation. However, the initiation time was significantly early if the baby was put skin-to-skin on mother’s abdomen and received a postnatal examination by a provider. After controlling for the potential confounders, the odds of initiating breastfeeding within one hour of birth is higher if mother gives birth in a district hospital (AOR 3.0: 95% CI 1.5, 6.2), privacy is well-maintained (AOR 2.3: 95% CI 1.1, 4.5), babies cry spontaneously (AOR 7.7: 95% CI 3.3, 17.8), babies are put to skin-to-skin contact with mother (AOR 4.6: 95% CI 1.9, 11.2) and if the baby is examined by a provider in the facility (AOR 4.4: 95% CI 1.4, 14.2). The evidence generated by this study will hopefully direct the policymakers to identify and prioritize the scopes for creating and supporting early initiation of breastfeeding in the health facilities.

Keywords: Bangladesh, health facility, early initiation of breastfeeding, skin to skin contact, normal vaginal delivery

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2 Competence of the Health Workers in Diagnosing and Managing Complicated Pregnancies: A Clinical Vignette Based Assessment in District and Sub-District Hospitals in Bangladesh

Authors: Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Farhana Karim, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, S. Masum Billah, Nabila Zaka, Alexander Manu, Shams El Arifeen

Abstract:

Globally, pre-eclampsia (PE) and ante-partum haemorrhage (APH) are two major causes of maternal mortality. Prompt identification and management of these conditions depend on competency of the birth attendants. Since these conditions are infrequent to be observed, clinical vignette based assessment could identify the extent of health worker’s competence in managing emergency obstetric care (EmOC). During June-August 2016, competence of 39 medical officers (MO) and 95 nurses working in obstetric ward of 15 government health facilities (3 district hospital, 12 sub-district hospital) was measured using clinical vignettes on PE and APH. The vignettes resulted in three outcome measures: total vignette scores, scores for diagnosis component, and scores for management component. T-test was conducted to compare mean vignette scores and linear regression was conducted to measure the strength and association of vignette scores with different cadres of health workers, facility’s readiness for EmOC and average annual utilization of normal deliveries after adjusting for type of health facility, health workers’ work experience, training status on managing maternal complication. For each of the seven component of EmOC items (administration of injectable antibiotics, oxytocic and anticonvulsant; manual removal of retained placenta, retained products of conception; blood transfusion and caesarean delivery), if any was practised in the facility within last 6 months, a point was added and cumulative EmOC readiness score (range: 0-7) was generated for each facility. The yearly utilization of delivery cases were identified by taking the average of all normal deliveries conducted during three years (2013-2015) preceding the survey. About 31% of MO and all nurses were female. Mean ( ± sd) age of the nurses were higher than the MO (40.0 ± 6.9 vs. 32.2 ± 6.1 years) and also longer mean( ± sd) working experience (8.9 ± 7.9 vs. 1.9 ± 3.9 years). About 80% health workers received any training on managing maternal complication, however, only 7% received any refresher’s training within last 12 months. The overall vignette score was 8.8 (range: 0-19), which was significantly higher among MO than nurses (10.7 vs. 8.1, p < 0.001) and the score was not associated with health facility types, training status and years of experience of the providers. Vignette score for management component (range: 0-9) increased with higher annual average number of deliveries in their respective working facility (adjusted β-coefficient 0.16, CI 0.03-0.28, p=0.01) and increased with each unit increase in EmOC readiness score (adjusted β-coefficient 0.44, CI 0.04-0.8, p=0.03). The diagnosis component of vignette score was not associated with any of the factors except it was higher among the MO than the nurses (adjusted β-coefficient 1.2, CI 0.13-2.18, p=0.03). Lack of competence in diagnosing and managing obstetric complication by the nurses than the MO is of concern especially when majority of normal deliveries are conducted by the nurses. Better EmOC preparedness of the facility and higher utilization of normal deliveries resulted in higher vignette score for the management component; implying the impact of experiential learning through higher case management. Focus should be given on improving the facility readiness for EmOC and providing the health workers periodic refresher’s training to make them more competent in managing obstetric cases.

Keywords: Bangladesh, emergency obstetric care, clinical vignette, competence of health workers

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1 Quality of Care for the Maternal Complications at Selected Primary and Secondary Health Facilities of Bangladesh: Lessons Learned from a Formative Research

Authors: Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Nafisa Lira Huq, Afroza Khanom, Rafiqul Islam, Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Farhana Karim, Nabila Zaka, Shams El Arifeen, Sk. Masum Billah

Abstract:

After having astounding achievements in reducing maternal mortality and achieving the target for Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5, the Government of Bangladesh has set new target to reduce Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 70 per 100,000 live births aligning with targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Aversion of deaths from maternal complication by ensuring quality health care could be an important path to accelerate the rate of reduction of MMR. This formative research was aimed at exploring the provision of quality maternal health services at different level of health facilities. The study was conducted in 1 district hospital (DH) and 4 Upazila health complexes (UHC) of Kurigram district of Bangladesh, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative research methods. We conducted 14 key informant interviews with facility managers and 20 in-depth interviews with health care providers and support staff. Besides, we observed 387 normal deliveries from which we found 17 cases of post partum haemorrhage (PPH) and 2 cases of eclampsia during the data collection period extended from July-September 2016. The quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative component underwent thematic analysis with the broad themes of facility readiness for maternal complication management, and management of complications. Inadequacy in human resources has been identified as the most important bottleneck to provide quality care to manage maternal complications. The DH had a particular paucity of human resources in medical officer cadre where about 61% posts were unfilled. On the other hand, in the UHCs the positions mostly empty were obstetricians (75%, paediatricians (75%), staff nurses (65%), and anaesthetists (100%). The workload on the existing staff is increased because of the persistence of vacant posts. Unavailability of anesthetists and consultants does not permit the health care providers (HCP) of lower cadres to perform emergency operative procedures and forces them to refer the patients although referral system is not well organized in rural Bangladesh. Insufficient bed capacity, inadequate training, shortage of emergency medicines etc. are other hindrance factors for facility readiness. Among the 387 observed delivery case, 17 (4.4%) were identified as PPH cases, and only 2 cases were found as eclampsia/pre-eclampsia. The majority of the patients were treated with uterine message (16 out of 17, 94.1%) and injectable Oxytocin (14 out of 17, 82.4%). The providers of DH mentioned that they can manage the PPH because of having provision for diagnostic and blood transfusion services, although not as 24/7 services. Regarding management of eclampsia/pre-eclampsia, HCPs provided Diazepam, MgSO4, and other anti-hypertensives. The UHCs did not have MgSO4 at stock even, and one facility manager admitted that they treat eclampsia with Diazepam only. The nurses of the UHCs were found to be afraid to handle eclampsia cases. The upcoming interventions must ensure refresher training of service providers, continuous availability of essential medicine and equipment needed for complication management, availability of skilled health workforce, availability of functioning blood transfusion unit and pairing of consultants and anaesthetists to reach the newly set targets altogether.

Keywords: Health Facilities, Quality Of Care, Bangladesh, maternal complications

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