Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3106

Search results for: active packaging

3106 Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan: Thermal Stability and Feasibility as an Antioxidant for Active Biodegradable Packaging Film

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan

Abstract:

Active packaging has been developed based on the incorporation of certain additives, in particular antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, into packaging systems to maintain or extend product quality and shelf-life. Ferulic acid is one of the most effective natural phenolic antioxidants, which has been used in food, pharmaceutical and active packaging film applications. However, most phenolic compounds are sensitive to oxygen, light and heat; its activities are thus lost during product formulation and processing. Grafting ferulic acid onto polymer is an alternative to reduce its loss under thermal processes. Therefore, the objectives of the present research were to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after grafting onto chitosan, and to investigate the possibility of using ferulic acid-grafted chitosan (FA-g-CTS) as an antioxidant for active biodegradable packaging film. FA-g-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperature up to 150 °C followed by blown film extrusion at temperature up to 175 °C. Although incorporating FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the films showed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the film containing FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.04% (w/w) were higher than that of the naked film about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by adding FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.08% (w/w). The results indicated that FA-g-CTS could be potentially used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

Keywords: active packaging film, antioxidant activity, chitosan, ferulic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
3105 Clove Oil Incorporated Biodegradable Film for Active Food Packaging

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Sandra Barkauskaite, Brendan Duffy, Swarna Jaiswal, Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstract:

Food packaging protects food from temperature, light, and humidity; preserves food and guarantees the safety and the integrity of the food. Advancement in packaging research leads to development of active packaging system with numerous properties such as oxygen scavengers, carbon-dioxide generating systems, antimicrobial active packaging, moisture control packaging, ethylene scavengers etc. In the active packaging, several additives such as essential oils, polyphenols etc. are incorporated into packaging film or within the packaging material to achieve the desired properties. This study investigates the effect on the structural, thermal and functional properties of different poly(lactide) – poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) blend films incorporated with clove essential oil. The PLA-PBAT films were prepared by a solution casting method and then characterized based on their optical, mechanical properties, surface hydrophobicity, chemical composition, antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli, and inhibition of biofilm formation of E. coli. Results showed that, the developed packaging film containing clove oil has significant UV-blocking property (80%). However, incorporation of clove oil resulted in reduced transparency and tensile strength of the film as the concentration of clove oil increased. The surface hydrophobicity of packaging film was improved with the increasing concentration of essential oil. Similarly, thickness of the clove oil containing films increased from 36.71 µm to 106.67 µm as the concentration increases. The antimicrobial activity and biofilm inhibition study showed that the clove-incorporated PLA-PBAT composite film was effective against tested bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. This study showed that the PLA-PBAT – Clove oil composite film has significant antimicrobial and UV-blocking properties and can be used as an active food packaging film.

Keywords: active packaging, clove oil, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate), poly(lactide)

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
3104 Biodegradable Polymer Film Incorporated with Polyphenols for Active Packaging

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Amit Jaiswal

Abstract:

The key features of any active packaging film are its biodegradability and antimicrobial properties. Biological macromolecules such as polyphenols (ferulic acid (FA) and tannic acids (TA)) are naturally found in plants such as grapes, berries, and tea. In this study, antimicrobial activity screening of several polyphenols was carried out by using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against two strains of gram-negative bacteria - Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and two-gram positive strains - Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. FA and TA had shown strong antibacterial activity at the low concentration against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The selected polyphenols FA and TA were incorporated at various concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10% w/w) in the poly(lactide) – poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) composite film by using the solvent casting method. The effect of TA and FA incorporation in the packaging was characterized based on morphological, optical, color, mechanical, thermal, and antimicrobial properties. The thickness of the FA composite film was increased by 1.5 – 7.2%, while for TA composite film, it increased by 0.018 – 1.6%. FA and TA (10 wt%) composite film had shown approximately 65% - 66% increase in the UV barrier property. As the FA and TA concentration increases from 1% - 10% (w/w), the TS value increases by 1.98 and 1.80 times, respectively. The water contact angle of the film was observed to decrease significantly with the increase in the FA and TA content in the composite film. FA has shown more significant increase in antimicrobial activity than TA in the composite film against Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. The FA and TA composite film has the potential for its application as an active food packaging.

Keywords: active packaging, biodegradable film, polyphenols, UV barrier, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
3103 Application of Active Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Spirulina Extract as a Potential Food Packaging Material for Enhancing Quality and Shelf Life of Shrimp

Authors: Rafik Balti, Nourhene Zayoud, Mohamed Ben Mansour, Abdellah Arhaliass, Anthony Masse

Abstract:

Application of edible films and coatings with natural active compounds for enhancing storage stability of food products is a promising active packaging approach. Shrimp are generally known as valuable seafood products around the world because of their delicacy and good nutritional. However, shrimp is highly vulnerable to quality deterioration associated with biochemical, microbiological or physical changes during postmortem storage, which results in the limited shelf life of the product. Chitosan is considered as a functional packaging component for maintaining the quality and increasing the shelf life of perishable foods. The present study was conducted to evaluate edible coating of crab chitosan containing variable levels of ethanolic extract of Spirulina on microbiological (mesophilic aerobic, psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteriacea), chemical (pH, TVB-N, TMA-N, PV, TBARS) and sensory (odor, color, texture, taste, and overall acceptance) properties of shrimp during refrigerated storage. Also, textural and color characteristics of coated shrimp were performed. According to the obtained results, crab chitosan in combination with Spirulina extract was very effective in order to extend the shelf life of shrimp during storage in refrigerated condition.

Keywords: food packaging, chitosan, spirulina extract, white shrimp, shelf life

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
3102 Assessment of Commercial Antimicrobials Incorporated into Gelatin Coatings and Applied to Conventional Heat-Shrinking Material for the Prevention of Blown Pack Spoilage in Vacuum Packaged Beef Cuts

Authors: Andrey A. Tyuftin, Rachael Reid, Paula Bourke, Patrick J. Cullen, Seamus Fanning, Paul Whyte, Declan Bolton , Joe P. Kerry

Abstract:

One of the primary spoilage issues associated with vacuum-packed beef products is blown pack spoilage (BPS) caused by the psychrophilic spore-forming strain of Clostridium spp. Spores derived from this organism can be activated after heat-shrinking (eg. 90°C for 3 seconds). To date, research into the control of Clostridium spp in beef packaging is limited. Active packaging in the form of antimicrobially-active coatings may be one approach to its control. Antimicrobial compounds may be incorporated into packaging films or coated onto the internal surfaces of packaging films using a carrier matrix. Three naturally-sourced, commercially-available antimicrobials, namely; Auranta FV (AFV) (bitter oranges extract) from Envirotech Innovative Products Ltd, Ireland; Inbac-MDA (IMDA) from Chemital LLC, Spain, mixture of different organic acids and sodium octanoate (SO) from Sigma-Aldrich, UK, were added into gelatin solutions at 2 concentrations: 2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) against Clostridium estertheticum (DSMZ 8809). These gelatin solutions were coated onto the internal polyethylene layer of cold plasma treated, heat-shrinkable laminates conventionally used for meat packaging applications. Atmospheric plasma was used in order to enhance adhesion between packaging films and gelatin coatings. Pouches were formed from these coated packaging materials, and beef cuts which had been inoculated with C. estertheticum were vacuum packaged. Inoculated beef was vacuum packaged without employing active films and this treatment served as the control. All pouches were heat-sealed and then heat-shrunk at 90°C for 3 seconds and incubated at 2°C for 100 days. During this storage period, packs were monitored for the indicators of blown pack spoilage as follows; gas bubbles in drip, loss of vacuum (onset of BPS), blown, the presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and tightly stretched, “overblown” packs/ packs leaking. Following storage and assessment of indicator date, it was concluded that AFV- and SO-containing packaging inhibited the growth of C. estertheticum, significantly delaying the blown pack spoilage of beef primals. IMDA did not inhibit the growth of C. estertheticum. This may be attributed to differences in release rates and possible reactions with gelatin. Overall, active films were successfully produced following plasma surface treatment, and experimental data demonstrated clearly that the use of antimicrobially-active films could significantly prolong the storage stability of beef primals through the effective control of BPS.

Keywords: active packaging, blown pack spoilage, Clostridium, antimicrobials, edible coatings, food packaging, gelatin films, meat science

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
3101 Minimalism in Product Packaging: Alternatives to Bubble Wrap

Authors: Anusha Chanda, Reenu Singh

Abstract:

Packaging is one of the major contributors to global waste. While efforts are being made to switch to more sustainable types of packaging, such as switching from single use plastics to paper, not all polluting materials, have been rethought in terms of recycling. Minimalism in packaging design can help reduce the amount of waste produced greatly. While online companies have shifted to using cardboard boxes for packages, a large amount of waste in still generated from other materials affiliated with cardboard packaging, such as tape, bubble wrap, plastic wrap, among others. Minimalism also works by reducing extra packaging and increasing the reusability of the material. This paper looks at research related to minimalism in packaging design, minimalism, and sustainability. A survey was conducted in order to find out the different ways in which minimalism can be implemented in packaging design. Information gathered from the research and responses from the survey was used to ideate product design alternatives for sustainable substitutes for bubble wrap in packaging. This would help greatly reduce the amount of packaging waste and improve environmental quality.

Keywords: environment, minimalism, packaging, product design, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
3100 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3099 Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Functional Polypropylene Films Incorporated with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ Useful as Returnable Packaging in Seafood Distribution

Authors: Suman Singh, Myungho Lee, Insik Park, Yangjai Shin, Youn Suk Lee

Abstract:

Active antimicrobial films prepared by incorporating AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ at 1%, 3%, 5%, 10% (w/w) into polypropylene (PP) matrix. Complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization were carried out of all formulations and determined the antimicrobial efficiency and returnable antimicrobial efficiency according to the Japanese Industrial Standard method. The morphology of the films showed agglomerates of particles in the composites. The active formulation had decreased elongation compared to the pure PP sample. Thermal analyses indicated that the active formulation compositions had increased thermal stability. The films showed 50% antimicrobial properties after the fifth wash against the tested microorganisms, presenting better activity against Gram negative organisms than Gram positive ones. These findings suggest that PP films with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ particles could provide a significant contribution to the quality and safety of seafood in the distribution chain.

Keywords: antimicrobial film, properties and characterization, returnable packaging, sea food

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3098 Combined Effects of Thymol, Carvacrol and Packaging on the Shelf-Life of Marinated Chicken

Authors: Layal Karam, Rayan Roustom, Mohamad G. Abiad, Tahra El-Obeid, Ioannis N. Savvaidis

Abstract:

The demand for marinated chicken worldwide, is continuously growing. To date, limited data on addition of active components of Essential Oils (EOs) to marinades for chicken preservation are available. The antimicrobial effect of carvacrol and thymol, added at 0.4 and 0.8% v/w to marinated fresh chicken, stored in air and under vacuum packaging (VP), for 21 days at 4°C, was examined. The samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, yeasts and molds) and sensory attributes (odor characteristics). Our data supports that among the tested microorganisms, Pseudomonas spp., LAB and B. thermosphacta were the most dominant microbiota in the marinated chicken samples. Additionally, the use of active EOs components, especially the higher concentration (0.8% v/w) in combination with VP, retarded the growth of spoilage microbiota and resulted in a significant reduction of about 2.9-3.1 log cfu/g and a microbiological shelf-life extension of marinated chicken by > 6 days, as judged by TVC data. Interestingly, the combination of active components of EOs at the lower concentration (0.4% v/w) and packaging (air or vacuum) resulted in a significant sensorial shelf-life extension of 15 and >21 days, as compared to the controls’ shelf-life of 9 days. The results of our study demonstrated the potential of the active components, carvacrol and thymol, as natural effective antimicrobial hurdles to control the growth of spoilage microorganisms in marinated chicken meat.

Keywords: chicken, essential oils compounds, marination, meat spoilage, preservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
3097 Active Bio-Packaging Fabricated from Coated Bagasse Papers with Polystyrene Nanocomposites

Authors: Hesham Moustafa, Ahmed M. Youssef

Abstract:

The demand for green packagingin the food field has been gained increasing attention in recent decades because of its degradability and safely. Thus, this study revealed that the by-product bagasse papers (BPs) derived from sugarcane waste can be decorated with a thin layer of polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites using the spreading approach.Three variable concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles (i.e. 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 wt.%) were used to fabricate PS nanocomposites. The morphology of coated BP-PS biofilms was examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transferred Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, other measurements such as mechanical, thermal stability, flammability, wettability by the contact angle, water vapor, and gas barrier properties were carried out on the fabricated BP-PS biofilms. Most outcomes showed that the major properties were enhanced when the PS nanocomposites were implemented. The use of 1.5 wt.% TiO2 in PS nanocomposite for coated BP-PS biofilm increased the tensile stress by ~ 217 % compared to uncoated BP film. Furthermore, the rate of burning for BP-PS-1.5% film was reduced to ~ 33 mm/min because of the crystallinity of PS and the barrier effect provided by TiO₂ NPs. These coated sheets provide a promising candidate for use in advanced packaging applications.

Keywords: bagasse paper, polystyrene nanocomposites, TiO2 nanoparticles, active packaging, mechanical properties, flammability

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
3096 Design Approach for the Development of Format-Flexible Packaging Machines

Authors: G. Götz, P. Stich, J. Backhaus, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The rising demand for format-flexible packaging machines is caused by current market changes. Increasing the formatflexibility is a new goal for the packaging machine manufacturers’ product development process. There are no methodical or designorientated tools for a comprehensive consideration of this target. This paper defines the term format-flexibility in the context of packaging machines and shows the state-of-the-art for improving the changeover of production machines. The requirements for a new approach and the concept itself will be introduced, and the method elements will be explained. Finally, the use of the concept and the result of the development of a format-flexible packaging machine will be shown.

Keywords: packaging machine, format-flexibility, changeover, design method

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3095 The Impact of Sustainable Packaging on Customers’ Willingness to Buy: A Study Based in Rwanda

Authors: Nirere Martine

Abstract:

Purpose –The purpose of this study aims to understand the intention of customers to adopt sustainable packaging and the impact of sustainable packaging on customers’ willingness to buy a product using sustainable packaging. Design/methodology/approach – A new research model based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) and structural equation modeling are used to examine causality and test relationship based on the data collected from 251 Rwanda samples. Findings – The findings indicated that perceived ease of use positively affects perceived usefulness. However, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use positively affect the intention to adopt sustainable packaging. However, perceived risk and perceived cost negatively affect the intention to adopt sustainable packaging. The intention to adopt sustainable packaging positively affects the willingness to buy a product using sustainable packaging. Originality/value – Many researchers have investigated the issue of a consumers’ behavior to purchase a product. In particular, they have examined whether customers are willing to pay extra for a packaging product. There has been no study that has examined the impact of sustainable packaging on customers’ willingness to buy. The results of this study can help manufacturers form a better understanding of customers’ willingness to purchase a product using sustainable packaging.

Keywords: consumers’ behavioral, sustainable packaging, TAM, Rwanda

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
3094 Edible Active Antimicrobial Coatings onto Plastic-Based Laminates and Its Performance Assessment on the Shelf Life of Vacuum Packaged Beef Steaks

Authors: Andrey A. Tyuftin, David Clarke, Malco C. Cruz-Romero, Declan Bolton, Seamus Fanning, Shashi K. Pankaj, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, Patrick J. Cullen, Joe P. Kerry

Abstract:

Prolonging of shelf-life is essential in order to address issues such as; supplier demands across continents, economical profit, customer satisfaction, and reduction of food wastage. Smart packaging solutions presented in the form of naturally occurred antimicrobially-active packaging may be a solution to these and other issues. Gelatin film forming solution with adding of natural sourced antimicrobials is a promising tool for the active smart packaging. The objective of this study was to coat conventional plastic hydrophobic packaging material with hydrophilic antimicrobial active beef gelatin coating and conduct shelf life trials on beef sub-primal cuts. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of Caprylic acid sodium salt (SO) and commercially available Auranta FV (AFV) (bitter oranges extract with mixture of nutritive organic acids) were found of 1 and 1.5 % respectively against bacterial strains Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic and anaerobic beef microflora. Therefore SO or AFV were incorporated in beef gelatin film forming solution in concentration of two times of MIC which was coated on a conventional plastic LDPE/PA film on the inner cold plasma treated polyethylene surface. Beef samples were vacuum packed in this material and stored under chilling conditions, sampled at weekly intervals during 42 days shelf life study. No significant differences (p < 0.05) in the cook loss was observed among the different treatments compared to control samples until the day 29. Only for AFV coated beef sample it was 3% higher (37.3%) than the control (34.4 %) on the day 36. It was found antimicrobial films did not protect beef against discoloration. SO containing packages significantly (p < 0.05) reduced Total viable bacterial counts (TVC) compared to the control and AFV samples until the day 35. No significant reduction in TVC was observed between SO and AFV films on the day 42 but a significant difference was observed compared to control samples with a 1.40 log of bacteria reduction on the day 42. AFV films significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TVC compared to control samples from the day 14 until the day 42. Control samples reached the set value of 7 log CFU/g on day 27 of testing, AFV films did not reach this set limit until day 35 and SO films until day 42 of testing. The antimicrobial AFV and SO coated films significantly prolonged the shelf-life of beef steaks by 33 or 55% (on 7 and 14 days respectively) compared to control film samples. It is concluded antimicrobial coated films were successfully developed by coating the inner polyethylene layer of conventional LDPE/PA laminated films after plasma surface treatment. The results indicated that the use of antimicrobial active packaging coated with SO or AFV increased significantly (p < 0.05) the shelf life of the beef sub-primal. Overall, AFV or SO containing gelatin coatings have the potential of being used as effective antimicrobials for active packaging applications for muscle-based food products.

Keywords: active packaging, antimicrobials, edible coatings, food packaging, gelatin films, meat science

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3093 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud

Abstract:

Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: electric vehicle, redox flow battery, packaging, vanadium

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
3092 Nanopack: A Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial Packaging Solution for Extension of Shelf Life and Food Safety

Authors: Andy Sand, Naama Massad – Ivanir, Nadav Nitzan, Elisa Valderrama, Alfred Wegenberger, Koranit Shlosman, Rotem Shemesh, Ester Segal

Abstract:

Microbial spoilage of food products is of great concern in the food industry due to the direct impact on the shelf life of foods and the risk of foodborne illness. Therefore, food packaging may serve as a crucial contribution to keep the food fresh and suitable for consumption. Active packaging solutions that have the ability to inhibit the development of microorganism in food products attract a lot of interest, and many efforts have been made to engineer and assimilate such solutions on various food products. NanoPack is an EU-funded international project aiming to develop state-of-the-art antimicrobial packaging systems for perishable foods. The project is based on natural essential oils which possess significant antimicrobial activity against many bacteria, yeasts and molds. The essential oils are encapsulated in natural aluminosilicate clays, halloysite nanotubes (HNT's), that serves as a carrier for the volatile essential oils and enable their incorporation into polymer films. During the course of the project, several polyethylene films with diverse essential oils combinations were designed based on the characteristics of their target food products. The antimicrobial activity of the produced films was examined in vitro on a broad spectrum of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds. The films that showed promising in vitro results were successfully assimilated on in vivo active packaging of several food products such as cheese, bread, fruits and raw meat. The results of the in vivo analyses showed significant inhibition of the microbial spoilage, indicating the strong contribution of the NanoPack packaging solutions on the extension of shelf life and reduction of food waste caused by early spoilage throughout the supply chain.

Keywords: food safety, food packaging, essential oils, nanotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3091 Determination of Vitamin C Red Guava (Psidium guajava Linn) Fruit Juice, with Variation of Beverage Packaging by Titrimetic Method Using 2,6- Dichlorophenol Indophenol

Authors: Novriyanti Lubis, Riska Prasetiawati, Wulan Septiani

Abstract:

The quantitative analysis of vitamin C content from variations beverage packaging containing red guava (Psidium Guajava Linn) fruit juice had been done. In this study, four samples were obtained from the shopping center in Garut and Bandung City. Samples were tested quantitatively by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol titration method. The results showed different concentration of 4 samples consist of tetra pack packaging, tin, glass, and plastic bottles, such as; 17.99 mg/100 gr, 31.46 mg/100 gr, 13.00 mg/100 gr, and 12.01 mg/100 gr, respectively. These results indicated that the packaging variations affected the level of vitamin C content which was characterized by decreased levels of vitamin C. It means the levels of vitamin C from this research were not in accordance with nutritional value information on the packaging. Tetra pack packaging was the most stable compared to other packaging even though it had a shorter expired date than with other.

Keywords: vitamin C, variations beverage packaging, red guava, titration 2, 6- dichlorophenol indophenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
3090 Antmicrobial Packaging, a Step Towards Safe Food: A Review

Authors: Hafiz A. Sakandar, M. Afzaal, U. Khan, M. N. Akhtar

Abstract:

Food is the primary concern of living organisms, provision of diet for maintenance of good physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of apprehension since ancient times. Healthy and fresh food always demanded by the consumers. Modern research has find out many alternatives of traditional packaging. Now the consumer knows that good packaging system is that which protects the food from the contaminants and increases shelf life of food product. While in Pakistan about 40% of fruits and vegetables lost due to spoilage caused by poor handling, transportation, and poor packaging interaction with other environmental conditions. So it is crucial for developing countries like Pakistan to pay attention to these exacerbating situations for economy losses by considering food packaging an ultimate solution to the problem.

Keywords: packaging, food safety, antimicrobial, food losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
3089 Designing Product-Service-System Applied to Reusable Packaging Solutions: A Strategic Design Tool

Authors: Yuan Long, Fabrizio Ceschin, David Harrison

Abstract:

Environmental sustainability is under the threat of excessive single-use plastic packaging waste, and current waste management fails to address this issue. Therefore, it has led to a reidentification of the alternative, which can curb the packaging waste without reducing social needs. Reusable packaging represents a circular approach to close the loop of consumption in which packaging can stay longer in the system to satisfy social needs. However, the implementation of reusable packaging is fragmented and lacks systematic approaches. The product-service system (PSS) is widely regarded as a sustainable business model innovation for embracing circular consumption. As a result, applying PSS to reusable packaging solutions will be promising to address the packaging waste issue. This paper aims at filling the knowledge gap relating to apply PSS to reusable packaging solutions and provide a strategic design tool that could support packaging professionals to design reusable packaging solutions. The methodology of this paper is case studies and workshops to provide a design tool. The respondents are packaging professionals who are packaging consultants, NGO professionals, and entrepreneurs. 57 cases collected show that 15 archetypal models operate in the market. Subsequently, a polarity diagram is developed to embrace those 15 archetypal models, and a total number of 24 experts were invited for the workshop to evaluate the design tool. This research finally provides a strategic design tool to support packaging professionals to design reusable packaging solutions. The application of the tool is to support the understanding of the reusable packaging solutions, analyzing the markets, identifying new opportunities, and generate new business models. The implication of this research is to provide insights for academics and businesses in terms of tackling single-use packaging waste and build a foundation for further development of the reusable packaging solution tool.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, product-service system, reusable packaging, design tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
3088 Smart and Active Package Integrating Printed Electronics

Authors: Joana Pimenta, Lorena Coelho, José Silva, Vanessa Miranda, Jorge Laranjeira, Rui Soares

Abstract:

In this paper, the results of R&D on an innovative food package for increased shelf-life are presented. SAP4MA aims at the development of a printed active device that enables smart packaging solutions for food preservation, targeting the extension of the shelf-life of the packed food through the controlled release of active natural antioxidant agents at the onset of the food degradation process. To do so, SAP4MA focuses on the development of active devices such as printed heaters and batteries/supercapacitors in a label format to be integrated on packaging lids during its injection molding process, promoting the passive release of natural antioxidants after the product is packed, during transportation and in the shelves, and actively when the end-user activates the package, just prior to consuming the product at home. When the active device present on the lid is activated, the release of the natural antioxidants embedded in the inner layer of the packaging lid in direct contact with the headspace atmosphere of the food package starts. This approach is based on the use of active functional coatings composed of nano encapsulated active agents (natural antioxidants species) in the prevention of the oxidation of lipid compounds in food by agents such as oxygen. Thus keeping the product quality during the shelf-life, not only when the user opens the packaging, but also during the period from food packaging up until the purchase by the consumer. The active systems that make up the printed smart label, heating circuit, and battery were developed using screen-printing technology. These systems must operate under the working conditions associated with this application. The printed heating circuit was studied using three different substrates and two different conductive inks. Inks were selected, taking into consideration that the printed circuits will be subjected to high pressures and temperatures during the injection molding process. The circuit must reach a homogeneous temperature of 40ºC in the entire area of the lid of the food tub, promoting a gradual and controlled release of the antioxidant agents. In addition, the circuit design involves a high level of study in order to guarantee maximum performance after the injection process and meet the specifications required by the control electronics component. Furthermore, to characterize the different heating circuits, the electrical resistance promoted by the conductive ink and the circuit design, as well as the thermal behavior of printed circuits on different substrates, were evaluated. In the injection molding process, the serpentine-shaped design developed for the heating circuit was able to resolve the issues connected to the injection point; in addition, the materials used in the support and printing had high mechanical resistance against the pressure and temperature inherent to the injection process. Acknowledgment: This research has been carried out within the Project “Smart and Active Packing for Margarine Product” (SAP4MA) running under the EURIPIDES Program being co-financed by COMPETE 2020 – the Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalization and under Portugal 2020 through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Keywords: smart package, printed heat circuits, printed batteries, flexible and printed electronic

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
3087 Using Environmental Life Cycle Assessment to Design Sustainable Packaging

Authors: Timothy Francis Grant

Abstract:

There are conflicting purposes at play with the design of sustainable packaging which include material reduction, recycling compatibility, use of secondary content and performance of the package in protecting and delivering the product. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is able to evaluate these different strategies against environmental metrics such as climate change, land and water use and marine litter pollution. However, LCA has traditionally been too time consuming and expensive to be used effectively in packaging design process. To make LCA practical for packaging technologist and designers a simplified tool is needed to make LCA possible for non-environmental specialists. The Packaging Quick Evaluation Tool (PIQET) is a web-based solution for undertaking LCA of new and existing packaging designs considering the global supply chain and impacts from cradle to grave. PIQET is based on a pre-calculated LCA database covering the materials and processes involved in the packaging lifecycle from cradle to grave. This includes both virgin materials and recycled content, conversion of materials into packaging, and the transportation of packaging to the product filling. In addition, PIQET assesses the impacts once the package is filled looking at storage, transport and product loss through the supply chain. When applied to consumer packaging light weight packages which are note recyclable have lower impacts than more recyclable packages which have a higher mass. Its also apparent that for many products the impacts of product failure and product loss are more important environmentally compared to packaging material efficiency.

Keywords: Climate change, Life Cycle Assessment, Marine litter, Packaging sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
3086 A Relationship Model That Illustrates the Effect of Humorous Packaging Designs on Brand Awareness and Brand Attitude

Authors: Shu-Yuan Lin, Tung-Chin Chou

Abstract:

As products become increasingly similar in competitive markets, achieving product segmentation and differentiation through packaging design has become the primary task when designing retail product packaging. When the main focus of brand marketing is no longer the product itself, emotional marketing, such as the use of humorous packaging designs, may be employed to successfully promote the brand. Such efforts will capture the hearts of consumers, generate discussions, and allow the brand to leave a deep impression in consumers. In this study, snack packaging was used to develop a relationship model that illustrated the effect of humorous packaging designs on brand awareness and brand attitude. The study was divided into three stages: In the first stage, in-depth interviews and focus group interviews were conducted with experts to construct 24 indicators for assessing humorous packaging designs. In the second stage, survey questionnaires were distributed to a young consumer group; the results showed that the group had a high and low product involvement with chocolate and dried shredded squid, respectively. Humorous packaging designs were subsequently created for two snack types to produce a study sample of 12 different packaging. In the third stage, packaging designs were evaluated by obtaining scores for the consumers’ brand awareness, brand attitude, and perceived effects of the packaging designs. Finally, a relationship model was developed to show the effect of humorous packaging designs on brand awareness and brand attitude, confirming that two perceived effects of humorous packaging designs (i.e., ‘pleasant and emotionally healing’ and ‘connected to people’s daily life’) exhibited a significant and positive effect on ‘perceived brand value,’ where the effect of ‘pleasant and emotionally healing’ was the most significant. In addition, ‘pleasant and emotionally healing’ exerted a significant and positive effect on ‘brand purchase intention.’ Furthermore, packaging designs with humorous elements helped foster brand awareness.

Keywords: brand awareness, brand attitude, humorous design, packaging design

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
3085 Effects of Ethylene Scavengering Packaging on the Shelf Life of Edible Mushroom

Authors: Majid Javanmard

Abstract:

Edible mushrooms are those agricultural products which contain high quantity of protein and can have special role in human diet. So search for methods to increase their shelf life is important. One of these strategies can be use of active packaging for absorb the ethylene which has been studied in present study. In this study, initially, production of impregnating zeolite with potassium permanganate has been studied with zeolite clinoptiolite available in iran. After that, these ethylene scavengers were placed in the package of edible mushrooms and then transferred to the refrigerator with temperature 4c for a period of 20 days. Each 5 days, several experiments accomplished on edible mushrooms such as weight loss, moisture content, color, texture, bacterial experiments and sensory evaluation. After production of impregnating zeolite with potassium permanganate (with a concentration of %2.5, %5, %7.5, %10 and %12.5) by zeolite type clinoptiolite (with mesh 35 and 60), samples have been analyzed with gas chromatography and titration with sodium oxalate. The results showed that zeolite by concentration of %5, %7.5 and %10 potassium permanganate and mesh 60 have a higher efficiency. Results from the experiments on edible mushrooms proved that impregnated zeolite with potassium permanganate have a meaningful influence in prevent the weight loss, decrease of moisture content and L-value, increase of a-value and overall color change (ΔE) and decrease of firmness texture of mushrooms. In addition, these absorbents can influence on decrease microbial load (mesophilic bacteria) rather than control. Generally, concluded that the impregnated zeolite with 10% permanganate potassium has a high efficiency on increase the shelf life of fresh edible mushrooms.

Keywords: active packaging, ethylene scavenger, zeolite clinoptiolite, permanganate potassium, shelf life

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
3084 Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Based Antimicrobial Food Packaging Materials

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Ferhat Sen

Abstract:

This study aimed to develop polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials that do not contain any antimicrobial agents. Cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, carbon and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Its nitrogen content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials were prepared using hydroxyethyl cellulose, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, and sodium alginate. Antimicrobial activity of materials was defined by inhibition zone method (disc diffusion method). Thermal stability of samples was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that produced food packaging materials have good thermal and antimicrobial properties, and they can be used as food packaging material in many industries.

Keywords: antimicrobial food packaging, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyelectrolyte, sodium alginate

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
3083 Active Learning: Increase Learning through Engagement

Authors: Jihan Albayati, Kim Abdullah

Abstract:

This poster focuses on the significance of active learning strategies and their usage in the ESL classroom. Active learning is a big shift from traditional lecturing to active student engagement which can enhance and enrich student learning; therefore, engaging students is the core of this approach. Students learn more when they participate in the process of learning such as discussions, debates, analysis, synthesis, or any form of activity that requires student involvement. In order to achieve active learning, teachers can use different instructional strategies that are conducive to learning and the selection of these strategies depends on student learning outcomes. Active learning techniques must be carefully designed and integrated into the classroom to increase critical thinking and student participation. This poster provides a concise definition of active learning and its importance, instructional strategies, active learning techniques and their impact on student engagement. Also, it demonstrates the differences between passive and active learners.

Keywords: active learning, learner engagement, student-centered, teaching strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
3082 Extended Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coated Polypropylene Films Containing Zataria multiflora Essential Oil

Authors: Z. Honarvar, M. Farhoodi, M. R. Khani, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films containing Zataria multiflora (ZEO) essential oils (4%) as an antimicrobial packaging for chicken breast stored at 4 °C. To increase PP film hydrophilicity, it was treated by atmospheric cold plasma prior to coating by CMC. Then, different films including PP, PP/CMC, PP/CMC containing 4% of ZEO were used for the chicken meat packaging in vapor phase. Total viable count and pseudomonads population and oxidative (TBA) changes of the chicken breast were analyzed during shelf life. Results showed that the shelf life of chicken meat kept in films containing ZEO improved from three to nine days compared to the control sample without any direct contact with the film. Study of oxygen barrier properties of bilayer film without essential oils (0.096 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) in comparison with PP film (416 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) shows that coating of PP with CMC significantly reduces oxygen permeation of the obtained packaging (P<0.05), which reduced aerobic bacteria growth. Chemical composition of ZEO was also evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and this shows that thymol was the main antimicrobial and antioxidant component of the essential oil. The results revealed that PP/CMC containing ZEO has good potential for application as active food packaging in indirect contact which would also improve sensory properties of product.

Keywords: shelf life, chicken breast, polypropylene, carboxymethyl cellulose, essential oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
3081 Beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes for Antifungal Food Packaging Applications

Authors: Cristina Munoz-Shuguli, Francisco Rodriguez, Julio Bruna, M. Jose Galotto, Abel Guarda

Abstract:

The microbial contamination in fruits due to the presence of fungal is the most important cause of their deterioration and loss. The development of active food packaging materials with antifungal properties has been proposed as an innovative strategy in order to prevent this problem. In this way, natural compounds as the essential oils or their derivatives, also called volatile compounds (VC), can be incorporated in the food packaging materials to control the fungal growth during fruit packaging. However, if the VC is incorporated directly in the packaging material, it is released very fast due to VC high volatility. For this reason, the formation of inclusion complexes through the encapsulation of VC into beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and their incorporation in package materials is an alternative to maintain an antifungal atmosphere around the packaged fruits for longer times. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop inclusion complexes based in β-CD and VC (β-CD:VC) for further application in the antifungal food packaging materials development. β-CD:VC inclusion complexes were obtained with two different molar ratios 2:1 and 1:1, through co-precipitation method. The entrapment efficiency of β-CD:VC as well the release of antifungal compound from inclusion complexes exposed to different relative humidity (25, 50, and 97 %) to headspace were determined by gaseous chromatography (GC). Also, thermal and antimicrobial properties of β-CD:VC were determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and antifungal assays against Botrytis cinerea, respectively. GC results showed that β-CD:VC 2:1 had a higher entrapment efficiency than β-CD:VC 1:1, with values of 75.5 ± 3.71 % and 59.6 ± 1.51 %, respectively. It was probably because during the synthesis of β-CD:VC 1:1, there was less molecular space to the movement of VC molecules. Furthermore, the release of VC from β-CD:VC was directly related with the relative humidity. High amount of VC was released when the inclusion complexes were exposed to high humidity, possibly due to the interactions between the water molecules and the β-CD hydrophilic wall. On the other hand, a better thermal stability of VC in inclusion complexes allowed to verify its effective encapsulation into β-CD. Finally, antimicrobial assays showed that the inclusion complexes had a high antifungal activity at very low concentrations. Therefore, the results obtained in this work allow suggesting the β-CD:VC inclusion complexes as potential candidates to the development of fruit antifungal packaging materials, which activity is relative humidity dependent.

Keywords: Botrytis cinerea, fruit packaging, headspace release, volatile compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
3080 Track and Trace Solution on Land Certificate Production: Indonesian Land Certificate

Authors: Adrian Rifqi, Febe Napitupulu, Erdi Hermawan, Edwin Putra, Yang Leprilian

Abstract:

This article focuses on the implementation of the production improvement process of the Indonesian land certificate product that printed in Perum Peruri as the state-owned enterprises. Based on the data obtained, there are several complaints from customers of the 2019 land certificate production. The complaints become a negative value to loyal customers of Perum Peruri. Almost all the complaints are referring to ‘defective printouts and the difference between products in packaging and packaging labels both in terms of type and quantity’. To overcome this problem, we intend to make an improvement to the production process that focuses on complaints ‘there is a difference between products in packaging with packaging labels’. Improvements in the land certificate production process are relying on the technology of the scales and QR code on the packaging label. In addition, using the QR code on the packaging label will facilitate the process of tracking product data. With this method, we hope to reduce the error rate between products in packaging with the packaging label both in terms of quantity, type, and product number on the land certificate and error rate of sending land certificates, which will be sent to many places to 0%. With this solution, we also hope to get precise data and real-time reports on the production of land certificates in the near future, so track and trace implementation can be done as the solution of the land certificate production.

Keywords: land certificates, QR code, track and trace, packaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
3079 Effects of Plasma Technology in Biodegradable Films for Food Packaging

Authors: Viviane P. Romani, Bradley D. Olsen, Vilásia G. Martins

Abstract:

Biodegradable films for food packaging have gained growing attention due to environmental pollution caused by synthetic films and the interest in the better use of resources from nature. Important research advances were made in the development of materials from proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. However, the commercial use of these new generation of sustainable materials for food packaging is still limited due to their low mechanical and barrier properties that could compromise the food quality and safety. Thus, strategies to improve the performance of these materials have been tested, such as chemical modifications, incorporation of reinforcing structures and others. Cold plasma is a versatile, fast and environmentally friendly technology. It consists of a partially ionized gas containing free electrons, ions, and radicals and neutral particles able to react with polymers and start different reactions, leading to the polymer degradation, functionalization, etching and/or cross-linking. In the present study, biodegradable films from fish protein prepared through the casting technique were plasma treated using an AC glow discharge equipment. The reactor was preliminary evacuated to ~7 Pa and the films were exposed to air plasma for 2, 5 and 8 min. The films were evaluated by their mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and changes in the protein structure were observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Potential cross-links and elimination of surface defects by etching might be the reason for the increase in tensile strength and decrease in the elongation at break observed. Among the times of plasma application tested, no differences were observed when higher times of exposure were used. The X-ray pattern showed a broad peak at 2θ = 19.51º that corresponds to the distance of 4.6Å by applying the Bragg’s law. This distance corresponds to the average backbone distance within the α-helix. Thus, the changes observed in the films might indicate that the helical configuration of fish protein was disturbed by plasma treatment. SEM images showed surface damage in the films with 5 and 8 min of plasma treatment, indicating that 2 min was the most adequate time of treatment. It was verified that plasma removes water from the films once weight loss of 4.45% was registered for films treated during 2 min. However, after 24 h in 50% of relative humidity, the water lost was recovered. WVP increased from 0.53 to 0.65 g.mm/h.m².kPa after plasma treatment during 2 min, that is desired for some foods applications which require water passage through the packaging. In general, the plasma technology affects the properties and structure of fish protein films. Since this technology changes the surface of polymers, these films might be used to develop multilayer materials, as well as to incorporate active substances in the surface to obtain active packaging.

Keywords: fish protein films, food packaging, improvement of properties, plasma treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
3078 The Development of Packaging to Create Additional Value for Organic Rice Products of Uttaradit Province, Thailand

Authors: Juntima Pokkrong

Abstract:

The objectives of the study were to develop packaging made from rice straws left after the harvest in order to create additional value for organic rice products of Uttaradit Province and to demonstrate the technology of producing straw packaging to the community. The population was promoters of organic rice distributors, governmental organizations, consumers, and three groups of organic rice producers which are the Agriculturist Group of Khorrum Sub-district, Pichai District, Uttaradit Province; the Agriculturist Group of Wangdin Sub-district, Muang District, Uttaradit Province; and the Agriculturist Group of Wangkapi Sub-district, Muang District, Uttaradit Province. The data were collected via group discussions, and two types of questionnaires. The data acquired were then analyzed using descriptive statistic for percentage, mean, standard deviation, and content analysis. It has been found that primary packaging for one kilogram of rice requires vacuumed plastic bags made from thermoplastic or resin because they are able to preserve the quality of rice for a long time, and they are also very cheap. For secondary packaging, the making of straw paper was studied and applied. Straw paper can be used for various purposes, and in this study, it was used to create the secondary packaging models in compliance with packaging preferences acquired from the questionnaires. The models were surveyed among the population for their opinion using satisfaction questionnaires, and the result was overall highly satisfactory.

Keywords: environmentally friendly, organic rice, packaging, straw paper

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
3077 Use of Metallic and Bimetallic Nanostructures as Constituents of Active Bio-Based Films

Authors: Lina F. Ballesteros, Hafsae Lamsaf, Miguel A. Cerqueira, Lorenzo M. Pastrana, Sandra Carvalho, Jose A. Teixeira, S. Calderon V.

Abstract:

The use of bio-based packaging materials containing metallic and bimetallic nanostructures is relatively modern technology. In this sense, the food packaging industry has been investigating biological and renewable resources that can replace petroleum-based materials to reduce the environmental impact and, at the same time, including new functionalities using nanotechnology. Therefore, the main objective of the present work consisted of developing bio-based poly-lactic acid (PLA) films with Zinc (Zn) and Zinc-Iron (Zn-Fe) nanostructures deposited by magnetron sputtering. The structural, antimicrobial, and optical properties of the films were evaluated when exposed at 60% and 96% relative humidity (RH). The morphology and elemental analysis of the samples were determined by scanning (transmission) electron microscopy (SEM and STEM), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The structure of the PLA was monitored before and after deposition by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, and the antimicrobial and color assays were performed by using the zone of inhibition (ZOI) test and a Minolta colorimeter, respectively. Finally, the films were correlated in terms of the deposit conditions, Zn or Zn-Fe concentrations, and thickness. The results revealed PLA films with different morphologies, compositions, and thicknesses of Zn or Zn-Fe nanostructures. The samples showed a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, S. aureus, and A. niger, and considerable changes of color and opacity at 96% RH, especially for the thinner nanostructures (150-250 nm). On the other hand, when the Fe fraction was increased, the lightness of samples increased, as well as their antimicrobial activity when compared to the films with pure Zn. Hence, these findings are relevant to the food packaging field since intelligent and active films with multiple properties can be developed.

Keywords: biopolymers, functional properties, magnetron sputtering, Zn and Zn-Fe nanostructures

Procedia PDF Downloads 53