Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Fouzia Toumi Benali

37 Different Biological and Chemical Parameters that Influence the Polyphenols from Some Medicinal Plants in Western Algeria

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud, Fouzia Toumi Benali, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza

Abstract:

This work focuses on the influences of biological and chemical parameters on the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins in different medicinal plants in western Algeria (Papaver rhoeas, Daphnegnidium, Lavandula multifida, Lavandula dentata, Lavandula stoicha, ...). Thus we look the difference between species of the same genus, difference between the different organs of the same species, the influence of environment all temperature influences, time, percentage of solvent on the extraction. Quantification of the phenolic compounds was performed by spectrophotometric method then treated with statistics tools such as variance analysis, multivariant analyzes, response surface methodology). The results show that the polyphenols are influenced by the parameters mentioned.

Keywords: polyphenols, influences, medicinal plants, west Algeria

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36 Geoclimatic Influences on the Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Fruit of Arbutus unedo L.

Authors: Khadidja Bouzid, Fouzia Benali Toumi, Mohamed Bouzouina

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We made a comparison between the total phenolic content, concentrations of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of four different extracts (butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, water) of Arbutus unedo L. fruit (Ericacea) of El Marsa and Terni area. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 26.57 and 48.23 gallic acid equivalents mg/g of dry weight of extract. The concentrations of flavonoids in plant extracts varied from 17.98 to 56.84 catechin equivalents mg/g. The antioxidant activity was analyzed in vitro using the DPPH reagent; among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction from El Marsa area showed the highest antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Arbutus unedo L., fruit flavonoids, phenols, Western Algeria

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35 Optimisation of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida, Algeria, NW

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud Dif, Fouzia Benali-Toumi, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza, Abbes Dellal, Slimane Baha

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L. multifida is applied to treat rheumatism and cold and has hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida. The influences of parameters including temperature (decoction and maceration) and extraction time (15min to 45 min) on the flavonoids concentration are studied. The optimal conditions are determined and the quadratic response surfaces draw from the mathematical models. Total phenols were evaluated using Folin sicaltieu methods, total flavonoids were estimated using the Tri chloral aluminum method. The maximum concentration extracted, for total flavonoids, equal to 0.043 mg/g was achieved with decoction and extraction time of 41.55 min. However, for total phenol compounds highest concentration of 0.218 mg/g, is obtained with 45 min at 49.99°C.

Keywords: L multifidi, phenolic content, optimization, time, temperature

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34 Improved Skin Detection Using Colour Space and Texture

Authors: Medjram Sofiane, Babahenini Mohamed Chaouki, Mohamed Benali Yamina

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Skin detection is an important task for computer vision systems. A good method for skin detection means a good and successful result of the system. The colour is a good descriptor that allows us to detect skin colour in the images, but because of lightings effects and objects that have a similar colour skin, skin detection becomes difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method using the YCbCr colour space for skin detection and lighting effects elimination, then we use the information of texture to eliminate the false regions detected by the YCbCr colour skin model.

Keywords: skin detection, YCbCr, GLCM, texture, human skin

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33 Creating Positive Learning Environment

Authors: Samia Hassan, Fouzia Latif

Abstract:

In many countries, education is still far from being a knowledge industry in the sense of own practices that are not yet being transformed by knowledge about the efficacy of those practices. The core question of this paper is why students get bored in class? Have we balanced between the creation and advancement of an engaging learning community and effective learning environment? And between, giving kids confidence to achieve their maximum and potential goals, we sand managing student’s behavior. We conclude that creating a positive learning environment enhances opportunities for young children to feel safe, secure, and to supported in order to do their best learning. Many factors can use in classrooms aid to the positive environment like course content, class preparation, and behavior.

Keywords: effective, environment, learning, positive

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32 Bi-Functional Natural Carboxylic Acid Catalysts for the Synthesis of Diethyl α-Aminophosphonates in Aqueous Media

Authors: Hellal Abdelkader, Chafaa Salah, Boudjemaa Fouzia

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A new, convenient, and high yielding procedure for the preparation of diethyl α-aminophosphonates in water via Kabachnik-Fields reaction by one-pot reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ortho-aminophenols, and dialkylphosphites in the presence of a low catalytic amount of citric, malic, tartaric, and oxalic acids as a natural, bi-functional, and highly stable catalyst is described, the obtained products were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, FTIR, Uv-Vis spectral data, NMR-C, NMR-H, and NMR-P analyses.

Keywords: α-aminophosphonates, aminophenols, natural acids, aqueous media, Kabachnik-Fields reaction

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31 Effect on Haemolymph Cellular Parameters of Periplaneta Americana Following Challenge with Agrobacterium Tumefaciens: A Possible Microbial Control Agent

Authors: Fouzia Qamar, Shahida Hasnain

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The present study is primarily concerned with the alteration in haemocyte profile of adult male Periplaneta americana with emphasis on the effect of bacterial inoculations on the haemogram i.e., total haemocyte count (THC) and differential haemocyte count (DHC) of different haemocyte types of the target insect. Haemolymph cellular profile showed considerable alterations under the effect of nine strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens after 8, 16 and 24 hrs of treatment thereby signifying the potential role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a possible biocontrol agent against the house hold pests.

Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Periplaneta americana, Haemolymph, cellular parametes

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30 Efficacy of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens as a Possible Entomopathogenic Agent

Authors: Fouzia Qamar, Shahida Hasnain

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a possible insect biocontrol agent. Pests selected for the present challenge were adult males of Periplaneta americana and last instar larvae of Pieris brassicae and Spodoptera litura. Different ranges of bacterial doses were selected and tested to score the mortalities of the insects after 24 hours, for the lethal dose estimation studies. Mode of application for the inoculation of the bacteria, was the microinjection technique. The evaluation of the possible entomopathogenic carrying attribute of bacterial Ti plasmid, led to the conclusion that the loss of plasmid was associated with the loss of virulence against target insects.

Keywords: agrobacterium tumefaciens, toxicity assessment, biopesticidal attribute, entomopathogenic agent

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29 Compensatory Neuro-Fuzzy Inference (CNFI) Controller for Bilateral Teleoperation

Authors: R. Mellah, R. Toumi

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This paper presents a new adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller equipped with compensatory fuzzy control (CNFI) in order to not only adjusts membership functions but also to optimize the adaptive reasoning by using a compensatory learning algorithm. The proposed control structure includes both CNFI controllers for which one is used to control in force the master robot and the second one for controlling in position the slave robot. The experimental results obtained, show a fairly high accuracy in terms of position and force tracking under free space motion and hard contact motion, what highlights the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

Keywords: compensatory fuzzy, neuro-fuzzy, control adaptive, teleoperation

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28 Thermodynamic Behaviour of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose

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The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

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27 Isothermal Vapour-Liquid Equilibria of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose

Abstract:

The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

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26 Effect of Hemicellulase on Extraction of Essential Oil from Algerian Artemisia campestris

Authors: Khalida Boutemak, Nasssima Benali, Nadji Moulai-Mostefa

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Effect of enzyme on the yield and chemical composition of Artemisia campestris essential oil is reported in the present study. It was demonstrated that enzyme facilitated the extraction of essential oil with increase in oil yield and did not affect any noticeable change in flavour profile of the volatile oil. Essential oil was tested for antibacterial activity using Escherichia coli; which was extremely sensitive against control with the largest inhibition (29mm), whereas Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive against essential oil obtained from enzymatic pre-treatment with the largest inhibition zone (25mm). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil with hemicellulase pre-treatment (EO2) and control sample (EO1) was determined through reducing power. It was significantly lower than the standard drug (vitamin C) in this order: vitamin C˃EO2˃EO1.

Keywords: Artemisia campestris, enzyme pre-treatment, hemicellulase, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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25 Design and Implementation of 2D Mesh Network on Chip Using VHDL

Authors: Boudjedra Abderrahim, Toumi Salah, Boutalbi Mostefa, Frihi Mohammed

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Nowadays, using the advancement of technology in semiconductor device fabrication, many transistors can be integrated to a single chip (VLSI). Although the growth chip density potentially eases systems-on-chip (SoCs) integrating thousands of processing element (PE) such as memory, processor, interfaces cores, system complexity, high-performance interconnect and scalable on-chip communication architecture become most challenges for many digital and embedded system designers. Networks-on-chip (NoCs) becomes a new paradigm that makes possible integrating heterogeneous devices and allows many communication constraints and performances. In this paper, we are interested for good performance and low area for implementation and a behavioral modeling of network on chip mesh topology design using VHDL hardware description language with performance evaluation and FPGA implementation results.

Keywords: design, implementation, communication system, network on chip, VHDL

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24 Mobile Based Long Range Weather Prediction System for the Farmers of Rural Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Zeeshan Muzammal, Usama Latif, Fouzia Younas, Syed Muhammad Hassan, Samia Razaq

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Unexpected rainfall has always been an issue in the lifetime of crops and brings destruction for the farmers who harvest them. Unfortunately, Pakistan is one of the countries in which untimely rain impacts badly on crops like wash out of seeds and pesticides etc. Pakistan’s GDP is related to agriculture, especially in rural areas farmers sometimes quit farming because leverage of huge loss to their crops. Through our surveys and research, we came to know that farmers in the rural areas of Pakistan need rain information to avoid damages to their crops from rain. We developed a prototype using ICTs to inform the farmers about rain one week in advance. Our proposed solution has two ways of informing the farmers. In first we send daily messages about weekly prediction and also designed a helpline where they can call us to ask about possibility of rain.

Keywords: ICTD, farmers, mobile based, Pakistan, rural areas, weather prediction

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23 Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: Bourfaa Fouzia, Meryem Lamri Zeggar, Adjimi Amel, Mohammed Salah Aida, Nadir Attaf

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Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: Acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV–visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: precursor, thins films, spray pyrolysis, zinc oxide

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22 Soil Parameters Identification around PMT Test by Inverse Analysis

Authors: I. Toumi, Y. Abed, A. Bouafia

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This paper presents a methodology for identifying the cohesive soil parameters that takes into account different constitutive equations. The procedure, applied to identify the parameters of generalized Prager model associated to the Drucker & Prager failure criterion from a pressuremeter expansion curve, is based on an inverse analysis approach, which consists of minimizing the function representing the difference between the experimental curve and the simulated curve using a simplex algorithm. The model response on pressuremeter path and its identification from experimental data lead to the determination of the friction angle, the cohesion and the Young modulus. Some parameters effects on the simulated curves and stresses path around pressuremeter probe are presented. Comparisons between the parameters determined with the proposed method and those obtained by other means are also presented.

Keywords: cohesive soils, cavity expansion, pressuremeter test, finite element method, optimization procedure, simplex algorithm

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21 Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties Study of New Magnetic Materials

Authors: Messai Amel, Badis Zakaria, Benali-Cherif Nourredine, Dominique Luneaub

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We are interested in molecular polymetallic species having high spin and nuclearities in relation to the field of so call single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The goal is to find a way to synthesis metal clusters which may have application in magnetism and nano sciences. With this purpose, we decided to investigate the coordination chemistry of the Schiff base. Along this way we were able to create cubane-like complexes and elaborate new Single Molecule-Magnets. The idea was to use Schiff base ligands and different metals to generate high nuclear complexes. Complexation of Shiff base with copper (II) has been investigated. Tetra nuclear complex with a cubane like core have been synthesized with (Sciff base), with the same base and cobalt (II) we obtain an other single magnetic complex completely different. In this presentation, we report the synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the tetranuclear compound (Cu4 L4), and the tetranuclear compound. (Co4L4)

Keywords: cluster-assembled materials, magnetic compounds, Sciff base, cupper, cobalt

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20 Assessement of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Lavandula antineae Maire from Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Krimat, Tahar Dob, Mohamed Toumi, Aicha Kesouri, Hafidha Metidji, Chelghoum Chabane

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Lavandula antineae Maire is an endemic medicinal plant of Algeria which is traditionally used for the treatment of chills, bruises, oedema and rheumatism. The present study was designed to investigate the phytochemical screening, total phenolic and antioxidant activity of Lavandula antineae Maire for the first time. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of different kind of chemical groups (anthraquinones, terpenes, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, O-heterosides, C-heterosides, phenolic acids). The amounts of total phenolics in the extracts (hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extract) were determined spectrometrically. From the analyses, ethyl acetate extract had the highest total phenolic content (262.35 mg GA/g extract) and antioxidant activity (IC50=7.10 µg/ml) using DPPH method. The ethyl acetate extract was also more potent on reducing power compared to hydromethanolic extract. The results suggested that L. antineae could be considered as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for pharmaceuticals and food preservation.

Keywords: Lavandula antineae, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolics

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19 Management of Pain in Patients under Vitamin K Antagonists: Experience of the Unit of Clinical Pharmacology of EHU Oran, Algeria

Authors: Amina Bayazid, Habiba Fetati, Houari Toumi

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Introduction: The clinical value of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) has been widely demonstrated in numerous indications. Unfortunately, VKA are not devoid of drawbacks and risk of serious bleeding. The iatrogenic induced by these drugs is a major public health problem. Patients & Methods: We conducted a retrospective study period extending from February 2012 to August 2013 in the pharmacovigilance service of EHUO (clinical pharmacology unit). The prescription of painkillers was analyzed in patients on VKA followed at our level. The influence of these analgesics on the evolution of the INR is an important component in our work. Results: We counted a total of 195 patients, of whom 32 (or 16.41% of the total population) had received analgesic treatment. The frequencies of different categories of analgesics administered were: • Analgesics opioids: 0% • Analgesics weak opioids: Tramadol: 21.87% • The non-opioid analgesics: -AINS: 71.87% (indomethacin: 68.75% ibuprofen: 3.12%) - Paracetamol: 6.25% -Salicyles (Acetylsalicylic acid): 0%. Conclusion: The management of pain in patients under vitamin K antagonists has special features, given their many drug interactions with analgesics and their influence on the evolution of the INR which can have dramatic consequences. As such, special attention must be paid to the use of analgesics in this type of patient.

Keywords: vitamin K antagonists, pain killers, interactions, INR

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18 Bound By Patriarchy: Women’s Experience of Internal Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Fouzia Mannan, Deepa Joshi

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Millions of Bangladeshis move from low-income agrarian villages to the country’s urban landscape with the hope to gain from the rapidly-growing middle-income urban, industrial future. However, the economic gains are mostly offset by new forms of extreme depravity, indignity, and inequality. Nonetheless, many scholars report unique gendered gains through migration - the rupture of traditional, entrenched inequalities by gender, providing women not only reliable incomes but also the opportunity to re-negotiate gendered roles, responsibilities and identities. In this study, we present the reflections of ten long-term urban migrant women in Dhaka city: of their gains, their losses as well as their aspirations for the future. Our findings show the incredibly high costs of a migration that is induced by desperate rural poverty. Further, we find that patriarchy persists - within the often 'kutcha' walls of urban low-income homes to the nature of so-called economic opportunities - in the constant intertwining of capitalism, globalization, and patriarchy. Caught in between, women have little choice but to cope with these new vulnerabilities by relying on the very norms and boundaries established by patriarchy and by recreating patriarchy to celebrate the (if) gains from displacement and migration.

Keywords: gender, internal migration, patriarchy, urbanization

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17 Adopting Quality Assurance Cycles in Accreditation and Strategic Planning in Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Fouzia Shersad, Sabeena Salam

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Introduction: Quality assurance cycles like RADAR, PDCA, ADRI are cycles of planning, implementation, assessment and improvement. These cycles are required when institutions apply for reaccreditation to accreditation bodies and for adoption of holistic models of institutional quality. Method of Study: The adoption of these cycles at the higher education institutions under the Dubai Medical University is studied to explore the feasibility and the benefits in institutions outcomes. After adequate faculty training, these steps were incorporated in all new activities and embedded in every new initiative and approach undertaken at unit and institutional levels. Conclusions: Improvement in student satisfaction rates and performance levels has been achieved. Wherever weaknesses or deficits have been identified, improvement strategies are implemented in a timely manner. The feedback has become an incentive for faculty members to implement new ideas. Implementation of these cycles for core processes at micro and macro levels have ensured that a systematic mechanism for corrective actions existed. This has led to increasing adoption of innovative initiatives. Another outcome was the recognition through national level awards for the overall institutions which have been certified by external reviewers.

Keywords: higher education, quality, accreditation, institutional improvement

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16 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Thymus lanceolatus Desf. an Endemic Thyme from Algeria

Authors: Ahmed Nouasri, Tahar Dob, Toumi Mohamed, Dahmane Dahmane, Soumioa Krimat, Lynda Lamari, Chabane Chelghom

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The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition for the first time, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil (EO) of Thymus lanceolatus Desf., an endemic thyme from Tiaret province of Algeria. The chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from flowering aerial parts has been analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques, the antimicrobial activity was realised by agar disc diffusion method and MIC was determined in solid medium by direct contact. Essential oil of T. lanceolataus has been yielded of 2.336 (w/w) based on dry weight, the analyses cited above, led to the identification of 29 components, which accounted for 97.34% of the total oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes was the main fraction (88.31%) dominated by thymol (80.2%) as major component of this oil, followed by carvacrol (6.25%). The oil was found effective against all tested strains especially fungus, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa were low activity observed, in addition Gram (+) bacteria found to be more sensitive to the EO than Gram (-) bacteria. This activity was ranging from12±2.65mm to 60.00±0.00mm Ø, with the lowest MIC value of under 0.06mg/ml to 12.53mg/ml. This results provided the evidence that the studied plant might indeed be potential sources of natural antimicrobial agents

Keywords: Thymus lanceolatus Desf., essential oil, chemical composition, antimicrobial activities

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15 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

Abstract:

Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, intensive care units, teaching hospital of Oran, Algeria

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14 Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Origanum glandulosum on Bacterial Strains of Hospital Origin Most Implicated in Nosocomial Infections

Authors: A. Lardjam, R. Mazid, S. Y. Boudghene, A. Izarouken, Y. Dali, N. Djebli, H. Toumi

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Origanum glandulosum is an aromatic plant, common in Algeria and widely used by local people for its medicinal properties. The essential oil from this plant, which grows in the west of Algeria, was studied to evaluate and determine its antibacterial activity. The extraction of the essential oil was performed by water steam distillation; the yield obtained from the aerial parts (1.78 %) is interesting, its chromatographic profile revealed by TLC showed the presence of phenolic compounds thymol and carvacrol. The evaluation of the activity of the essential oil of Origanum glandulosum on bacterial strains of hospital origin, ATCC, MRB, and HRB, most implicated in nosocomial infections (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to meticillin, Enterococcus faecium, VA R and R TEC, Acinetobacter baumanii, IMP R and R CAZ, Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase-producing) by the method of aromatogramme and micro atmosphere, shows that the antibacterial potency of this oil is very high, expressed by significant inhibition diameters on all strains except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and low MICs and is characterized by a bactericidal action.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, essential oil, HRB, MBR, nosocomial infections, origanum glandulosum

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13 Role of Information and Communication Technology in Pharmaceutical Innovation: Case of Firms in Developing Countries

Authors: Ilham Benali, Nasser Hajji, Nawfel Acha

Abstract:

The pharmaceutical sector is ongoing different constraints related to the Research and Development (R&D) costs, the patents extinction, the demand pressing, the regulatory requirement and the generics development, which drive leading firms in the sector to undergo technological change and to shift to biotechnological paradigm. Based on a large literature review, we present a background of innovation trajectory in pharmaceutical industry and reasons behind this technological transformation. Then we investigate the role that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing in this revolution. In order to situate pharmaceutical firms in developing countries in this trajectory, and to examine the degree of their involvement in the innovation process, we did not find any previous empirical work or sources generating gathered data that allow us to analyze this phenomenon. Therefore, and for the case of Morocco, we tried to do it from scratch by gathering relevant data of the last five years from different sources. As a result, only about 4% of all innovative drugs that have access to the local market in the mentioned period are made locally which substantiates that the industrial model in pharmaceutical sector in developing countries is based on the 'license model'. Finally, we present another alternative, based on ICT use and big data tools that can allow developing countries to shift from status of simple consumers to active actors in the innovation process.

Keywords: biotechnologies, developing countries, innovation, information and communication technology, pharmaceutical firms

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12 Effect of Surface Preparation of Concrete Substrate on Bond Tensile Strength of Thin Bonded Cement Based Overlays

Authors: S. Asad Ali Gillani, Ahmed Toumi, Anaclet Turatsinze

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After a certain period of time, the degradation of concrete structures is unavoidable. For large concrete areas, thin bonded cement-based overlay is a suitable rehabilitation technique. Previous research demonstrated that durability of bonded cement-based repairs is always a problem and one of its main reasons is deboning at interface. Since durability and efficiency of any repair system mainly depend upon the bond between concrete substrate and repair material, the bond between concrete substrate and repair material can be improved by increasing the surface roughness. The surface roughness can be improved by performing surface treatment of the concrete substrate to enhance mechanical interlocking which is one of the basic mechanisms of adhesion between two surfaces. In this research, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays having substrate surface prepared using different techniques has been characterized. In first step cement based substrate was prepared and then cured for three months. After curing two different types of the surface treatments were performed on this substrate; cutting and sandblasting. In second step overlay was cast on these prepared surfaces, which were cut and sandblasted surfaces. The overlay was also cast on the surface without any treatment. Finally, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays was evaluated in direct tension test and the results are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: concrete substrate, surface preparation, overlays, bond tensile strength

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11 The Effect of Foreign Owned Firms and Licensed Manufacturing Agreements on Innovation: Case of Pharmaceutical Firms in Developing Countries

Authors: Ilham Benali, Nasser Hajji, Nawfal Acha

Abstract:

Given the fact that the pharmaceutical industry is a commonly studied sector in the context of innovation, the majority of innovation research is devoted to the developed markets known by high research and development (R&D) assets and intensive innovation. In contrast, in developing countries where R&D assets are very low, there is relatively little research to mention in the area of pharmaceutical sector innovation, characterized mainly by two principal elements which are the presence of foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals. With the scarcity of research in this field, this paper attempts to study the effect of these two elements on the firms’ innovation tendencies. Other traditional factors that influence innovation, which are the age and the size of the firm, the R&D activities and the market structure, revealed in the literature review, will be included in the study in order to try to make this work more exhaustive. The study starts by examining innovation tendency in pharmaceutical firms located in developing countries before analyzing the effect of foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals on technological, organizational and marketing innovation. Based on the related work and on the theoretical framework developed, there is a probability that foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals have a negative influence on technological innovation. The opposite effect is possible in the case of organizational and marketing innovation.

Keywords: developing countries, foreign owned firms, innovation, licensed manufacturing agreements, pharmaceutical industry

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10 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi

Abstract:

The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, cell culture, DNA, DNA enzymes, molecular docking

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9 Lead and Cadmium Residue Determination in Spices Available in Tripoli City Markets (Libya)

Authors: Mohamed Ziyaina, Ahlam Rajab, Khadija Alkhweldi, Wafia Algami, Omer Al. Toumi, Barbara Rasco1

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination in food products. Spices can improve the taste of food and can also be a source of many bioactive compounds but can unfortunately, also be contaminated with dangerous materials, potentially heavy metals. This study was conducted to investigate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in selected spices commonly consumed in Libya including Capsicum frutescens (chili pepper) Piper nigrum, (black pepper), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and mixed spices (HRARAT) which consist of a combination of: Alpinia officinarum, Zingiber officinale and Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Spices were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide. The highest level of lead (Pb) was found in Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens in wholesale markets (1.05 ± 0.01 mg/kg, 0.96 ± 0.06 mg/kg). Cadmium (Cd) levels exceeded FAO/WHO permissible limit. Curcuma longa and Piper nigrum sold in retail markets had a high concentration of Cd (0.36 ± 0.09, 0.35 ± 0.07 mg/kg, respectively) followed by (0.32 ± 0.04 mg/kg) for Capsicum frutescens. Mixed spices purchased from wholesale markets also had high levels of Cd (0.31 ± 0.08 mg/kg). Curcuma longa and Capsicum frutescens may pose a food safety risk due to high levels of lead and cadmium. Cadmium levels exceeded FAO/WHO recommendations (0.2 ppm) for Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, and mixed spices (HRARAT).

Keywords: heavy metals, lead, cadmium determination, spice

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8 Building Resilience through Inclusion of Global Citizenship Education in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Pakistan

Authors: Fouzia Ajmal

Abstract:

Global Citizenship Education (GCED) could prove to be the best solution to prevent violent extremism as it will sustain a respect for all and build up a feeling of having a place with humankind. To meet the target 4.7 of sustainable development goals, it is important to focus on global citizenship education at all levels of education in general and in pre-service teacher education in particular so that the message and practices reach the young masses. The pre-service education is imperative to develop knowledge, skills and disposition of prospective teachers. The current study was conducted to investigate the integration of GCED in pre-service teacher education curriculum of Pakistan. The study was delimited to B.Ed (hons) Elementary Education programme. The curriculum of B.Ed Elementary developed by Higher Education Commission was analyzed through Curriculum Alignment Matrix. 31 course outlines were analyzed, and percentage was used to analyze the level of integration of GCED in courses. The analyses depicted that the concepts of civic sense, tolerance, duties and rights of citizens and fundamental rights of humans are partially aligned in a few of the courses. The tolerance, active citizenship, and respect for cultural diversity and religious harmony are evident in Pakistan Studies and teaching of social studies courses. The relevant books are also mentioned as resources in these courses. The intercultural understanding is not very evident while globalization is mentioned in a few courses. It is recommended that a deliberate effort may be made to integrate concepts of Global Citizenship Education so as to enable the prospective teachers in developing necessary skills to play their active role in promoting peace and building resilience to extremism in elementary school students.

Keywords: curriculum analysis, global citizenship education, preservice teacher education, resilience building

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