Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 124

Search results for: lactating cows

124 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer


The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: milk, polyphenol, animal feeding, lactating cows

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
123 Acute Phase Proteins as Biomarkers of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Dairy Cattle

Authors: Wael El-Deeb


The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic importance of acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in cattle. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 99 lactating cows. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n=84) and control healthy cows (n=15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed hematuria and pyuria in UTI group. The isolated bacteria were E.coli (43/84) Corynebacterium spp, (31/84), Proteus spp. (6/84) and Streptococcus spp (4/84). The concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), α1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP), fibrinogen (Fb), total protein, albumen, and globulin were higher in cows with UTI when compared to healthy ones. Fifty-one of 84 cows with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of Hp, SAA, AGP, total protein, and globulin were associated with the odds of treatment failure. Conclusively, acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cows with UTI.

Keywords: cows, urinary, infections, haptoglobin, serum Amyloid A

Procedia PDF Downloads 647
122 Effects of Different Processing Methods of Typha Grass on Feed Intake Milk Yield/Composition and Blood Parameters of Diry Cows

Authors: Alhaji Musa Abdullahi, Usman Abdullahi, Adamu Lawan, Aminu Maidala


Abstract 16 healthy lactating cows will be randomly selected for the trial and will be randomly divided in to 4 groups with 4 cows in each. They will be kept under similar management condition (conventional management system). Animals of relatively same weight and age will be used. After 11days for adaptation, feed intake and performance of the experimental animals will be determine. Milk sample will be collected at each milking in the morning and afternoon to determine; Milk yield, Milk fat percentage, Solid not fat percentage, Total solid percentage of milk. Cows dung will be observe to determine; Score 1 very loose watery stool, Score 2 semi solid with undigested raw material, Score 3 semi solid with less undigested raw material, Score 4 solid with very less undigested raw material, Score 5 good dung no undigested raw material. At the end of the experiment, blood samples will be analyzed for full blood counts and differentials {White Blood Cells (WBC), Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Platelets (PLT), Lymphocytes (LYM), Basophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes Proportion (MXD) and Neutrophils (NEUT)} using automated hematology analyzer. Serum samples will be analyzed for heat shock transcription factors, heat shock proteins and hormones (Serum glucocorticoid, prolactin and cortisol). Moreover, biochemical analysis will also be conducted to check for Total protein (TP), Albumen (ALB), Globulin (GBL), Total cholesterol (TCH), glucose (G), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and pH. Keywords: Lactating cows, milk composition, dung score and blood parameters.

Keywords: Lactating cows , Milk yield , Dung score , Blood parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
121 The Possibility of Increase UFA in Milk by Adding of Canola Seed in Holstein Dairy Cow Diets

Authors: H. Mansoori Yarahmadi, A. Aghazadeh, K. Nazeradl


This study was done to evaluate the effects of feeding canola seed for enrichment of UFA and milk performance of early lactation dairy cows. Twelve multi parous Holstein cows (635.3±18 kg BW and 36±9 DIM) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1- Control (CON) without canola seed, 2- 7.5% raw canola seed (CUT), and 3- 7.5% Heat-treated canola seed (CHT) of the total ration. Diets contained same crude protein, but varied in net energy. Diets were composed by basis of corn silage and alfalfa. Cows were milked twice daily for 4 wk. The inclusion of canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from CHT cows had greater proportions of UFA and MUFA (P < 0.05). Feeding CUT increased PUFA without significant difference. Milk fat from CHT had a greater proportion of C18 UFA and tended to have a higher proportion of other UFA. FCM milk yields, milk fat and protein percentages and total yield of these components were similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower in cows fed CON and CHT. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk fat with higher proportions of healthful fatty acids without adverse affecting milk yield or milk composition.

Keywords: canola seed, fatty acid, dairy cow, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 518
120 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: Kamran Reza-Yazdi, Mohammad Fallah, Mahdi Khodaparast, Farshad Kateb, Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari


The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: dairy cow, feed additive, plant extract, eugenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 576
119 Diagnostics of Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows

Authors: G. Tanbayeva, Z. Myrzabekov, O. Tagayev, B. Barakhov, M. Tokayeva


Mastitis is widely spread among dairy cows bringing large economic damage resulting in decreased milk yield, deterioration of the milk quality, gastrointestinal tract disorders among young animals, culling of breeding stock, and expenses for sick animal treatment. Up-to-date and accurate diagnostics of subclinical (latent) mastitis in dairy cows has huge practical and economical significance. The aim of the research was to develop a new optimal alternative rapid method for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cows. The study was performed in the laboratory of the Hygiene and Sanitation of Kazakh National Agrarian University. The first stage was to evaluate the different percentages of “Promastit” preparation. It showed that the best diagnostics capacity had 10% dilution. The second stage was to compare “Promastit” with some of the domestic and foreign analogues “Somatic-Test” (Denmark), “MastTest” (Russia), “Mastidin” (Ukraine), “Diagmast” (Kazakhstan). The observation was carried out on 520 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis on farms of Almaty region of Kazakhstan. The effectiveness was checked by milk sedimentation test. Our research tends to show that the diagnostic test "Promastitis" revealed subclinical mastitis in 193 out of 520 lactating cows (37.1% of those examined). At the same time, in the case of using other diagnostic tests, the given index was as follows: 35.5% (mastidin), 34.4% (masttest-AF), 33.8% (somatic-test Ecotest), 30.7% (diagmast).

Keywords: dairy cows, diagnostics, subclinical mastitis, test Promastit

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
118 Effects of Live Yeast Supplementation to Reduce Oxidative Stress and Increase Lactation Performance of Dairy Cattle during the Summer Season

Authors: Ahmad Nawid Mirzad, Akira Goto, Takuto Endo, Hitoshi Ano, Hiromu Katamoto, Takenori Yamauchi


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of live yeast supplementation on oxidative stress biomarker and antioxidant vitamin levels as well as lactation performance in Holstein Friesian cows during the summer season in Fukuoka prefecture. Sixteen lactating cows weighing 707.50 ± 13.09 kg (Mean ± SE) were used and randomly assigned to either supplemented (n = 8) or control (n = 8) group. The cows in supplemented group were administered with live yeast product at 10 g/d per cow from middle of July to middle of September for eight weeks. In treatment group, serum levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) were lower at week six. In addition, serum levels of glucose and retinol were higher at week eight and those of α-tocopherol were higher at week 2 in treatment group. During study period daily average milk yield decreased in both groups. Daily average milk yield 63 days after the onset of supplementation in treatment and control groups were 23.5 and 22.2 kg, respectively. The reduction rate of milk yield in treatment group tended to be lower (17.6 vs. 20.0%). These results suggest that live yeast supplementation may reduce oxidative stress and improve energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows during the summer season.

Keywords: cow, live yeast, milk, oxidative stress, summer season

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
117 Influence of Probiotics on Dairy Cows Diet

Authors: V. A. Vieira, M. P. Sforcini, V. Endo, G. C. Magioni, M. D. S. Oliveira


The main goal of this paper was evaluate the effect of diets containing different levels of probiotic on performance and milk composition of lactating cows. Eight Holstein cows were distributed in two 4x4 Latin square. The diets were based on corn silage, concentrate and the treatment (0, 3, 6 or 9 grams of probiotic/animal/day). It was evaluated the dry matter intake of nutrients, milk yield and composition. The use of probiotics did not affect the nutrient intake (p>0.05) neither the daily milk production or corrected to 4% fat (p>0.05). However, it was observed that there was a significant fall in milk composition with higher levels of probiotics supplementation. These results emphasize the need of further studies with different experimental designs or improve the number of Latin square with longer periods of adaptation.

Keywords: dairy cow, milk composition, probiotics, daily milk production

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
116 Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows at Different Parities: A Case Study in Enrekang Regency, Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf, Abdul Latief Toleng, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Ambo Ako, Sahiruddin Sahiruddin, Abdi Eriansyah


The objective of this study was to know the reproductive performance of dairy cows at different parities. A total of 60 dairy Holstein-Friesian cows with parity one to three from five small farms raised by the farmers were used in the study. All cows were confined in tie stall barn with rubber on the concrete floor. The herds were visited twice for survey with the help of a questionnaire. Reproductive parameters used in the study were days open, calving interval, and service per conception (S/C). The results of this study showed that the mean (±SD) days open of the cows in parity 2 was slightly longer than those in parity 3 (228.2±121.5 vs. 205.5±144.5; P=0.061). None cows conceived within 85 days postpartum in parity 3 in comparison to 13.8% cows conceived in parity 2. However, total cows conceived within 150 days post partum in parity 2 and parity 3 were 30.1% and 36.4%, respectively. Likewise, after reaching 210 days after calving, number of cows conceived in parity 3 had higher than number of cows in parity 2 (72.8% vs. 44.8%; P<0.05). The mean (±SD) calving interval of the cows in parity 2 and parity 3 were 508.2±121.5 and 495.5±144.1, respectively. Number of cows with calving interval of 400 and 450 days in parity 3 was higher than those cows in parity 2 (23.1% vs. 17.2% and 53.9% vs. 31.0%). Cows in parity 1 had significantly (P<0.01) lower number of S/C in comparison to the cows with parity 2 and parity 3 (1.6±1.2 vs. 3.5±3.4 and 3.3±2.1). It can be concluded that reproductive performance of the cows is affected by different parities.

Keywords: dairy cows, parity, days open, calving interval, service per conception

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
115 Investigation the Difference of Several Hormones Correlated to Reproduction between Infertile and Fertile Dairy Cows

Authors: Ali M. Mutlag, Yang Zhiqiang, Meng Jiaren, Zhang Jingyan, Li Jianxi


The object of this study was to investigate several hormones correlated to the reproduction and Inhibin A, Inhibin B and NO levels in the infertile dairy cows as attempt to illustrate the physiological causes of dairy cows infertility. 40 Holstein cows (21 infertile and 19 fertile) were used at estrous phase of the cycle, Hormones FSH, LH, E2, Testosterone, Were measured using ELISA method. Inhibin A and B also estimated by ELISA method, Nitric oxide was measured by Greiss reagent method. The results showed different concentrations of the hormone in which FSH illustrated significantly higher concentration in the infertile cows than fertile cows (P<0.05). LH and E2 showed significant decrease in the infertile cows than the fertile cows (P<0.05), No significant difference appeared in testosterone concentrations in the fertile cows and infertile cows (P>0.05). The both inhibins A and B showed significant P<0.05 decrease concentrations in the infertile cows also NO showed clearly significant decrease P<0.05 in the infertile cows. In conclusion, The present study approved the poorly ovarian activities and reproduction disturbance of infertile cows in spite of trigger estrous signs, The study confirmed a positive correlation between inhibins and NO to regulate the ovarian physiology. These inhibins represent effective markers of dairy cows infertility.

Keywords: cows, inhibins A and B, infertility, nitric oxide (NO)

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
114 Cows Milk Quality on Different Sized Dairy Farms

Authors: Ramutė Miseikienė, Saulius Tusas


Somatic cell count and bacteria count are the main indicators of cow milk quality. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare parameters of milk quality in different-sized cows herds. Milk quality of ten dairy cows farms during one year period was analyzed. Dairy farms were divided into five groups according to number of cows in the farm (under 50 cows, 51–100 cows, 101–200 cows, 201–400 cows and more than 400 cows). The averages of somatic cells bacteria count in milk and milk freezing temperature were analyzed. Also, these parameters of milk quality were compared during outdoor (from May to September) and indoor (from October to April) periods. The largest number of SCC was established in the smallest farms, i.e., in farms under 50 cows and 51-100 cows (respectively 264±9,19 and 300±10,24 thousand/ml). Reliable link between the smallest and largest dairy farms and farms with 101-200 and 201-400 cows and count of somatic cells in milk has not been established (P > 0.05). Bacteria count had a low tendency to decrease when the number of cows in farms increased. The highest bacteria number was determined in the farms with 51-100 cows and the the lowest bacteria count was in milk when 201-400 and more than 401 cows were kept. With increasing the number of cows milk maximal freezing temperature decreases (significant negative trend), i. e, indicator is improving. It should be noted that in all farms milk freezing point never exceeded requirements (-0.515 °C). The highest difference between SCC in milk during the indoor and outdoor periods was established in farms with 201-400 cows (respectively 218.49 thousand/ml and 268.84 thousand/ml). However, the count of SC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) during outdoor period in large farms (201-400 and more cows). There was no significant difference between bacteria count in milk during both – outdoor and indoor – periods (P > 0.05).

Keywords: bacteria, cow, farm size, somatic cell count

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
113 Milk Production and Milk Composition of Dairy Cows in Response to Calcium Salt of Palm Oil Fatty Acids Supplementation

Authors: Wisitiporn Suksombat, Tanawat Phonkert, Chayapol Meeprom


The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (Ca-POFA) supplementation on milk production and milk composition of dairy cows. Twenty-four early lactating crossbred Holstein Friesian 87.5% cows (15.4 ± 3.75 kg of milk/d; 93 ± 27 DIM; 369 ± 6 kg of BW), were assigned into 3 treatments in an RCBD. All dairy cows were fed 15.4% CP total mixed ration (TMR). The first group (control) received a basal diet and no supplement. The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 150 g/d calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (Ca-POFA), and the last group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 300 g/d Ca-POFA. The experiment lasted 40 days with the first 10 days is an adaptation period, and measurements were made during the last 30 days in 6 periods with 5-days in each period for milk sample collection. The results found that supplemented calcium salt of palm oil fatty acid had no effect on milk yield, milk composition, milk composition yield, live weight and live weight change. However, Ca-POFA decreased milk protein percentage (P < 0.05).

Keywords: calcium salt of palm oil fatty acid, dairy cow, milk composition, milk production

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
112 Rumination Time and Reticuloruminal Temperature around Calving in Eutocic and Dystocic Dairy Cows

Authors: Levente Kovács, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, Ottó Szenci


Prediction of the onset of calving and recognizing difficulties at calving has great importance in decreasing neonatal losses and reducing the risk of health problems in the early postpartum period. In this study, changes of rumination time, reticuloruminal pH and temperature were investigated in eutocic (EUT, n = 10) and dystocic (DYS, n = 8) dairy cows around parturition. Rumination time was continuously recorded using an acoustic biotelemetry system, whereas reticuloruminal pH and temperature were recorded using an indwelling and wireless data transmitting system. The recording period lasted from 3 d before calving until 7 days in milk. For the comparison of rumination time and reticuloruminal characteristics between groups, time to return to baseline (the time interval required to return to baseline from the delivery of the calf) and area under the curve (AUC, both for prepartum and postpartum periods) were calculated for each parameter. Rumination time decreased from baseline 28 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows (P = 0.023 and P = 0.017, respectively). After 20 h before calving, it decreased onwards to reach 32.4 ± 2.3 and 13.2 ± 2.0 min/4 h between 8 and 4 h before delivery in EUT and DYS cows, respectively, and then it decreased below 10 and 5 min during the last 4 h before calving (P = 0.003 and P = 0.008, respectively). Until 12 h after delivery rumination time reached 42.6 ± 2.7 and 51.0 ± 3.1 min/4 h in DYS and EUT dams, respectively, however, AUC and time to return to baseline suggested lower rumination activity in DYS cows than in EUT dams for the 168-h postpartum observational period (P = 0.012 and P = 0.002, respectively). Reticuloruminal pH decreased from baseline 56 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively), but did not differ between groups before delivery. In DYS cows, reticuloruminal temperature decreased from baseline 32 h before calving by 0.23 ± 0.02 °C (P = 0.012), whereas in EUT cows such a decrease was found only 20 h before delivery (0.48 ± 0.05 °C, P < 0.01). AUC of reticuloruminal temperature calculated for the prepartum period was greater in EUT cows than in DYS cows (P = 0.042). During the first 4 h after calving, it decreased from 39.7 ± 0.1 to 39.00 ± 0.1 °C and from 39.8 ± 0.1 to 38.8 ± 0.1 °C in EUT and DYS cows, respectively (P < 0.01 for both groups) and reached baseline levels after 35.4 ± 3.4 and 37.8 ± 4.2 h after calving in EUT and DYS cows, respectively. Based on our results, continuous monitoring of changes in rumination time and reticuloruminal temperature seems to be promising in the early detection of cows with a higher risk of dystocia. Depressed postpartum rumination time of DYS cows highlights the importance of the monitoring of cows experiencing difficulties at calving.

Keywords: reticuloruminal pH, reticuloruminal temperature, rumination time, dairy cows, dystocia

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
111 Influence of Environmental Temperature on Dairy Herd Performance and Behaviour

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, S. Harapanahalli, J. Walsh


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of lactating dairy cows and discuss some future trends. There exists a relationship between the meteorological data and milk yield prediction accuracy in pasture-based dairy systems. New precision technologies are available and are being developed to improve the sustainability of the dairy industry. Some of these technologies focus on welfare of individual animals on dairy farms. These technologies allow the automatic identification of animal behaviour and health events, greatly increasing overall herd health and yield while reducing animal health inspection demands and long-term animal healthcare costs. The data set consisted of records from 489 dairy cows at two dairy farms and temperature measured from the nearest meteorological weather station in 2018. The effects of temperature on milk production and behaviour of animals were analyzed. The statistical results indicate different effects of temperature on milk yield and behaviour. The “comfort zone” for animals is in the range 10 °C to 20 °C. Dairy cows out of this zone had to decrease or increase their metabolic heat production, and it affected their milk production and behaviour.

Keywords: behavior, milk yield, temperature, precision technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
110 Management Practices and Economic Performance of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu


Although dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity, milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize husbandry practices, educational experiences, decision-making practices, constraints, income and expenses of smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. A total of 200 farms, located in the regions Ho Chi Minh (HCM, N=80 farms), Lam Dong (N=40 farms), Binh Duong (N=40 farms) and Long An (N=40 farms) were included. Between October 2013 and December 2014 farmers were interviewed twice. On average, farms owned 3.200m2, 2.000m2, and 193m2 of pasture, cropping and housing area, respectively. The number of total, milking and dry cows, heifers, and calves were 20.4, 11.6, 4.7, 3.3, and 2.9 head. The number of lactating dairy cows was higher (p<0.001) in HCM (15.5) and Lam Dong (14.7) than in Binh Duong (6.7) and Long An (10.7). Animals were mainly crossbred Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows with at least 75% HF origin (84%), whereas a higher (P<0.001) percentage of purebred HF was found in HCM and Lam Dong and crossbreds in Binh Duong and Long An. Animals were mainly raised in tie-stalls (94%) and machine-milked (80%). Farmers used their own replacement animals (76%), and both genetic and phenotypic information (67%) for selecting sires. Farmers were predominantly educated at primary school level (53%). Major constraints for dairy farming were the lack of capital (43%), diseases (17%), marketing (22%), lack of knowledge (8%) and feed (7%). Monthly profit per lactating cow was superior in Lam Dong (2,817 thousand VND) and HCM (2,798 thousand VND) compared to other regions in Long An (2,597 thousand VND), and Binh Duong (1,775 thousand VND). Regional differences may be mainly attributed to environmental factors, urbanization, and particularly governmental support and the availability of extension and financial institutions. Results from this study provide important information on farming practices of smallholders in Southern Vietnam that are useful in determining regions that need to be addressed by authorities in order to improve dairy production.

Keywords: dairy farms, milk yield, Southern Vietnam, socio-economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
109 Relationship between Reproduction Performances and Coat Characteristics of Montbeliarde Cows during Hot Season in Algeria

Authors: Sara Lamari, Toufik Madani


This study aimed to explore the relationship between reproduction performances and coat characteristics of Montbéliarde cows born in Algeria or imported from Europe during the hot season in Algeria. Hair coat traits (hair coat color, Hair Weight, hair length, the number of hair per unit area, total hair diameters and hair medulla diameters) were estimated in 18 imported cattle and 49 locally born cows. These traits were measured in an area of 20cm below the dorsal line in the center of the thorax. Results showed that hair coats were significantly different between locally born and imported cows. Imported cows had whiter coats when compared to locally born cows for Montbéliarde cows. A significant effect of total hair diameter was observed on the interval from calving to conception (IC) for imported Montbéliarde cows, suggesting less incidence of heat stress on reproduction efficiency of cows with thin diameter hair coats. Montbéliarde cows with short hair coat registered significantly more number of mating per conception (2, 28±1, 93 Vs. 1,67±0,92) and IC (98,04±78,81Vs 74.53 ± 35.60 days) when compared to cows with long hairs. Hair works as a temperature regulator in association with muscles in the skin and may affect reproduction performances during hit stress season. It can be assumed that the length and a total diameter of hairs for the Montbeliarde breed appears to be related to their reproductive efficiency.

Keywords: hair coat, reproduction, Montbeliarde cow, hot season

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
108 Ultrasonic Assessment of Corpora lutea and Plasma Progesterone Levels in Early Pregnant and Non Pregnant Cows

Authors: Abdurraouf O. Gaja, Salah Y. A. Al-Dahash, Guru Solmon Raju, Chikara Kubota


Corpus luteum cross sectional (by ultrasonography) and plasma progesterone (by DELFIA) were estimated in early pregnant and non pregnant cows on days 14th and 20th to 23rd post insemination. On day 14th, corpus luteum sectional area was 348.43 mm2 in pregnant and 387.84mm2 in non pregnant cows. Within days 20th to 23rd, corpus luteum sectional area ranged between 342.06 and 367.90 mm2 in pregnant and between 193.85 and 270.69 mm2 in non pregnant cows. Plasma progesterone level was 2.43 ng/ml in pregnant and 2.46 ng/ml in non pregnant cows on day 14th, while during days 20th to 23rd the level ranged between 2.47 and 2,84 ng/ml in pregnant and between 0.53 and 1.17 ng/ml in non pregnant cows. Results of both luteal tissue areas as well as plasma progesterone levels were highly significantly deferent (P<0.01) between pregnant and non pregnant cows during days 20th to 23rd, but there were no significant differences on day 14th. The correlation between CL cross-sectional area and plasma progesterone level was 0.4 in pregnant cows and 0.99 in non pregnant cow. It is clear, from this study, that ultrasonic assessment of corpora lutea is a viable alternative to determine plasma progesterone levels for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

Keywords: progesterone, ultrasonography, corpus luteum, pregnancy diagnosis, cow

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
107 The Effect of Cow Reproductive Traits on Lifetime Productivity and Longevity

Authors: Lāsma Cielava, Daina Jonkus, Līga Paura


The age of first calving (AFC) is one of the most important factors that have a significant impact on cow productivity in different lactations and its whole life. A belated AFC leads to reduced reproductive performance and it is one of the main reasons for reduced longevity. Cows that calved in time period from 2001-2007 and in this time finished at least four lactations were included in the database. Data were obtained from 68841 crossbred Holstein Black and White (HM), crossbred Latvian Brown (LB), and Latvian Brown genetic resources (LBGR) cows. Cows were distributed in four groups depending on age at first calving. The longest lifespan was conducted for LBGR cows, but they were also characterized with lowest lifetime milk yield and life day milk yield. HM breed cows had the shortest lifespan, but in the lifespan of 2862.2 days was obtained in average 37916.4 kg milk accordingly 13.2 kg milk in one life day. HM breed cows were also characterized with longer calving intervals (CI) in first four lactations, but LBGR cows had the shortest CI in the study group. Age at first calving significantly affected the length of CI in different lactations (p<0.05). HM cows that first time calved >30 months old in the fourth lactation had the longest CI in all study groups (421.4 days). The LBGR cows were characterized with the shortest CI, but there was slight increase in second and third lactation. Age at first calving had a significant impact on cows’ age in each calving time. In the analysis, cow group was conducted that cows with age at first calving <24 months or in average 580.5 days at the time of fifth calving were 2156.7 days (5.9 years) old, but cows with age at first calving >30 months (932.6 days) at the time of fifth calving were 2560.9 days (7.3 years) old.

Keywords: age at first calving, calving interval, longevity, milk yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
106 The Evaluation of Superiority of Foot Local Anesthesia Method in Dairy Cows

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage


Background: Nowadays, bovine limb interventions, especially any claw surgeries, raises selection of the most qualified and appropriate local anesthesia technique applicable for any superficial or deep interventions of the limbs. Currently, two local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA), as well as Nerve Blocks, have been routine to apply. However, the lack of studies investigating the quality and duration as well as quantity and onset of full (complete) local anesthesia, is noticeable. Therefore, the aim of our study was comparing the onset and quality of both IVRA and our modified NBA at the hind limb of dairy cows. For this abstract, only the onset of full local anesthesia would be consider. Materials and Methods: For that reason, we used six healthy non pregnant non lactating Holestein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design. Those cows divided into two groups to receive IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. For IVRA, 20 ml procaine without epinephrine was injected into the vein digitalis dorsalis communis III and for our modified four-point NBA, 10-15 ml procaine without epinephrine preneurally to the nerves, superficial and deep peroneal as well as lateral and medial branches of metatarsal nerves. For pain stimulation, electrical stimulator Grass S48 was applied. Results: The results of electrical stimuli revealed the faster onset of full local anesthesia (p < 0.05) by application of our modified NBA in comparison to IVRA about 10 minutes. Conclusion and discussion: Despite of available references showing faster onset of foot local anesthesia of IVRA, our study demonstrated that our modified four point NBA not only can be well known as a standard foot local anesthesia method applicable to desensitize the hind limb of dairy cows, but also, selection of this modified validated local anesthesia method can lead to have a faster start of complete desensitization of distal hind limb that is remarkable in any bovine limb interventions under time constraint.

Keywords: IVRA, four point NBA, dairy cow, hind limb, full onset

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
105 An Algorithm for Herding Cows by a Swarm of Quadcopters

Authors: Jeryes Danial, Yosi Ben Asher


Algorithms for controlling a swarm of robots is an active research field, out of which cattle herding is one of the most complex problems to solve. In this paper, we derive an independent herding algorithm that is specifically designed for a swarm of quadcopters. The algorithm works by devising flight trajectories that cause the cows to run-away in the desired direction and hence herd cows that are distributed in a given field towards a common gathering point. Unlike previously proposed swarm herding algorithms, this algorithm does not use a flocking model but rather stars each cow separately. The effectiveness of this algorithm is verified experimentally using a simulator. We use a special set of experiments attempting to demonstrate that the herding times of this algorithm correspond to field diameter small constant regardless of the number of cows in the field. This is an optimal result indicating that the algorithm groups the cows into intermediate groups and herd them as one forming ever closing bigger groups.

Keywords: swarm, independent, distributed, algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
104 Potential Risk Factors Associated with Sole Hemorrhages Causing Lameness in Egyptian Water Buffaloes and Native Breed Cows

Authors: Waleed El-Said Abou El-Amaiem


Sole hemorrhages are considered as a main cause for sub clinical laminitis. In this study we aimed at discussing the most prominent risk factors associated with sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows. The final multivariate logistic regression model showed, a significant association between sub acute ruminal acidosis (P< 0.05), limb affected (P< 0.05) and weight (P< 0.05) and sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper to discuss the risk factors associated with sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows.

Keywords: lameness, buffalo, sole hemorrhages, breed cows

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103 Effect of Parenteral Administration of Vitamin A in Pregnant Dry Cows, on Vitamin A Status of Neonatal Calves

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh


To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of vitamin A during dry period in pregnant dairy cows, which already received it in their daily ration, on vitamin A status of neonatal calves, a total of 30 cows were randomly selected and divided to two main groups; treatment and control group. Animals in the treatment group were subdivided into two groups. Single intramuscular injection of 2000000 IU vitamin A; was carried in 10 dairy cows at 7 months of pregnancy (group 1). In the second group of treated animals (10 cows) the injection was performed in 8 months of pregnancy (group 2). Ten pregnant dairy cows were received saline injection as placebo and selected as the control group. Blood samples were collected from experimental dairy cows at 7 and 8 months of pregnancy as well as their newborn calves’ pre and after colostrum intake. There was no significant difference between vitamin A and β- carotene concentration of dairy cows of three groups in two last months of pregnancy (P > 0.05). Vitamin A concentration of calves of two treatment groups before and after receiving of colostrum were significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum concentrations of vitamin A in calves of two treated groups (P > 0.05). β- Carotene concentration of serum samples of dairy cows and neonatal calves of three groups were not significantly different as compared with together. From results of the present study it can be concluded that daily supplementation of vitamin A in late pregnancy in dairy cows may not compensate the calves need for vitamin A and single injection of this vitamin A during dry either in 7 or 8 months of pregnancy can significantly increase level of vitamin A in their colostrum and neonatal calves.

Keywords: dry cow, beta carotene, newborn calves, vitamin A, dry cows

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102 Profiling of Bacterial Communities Present in Feces, Milk, and Blood of Lactating Cows Using 16S rRNA Metagenomic Sequencing

Authors: Khethiwe Mtshali, Zamantungwa T. H. Khumalo, Stanford Kwenda, Ismail Arshad, Oriel M. M. Thekisoe


Ecologically, the gut, mammary glands and bloodstream consist of distinct microbial communities of commensals, mutualists and pathogens, forming a complex ecosystem of niches. The by-products derived from these body sites i.e. faeces, milk and blood, respectively, have many uses in rural communities where they aid in the facilitation of day-to-day household activities and occasional rituals. Thus, although livestock rearing plays a vital role in the sustenance of the livelihoods of rural communities, it may serve as a potent reservoir of different pathogenic organisms that could have devastating health and economic implications. This study aimed to simultaneously explore the microbial profiles of corresponding faecal, milk and blood samples from lactating cows using 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial communities were inferred through the Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm 2 (DADA2) pipeline coupled with SILVA database v138. All downstream analyses were performed in R v3.6.1. Alpha-diversity metrics showed significant differences between faeces and blood, faeces and milk, but did not vary significantly between blood and milk (Kruskal-Wallis, P < 0.05). Beta-diversity metrics on Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and Non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) clustered samples by type, suggesting that microbial communities of the studied niches are significantly different (PERMANOVA, P < 0.05). A number of taxa were significantly differentially abundant (DA) between groups based on the Wald test implemented in the DESeq2 package (Padj < 0.01). The majority of the DA taxa were significantly enriched in faeces than in milk and blood, except for the genus Anaplasma, which was significantly enriched in blood and was, in turn, the most abundant taxon overall. A total of 30 phyla, 74 classes, 156 orders, 243 families and 408 genera were obtained from the overall analysis. The most abundant phyla obtained between the three body sites were Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Proteobacteria. A total of 58 genus-level taxa were simultaneously detected between the sample groups, while bacterial signatures of at least 8 of these occurred concurrently in corresponding faeces, milk and blood samples from the same group of animals constituting a pool. The important taxa identified in this study could be categorized into four potentially pathogenic clusters: i) arthropod-borne; ii) food-borne and zoonotic; iii) mastitogenic and; iv) metritic and abortigenic. This study provides insight into the microbial composition of bovine faeces, milk, and blood and its extent of overlapping. It further highlights the potential risk of disease occurrence and transmission between the animals and the inhabitants of the sampled rural community, pertaining to their unsanitary practices associated with the use of cattle by-products.

Keywords: microbial profiling, 16S rRNA, NGS, feces, milk, blood, lactating cows, small-scale farmers

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101 Effect of Feed Supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Alfa- Amylase and Beta-Glucanase) in In-Line Rumination Parameters

Authors: Ramūnas Antanaitis, Lina Anskienė, Robertas Stoškus


This study was conducted during 2021.05.01 – 2021.08.31 at the Lithuanian University of health sciences and one Lithuanian dairy farm with 500 dairy cows (55.911381565736, 21.881321760608195). Average calving – 50 cows per month. Cows (n=20) in the treatment group (TG) were fed with feed supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Enzymes: Alfa- Amylase 57 Units; Beta-Glucanase 107 Units) from 21 days before calving till 30 days after calving with feeding rate 200g/cow/day. Cows in the control group (CG) were fed a feed ration without feed supplement. Measurements started from 6 days before calving and continued till 21 days after calving. The following indicators were registered: with the RumiWatch System: Rumination time; Eating time; Drinking time; Rumination chews; Eating chews; Drinking gulps; Bolus; Chews per minute; Chews per bolus. With SmaXtec system - the temperature, pH of the contents of cows' reticulorumens and cows' activity. According to our results, we found that feeding of cows, from 21 days before calving to 30 days after calving, with a feed supplement with alfa- amylase and beta-glucanase (Optipartum C+ 200) (with dose 200g/cow/day) can produce an increase in: 9% rumination time and eating time, 19% drinking time, 11% rumination chews, 16% eating chews,13% number of boluses per rumination, 5% chews per minute and 16% chews per bolus. We found 1.28 % lower reiticulorumen pH and 0.64% lower reticulorumen temperature in cows fed with the supplement compared with control group cows. Also, cows feeding with enzymes were 8.80% more active.

Keywords: Alfa-Amylase, Beta-Glucanase, cows, in-line, sensors

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100 Impact of Climate Change on Some Physiological Parameters of Cyclic Female Egyptian Buffalo

Authors: Nabil Abu-Heakal, Ismail Abo-Ghanema, Basma Hamed Merghani


The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of seasonal variations in Egypt on hematological parameters, reproductive and metabolic hormones of Egyptian buffalo-cows. This study lasted one year extending from December 2009 to November 2010 and was conducted on sixty buffalo-cows. Group of 5 buffalo-cows at estrus phase were selected monthly. Then, after blood sampling through tail vein puncture in the 2nd day after natural service, they were divided in two samples: one with anticoagulant for hematological analysis and the other without anticoagulant for serum separation. Results of this investigation revealed that the highest atmospheric temperature was in hot summer 32.61±1.12°C versus 26.18±1.67°C in spring and 19.92±0.70°C in winter season, while the highest relative humidity % was in winter season 43.50±1.60% versus 32.50±2.29% in summer season. The rise in temperature-humidity index from 63.73±1.29 in winter to 78.53±1.58 in summer indicates severe heat stress which is associated with significant reduction in total red blood cell count (3.20±0.15×106), hemoglobin concentration (8.83±0.43 g/dl), packed cell volume (30.73±0.12%), lymphocytes % (40.66±2.33 %), serum progesterone hormone concentration (0.56±0.03 ng/mll), estradiol17-B concentration (16.8±0.64 ng/ml), triiodothyronin (T3) concentration (2.33±0.33 ng/ml) and thyroxin hormone (T4) concentration (21.66±1.66 ng/ml), while hot summer resulted in significant increase in mean cell volume (96.55±2.25 fl), mean cell hemoglobin (30.81±1.33 pg), total white blood cell count (10.63±0.97×103), neutrophils % (49.66±2.33%), serum prolactin hormone (PRL) concentration (23.45±1.72 ng/ml) and cortisol hormone concentration (4.47±0.33 ng/ml) compared to winter season. There was no significant seasonal variation in mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). It was concluded that in Egypt there was a seasonal variation in atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, temperature humidity index (THI) and the rise in THI above the upper critical level (72 units), which, for lactating buffalo-cows in Egypt is the major constraint on buffalo-cows' hematological parameters and hormonal secretion that affects animal reproduction. Hence, we should improve climatic conditions inside the dairy farm to eliminate or reduce summer infertility.

Keywords: buffalo, climate change, Egypt, physiological parameters

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99 Thermoregulatory Responses of Holstein Cows Exposed to Intense Heat Stress

Authors: Rodrigo De A. Ferrazza, Henry D. M. Garcia, Viviana H. V. Aristizabal, Camilla De S. Nogueira, Cecilia J. Verissimo, Jose Roberto Sartori, Roberto Sartori, Joao Carlos P. Ferreira


Environmental factors adversely influence sustainability in livestock production system. Dairy herds are the most affected by heat stress among livestock industries. This clearly implies in development of new strategies for mitigating heat, which should be based on physiological and metabolic adaptations of the animal. In this study, we incorporated the effect of climate variables and heat exposure time on the thermoregulatory responses in order to clarify the adaptive mechanisms for bovine heat dissipation under intense thermal stress induced experimentally in climate chamber. Non-lactating Holstein cows were contemporaneously and randomly assigned to thermoneutral (TN; n=12) or heat stress (HS; n=12) treatments during 16 days. Vaginal temperature (VT) was measured every 15 min with a microprocessor-controlled data logger (HOBO®, Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA, USA) attached to a modified vaginal controlled internal drug release insert (Sincrogest®, Ourofino, Brazil). Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) were measured twice a day (0700 and 1500h) and dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated daily. The ambient temperature and air relative humidity were 25.9±0.2°C and 73.0±0.8%, respectively for TN, and 36.3± 0.3°C and 60.9±0.9%, respectively for HS. Respiratory rate of HS cows increased immediately after exposure to heat and was higher (76.02±1.70bpm; P<0.001) than TN (39.70±0.71bpm), followed by rising of RT (39.87°C±0.07 for HS versus 38.56±0.03°C for TN; P<0.001) and VT (39.82±0.10°C for HS versus 38.26±0.03°C for TN; P<0.001). A diurnal pattern was detected, with higher (P<0.01) afternoon temperatures than morning and this effect was aggravated for HS cows. There was decrease (P<0.05) of HR for HS cows (62.13±0.99bpm) compared to TN (66.23±0.79bpm), but the magnitude of the differences was not the same over time. From the third day, there was a decrease of DMI for HS in attempt to maintain homeothermy, while TN cows increased DMI (8.27kg±0.33kg d-1 for HS versus 14.03±0.29kg d-1 for TN; P<0.001). By regression analysis, RT and RR better reflected the response of cows to changes in the Temperature Humidity Index and the effect of climate variables from the previous day to influence the physiological parameters and DMI was more important than the current day, with ambient temperature the most important factor. Comparison between acute (0 to 3 days) and chronic (13 to 16 days) exposure to heat stress showed decreasing of the slope of the regression equations for RR and DMI, suggesting an adaptive adjustment, however with no change for RT. In conclusion, intense heat stress exerted strong influence on the thermoregulatory mechanisms, but the acclimation process was only partial.

Keywords: acclimation, bovine, climate chamber, hyperthermia, thermoregulation

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98 Histopathological and Microbiological Studies on Subclinical Endometritis in Repeat Breeder Cow

Authors: Mehmet Akoz


In this study the clinical, mikrobiological and histopathological diagnoses of subclinic and nonspecific endometritis resulting in repeat breeder. Total of 36 cows, aging between 3-9 years having normal oestrous cycles with no pregnancy following at least 3 unsuccesful inseminations, were used. Biopsy specimens for histopathological and swab for bacteri microbiological cultures were obtanied from endometrium of repeat breeders showing no macroskopic evidence of any defectiveness of genital organs and based on anamneses. Eleven out of 36 cows have positive bacteriological results. While 19 cows have varying degrees of and endometritis, the other 17 cows did not have any pathologic lesions. A total of 19 biopsies in 4 of the I. degree in endometritis, 9 of them II. degree endometritis and 6 were also III. degree endometritis was evaluated. In the majority of cows by the histopathological evaluation results (78.9%) monitored by the second and third-degree endometritis shape, in 83.3% of the isolated microorganisms were identified similar results. Histopathological and microbiological evaluation, along with clinical examination are important for the diagnoses and treatment of repeat breeders, having no resistance with well dissipation to endometrium rifaximina foam formulation was found to be more effective than PGF2α.

Keywords: repeat breeder, dairy cattle, histopathology, PGF2α, rifaximina

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97 Genetic Polymorphism of Milk Protein Gene and Association with Milk Production Traits in Local Latvian Brown Breed Cows

Authors: Daina Jonkus, Solvita Petrovska, Dace Smiltina, Lasma Cielava


The beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein are milk proteins which are important for milk composition. Cows with beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein gene BB genotypes have highest milk crude protein and fat content. The aim of the study was to determinate the frequencies of milk protein gene polymorphisms in local Latvian Brown (LB) cows breed and analyze the influence of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genotypes to milk productivity traits. 102 cows’ genotypes of milk protein genes were detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and electrophoresis on 3% agarose gel. For beta-lactoglobulin were observed 2 types of alleles A and B and for kappa-casein 3 types: A, B and E. Highest frequency in beta-lactoglobulin gene was observed for B allele – 0.926. Molecular analysis of beta-lactoglobulin gene shows 86.3% of individuals are homozygous by B allele and animals are with genotypes BB and 12.7% of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AB. The highest milk yield 4711.7 kg was for 1st lactation cows with AB genotypes, whereas the highest milk protein content (3.35%) and fat content (4.46 %) was for BB genotypes. Analysis of the kappa-casein locus showed a prevalence of the A allele – 0.750. The genetic variant of B was characterized by a low frequency – 0.240. Moreover, the frequency of E occurred in the LB cows’ population with very low frequency – 0.010. 54.9 % of cows are homozygous with genotypes AA, and only 4.9 % are homozygous with genotypes BB. 32.8 % of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AB, and 2.0 % are with AE. The highest milk productivity was for 1st lactation cows with AB genotypes: milk yield 4620.3 kg, milk protein content 3.39% and fat content 4.53 %. According to the results, in local Latvian brown there are only 2.9% of cows are with BB-BB genotypes, which is related to milk coagulation ability and affected cheese production yield. Acknowledgment: the investigation is supported by VPP 2014-2017 AgroBioRes Project No. 3 LIVESTOCK.

Keywords: beta-lactoglobulin, cows, genotype frequencies, kappa-casein

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96 Productive Performance of Lactating Sows Feed with Cull Chickpea

Authors: J. M. Uriarte, H. R. Guemez, J. A. Romo, R. Barajas, J. M. Romo


This research was carried out with the objective of knowing the productive performance of sows in lactation when fed with diets containing cull chickpea instead of corn and soybean meal. Thirty-six (Landrace x Yorkshire) lactating sows were divided into three treatments with 12 sows per treatment. On day 107 of gestation, sows were moved into farrowing crates in an environmentally regulated (2.2 × 0.6 m) contained an area (2.2 × 0.5 m) for newborn pigs on each side, all diets were provided as a dry powder, and the sows received free access to water throughout the experimental period. After farrowing, daily feed allowance increased gradually, and sows had ad libitum access to feed by day four. They were fed diets containing 0 (CONT), cull chickpeas 15 % (CHP15), or cull chickpeas 30% (CHP30) for 28 days. The diets contained the same calculated levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy, and contained vitamins and minerals that exceeded the National Research Council (1998) recommendations; sows were fed three times daily. On day 28, piglets were weaned and performances of lactating sows and nursery piglets were recorded. All data in this experiment were analyzed in accordance with a completely randomized design. Results indicated that average daily feed intake (5.61, 5.59 and 5.46 kg for CONT, CHP15, and CHP30 respectively) of sows were not affected (P > 0.05) by different dietary. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in average body weight of piglets on the day of birth (1.35 vs. 1.30, and 1.32 kg) and day 28 (7.10, 6.80 and 6.92 kg) between treatments. The numbers of weaned piglets (10.65 on average) were not affected by treatments. It is concluded that the use of cull chickpea at 30% of the diet does not affect the productive performance of lactating sows.

Keywords: cull chickpea, lactating sow, performance, pigs

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95 Effect of Prophylactic Oxytocin Therapy on Duration of Retained Fetal Membrane (RFM) in Periparturient Dairy Cows

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh- Nava, Maziar Kaveh Baghbadorani, Amin Tamadon


Considering response of uterus to ecbolic effect of oxytocin near the time of parturition, this study was done for investigating the effect of prophylactic administration of this hormone on duration of fetal membrane retention, time interval to first detectable estrus, time interval to first service, and conception rate at first service in cases of both normal parturition and dystocia. For this reason cows with (n=18) and without (n=18) dystocia assigned randomly to treatment (n=12) or control (n=6) groups and received intramuscular injection of 100 IU of oxytocin or 10 mL of normal saline respectively. Further observations and investigations indicate that duration of fetal retention is significantly shorter in treatment group cows compared to control groups, regardless of having dystocia (P=0.002) or normal spontaneous calving (P=0.001). The same trend exists for conception rate at first service in which cows in treatment groups had significantly higher conception rate (CR) in comparison to cows in control groups with (P=0.0003) or without dystocia (P=0.017). The time interval to first detected heat and first service didn’t show any difference between groups.

Keywords: conception rate, oxytocin, RFM, time to first service

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