Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 125

Search results for: Ammar Ben Brahim

125 Exergetic Comparison between Three Configurations of Two Stage Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems

Authors: Wafa Halfaoui Mbarek, Khir Tahar, Ben Brahim Ammar


This study reports a comparison from an exergetic point of view between three configurations of vapor compression industrial refrigeration systems operating with R134a as working fluid. The performances of the different cycles are analyzed as function of several operating parameters such as condensing temperature and inter stage pressure. In addition, the contributions of component exergy destruction to the total exergy destruction are obtained for each system. The results are estimated to be used in the selection of the most advantageous configuration from an exergetic view point.

Keywords: vapor compression, exergy, destruction, efficiency, R134a

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
124 Thermo-Exergy Optimization of Gas Turbine Cycle with Two Different Regenerator Designs

Authors: Saria Abed, Tahar Khir, Ammar Ben Brahim


A thermo-exergy optimization of a gas turbine cycle with two different regenerator designs is established. A comparison was made between the performance of the two regenerators and their roles in improving the cycle efficiencies. The effect of operational parameters (the pressure ratio of the compressor, the ambient temperature, excess of air, geometric parameters of the regenerators, etc.) on thermal efficiencies, the exergy efficiencies, and irreversibilities were studied using thermal balances and quantitative exegetic equilibrium for each component and for the whole system. The results are given graphically by using the EES software, and an appropriate discussion and conclusion was made.

Keywords: exergy efficiency, gas turbine, heat transfer, irreversibility, optimization, regenerator, thermal efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
123 Investigation of Main Operating Parameters Affecting Gas Turbine Efficiency and Gas Releases

Authors: Farhat Hajer, Khir Tahar, Ammar Ben Brahim


This work presents a study on the influence of the main operating variables on the gas turbine cycle. A numerical simulation of a gas turbine cycle is performed for a real net power of 100 MW. A calculation code is developed using EES software. The operating variables are taken in conformity with the local environmental conditions adopted by the Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas. Results show that the increase of ambient temperature leads to an increase of Tpz and NOx emissions rate and a decrease of cycle efficiency and UHC emissions. The CO emissions decrease with the raise of residence time, while NOx emissions rate increases and UHC emissions rate decreases. Furthermore, both of cycle efficiency and NOx emissions increase with the increase of the pressure ratio.

Keywords: Carbon monoxide, Efficiency, Emissions, Gas Turbine, Nox, UHC

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
122 Energy and Exergy Performance Optimization on a Real Gas Turbine Power Plant

Authors: Farhat Hajer, Khir Tahar, Cherni Rafik, Dakhli Radhouen, Ammar Ben Brahim


This paper presents the energy and exergy optimization of a real gas turbine power plant performance of 100 MW of power, installed in the South East of Tunisia. A simulation code is established using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. The parameters considered are those of the actual operating conditions of the gas turbine thermal power station under study. The results show that thermal and exergetic efficiency decreases with the increase of the ambient temperature. Air excess has an important effect on the thermal efficiency. The emission of NOx rises in the summer and decreases in the winter. The obtained rates of NOx are compared with measurements results.

Keywords: efficiency, exergy, gas turbine, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
121 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir, Ammar Ben Brahim


In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: absorption, ammonia, cold room, solar collector, vacuum tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
120 Mathematical Modeling of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) during Microwave Treatments

Authors: Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Ahlem Ayadi, Ammar Ben Brahim


Given the importance of the preservation of polyphenols and carotenoids during thermal processing, we attempted in this study to investigate the variation of these two parameters in faba beans during microwave treatment using different power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g), then to perform a mathematical modeling by using non-linear regression analysis to evaluate the models constants. The variation of the carotenoids and polyphenols ratio of faba beans and the models are tested to validate the experimental results. Exponential models were found to be suitable to describe the variation of caratenoid ratio (R²= 0.945, 0.927 and 0.946) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively, and polyphenol ratio (R²= 0.931, 0.989 and 0.982) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively. The effect of microwave power density Pd(W/g) on the coefficient k of models were also investigated. The coefficient is highly correlated (R² = 1) and can be expressed as a polynomial function.

Keywords: microwave treatment, power density, carotenoid, polyphenol, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
119 A Simulation Model and Parametric Study of Triple-Effect Desalination Plant

Authors: Maha BenHamad, Ali Snoussi, Ammar Ben Brahim


A steady-state analysis of triple-effect thermal vapor compressor desalination unit was performed. A mathematical model based on mass, salinity and energy balances is developed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a connection between process simulator and process optimizer in order to study the influence of several operating variables on the performance and the produced water cost of the unit. A MATLAB program is used to solve the model equations, and Aspen HYSYS is used to model the plant. The model validity is examined against a commercial plant and showed a good agreement between industrial data and simulations results. Results show that the pressures of the last effect and the compressed vapor have an important influence on the produced cost, and the increase of the difference temperature in the condenser decreases the specific heat area about 22%.

Keywords: steady-state, triple effect, thermal vapor compressor, Matlab, Aspen Hysys

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
118 Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material

Authors: Mouna Hamed, Ammar B. Brahim


The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using MATLAB computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, phase change material, melting, solidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
117 Services-Oriented Model for the Regulation of Learning

Authors: Mohamed Bendahmane, Brahim Elfalaki, Mohammed Benattou


One of the major sources of learners' professional difficulties is their heterogeneity. Whether on cognitive, social, cultural or emotional level, learners being part of the same group have many differences. These differences do not allow to apply the same learning process at all learners. Thus, an optimal learning path for one, is not necessarily the same for the other. We present in this paper a model-oriented service to offer to each learner a personalized learning path to acquire the targeted skills.

Keywords: learning path, web service, trace analysis, personalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
116 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
115 Using the Bootstrap for Problems Statistics

Authors: Brahim Boukabcha, Amar Rebbouh


The bootstrap method based on the idea of exploiting all the information provided by the initial sample, allows us to study the properties of estimators. In this article we will present a theoretical study on the different methods of bootstrapping and using the technique of re-sampling in statistics inference to calculate the standard error of means of an estimator and determining a confidence interval for an estimated parameter. We apply these methods tested in the regression models and Pareto model, giving the best approximations.

Keywords: bootstrap, error standard, bias, jackknife, mean, median, variance, confidence interval, regression models

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
114 Wear Measurement of Thermomechanical Parameters of the Metal Carbide

Authors: Riad Harouz, Brahim Mahfoud


The threads and the circles on reinforced concrete are obtained by process of hot rolling with pebbles finishers in metal carbide which present a way of rolling around the outside diameter. Our observation is that this throat presents geometrical wear after the end of its cycle determined in tonnage. In our study, we have determined, in a first step, experimentally measurements of the wear in terms of thermo-mechanical parameters (Speed, Load, and Temperature) and the influence of these parameters on the wear. In the second stage, we have developed a mathematical model of lifetime useful for the prognostic of the wear and their changes.

Keywords: lifetime, metal carbides, modeling, thermo-mechanical, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
113 Acoustic Analysis of Psycho-Communication Disorders within Moroccan Students

Authors: Brahim Sabir


Psycho-Communication disorders negatively affect the academic curriculum for students in higher education. Thus, understanding these disorders, their causes and effects will give education specialists a tool for the decision, which will lead to the resolution of problems related to the integration of students with Psycho-Communication disorders. It is in this context that a statistical study was conducted, targeting the population object of study, namely Moroccan students. Pathological voice samples were recorded and analyzed acoustically with PRAAT software, in order to build a model that will be the basis for the objective diagnostic.

Keywords: psycho-communication disorders, acoustic analysis, PRAAT

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
112 Modelling Asymmetric Magnetic Recording Heads with an Underlayer Using Superposition

Authors: Ammar Edress Mohamed, Mustafa Aziz, David Wright


This paper analyses and calculates the head fields of asymmetrical 2D magnetic recording heads when the soft-underlayer is present using the appropriate Green's function to derive the surface potential/field by utilising the surface potential for asymmetrical head without underlayer. The results follow closely the corners, while the gap region shows a linear behaviour for d/g < 0.5 compared with the calculated fields from finite-element.

Keywords: magnetic recording, finite elements, asymmetrical magnetic heads, superposition, Laplace's equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
111 Material Fracture Dynamic of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: Samir Lecheb, Ahmed Chellil, Hamza Mechakra, Brahim Safi, Houcine Kebir


In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. We modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally, the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtain the material fracture toughness Kc.

Keywords: blade, crack, frequency, material, SIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
110 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: Brahim Fersadou, Henda Kahalerras


This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: heat sources, magnetic field, mixed convection, porous channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
109 New Standardized Framework for Developing Mobile Applications (Based On Real Case Studies and CMMI)

Authors: Ammar Khader Almasri


The software processes play a vital role for delivering a high quality software system that meets the user’s needs. There are many software development models which are used by most system developers, which can be categorized into two categories (traditional and new methodologies). Mobile applications like other desktop applications need appropriate and well-working software development process. Nevertheless, mobile applications have different features which limit their performance and efficiency like application size, mobile hardware features. Moreover, this research aims to help developers in using a standardized model for developing mobile applications.

Keywords: software development process, agile methods , moblile application development, traditional methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
108 Simulation of Immiscibility Regions in Sodium Borosilicate Glasses

Authors: Djamila Aboutaleb, Brahim Safi


In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.

Keywords: sodium borosilicate, heat-resistant, isothermal treatments, immiscibility, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
107 Natural Convection of a Nanofluid in a Conical Container

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Ali Bendjaghlouli


Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
106 Ecorium: The Ecological Project in Montevideo Uruguay

Authors: Chettou Souhaila, Soufi Omar, Roumia Mohammed Ammar


Protecting the environment is to preserve the survival and future of humanity. Indeed, the environment is our source of food and drinking water, the air is our source of oxygen, the climate allows our survival and biodiversity are a potential drug reservoir. Preserving the environment is, therefore, a matter of survival. The objective of this project is to familiarize the general public with environmental problems not only with the theme of environmental protection, but also with the concept of biodiversity in different ecosystems. For it, the aim of our project was to create the Ecorium which is a place that preserves many species of plants of different ecosystems, schools, malls, buildings, offices, ecological transports, gardens, and many familial activities that participated in the ecosystems development, strategic biodiversity and sustainable development.

Keywords: ecological system, ecorium, environment, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
105 Zn, Sb, Pb (Au) Mineralization of Hammam N’bails, NE of Algeria

Authors: Brahim Merdas, Abdelhak Boutaleb


Polymetallic mineralizations with Zn, Sb, Pb boxed in miopliocene limestones of Hammam N’bails’s basin are regarded as the youngest mineralizations of North East of Algeria and are characterized by the presence of rather rare mineral phases throughout the world such as nadorite and flajolotite. Mineralization seems to have a bond with thermal springs emergent within the basin and with the faults which limit the basin. The comparison between mineralizations and similar ore deposits known in the world and which are characterized by the presence of the noble metals such as gold and the discovery of traces of this metal (1.4g/t) enables us to start again the problems of the noble metals of the type “low sulfidation” related to the thermal springs in the area in particular and in all Algerian North generally.

Keywords: Nadorite, galana, gold, dolomitisation, epigenétic, hot springs, , miopliocene, Hammam N’bails, algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
104 Optimal Injected Current Control for Shunt Active Power Filter Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Brahim Berbaoui


In this paper, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) based method is proposed for the implantation of optimal harmonic power flow in power systems. In this algorithm approach, proportional integral controller for reference compensating currents of active power filter is performed in order to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD). The simulation results show that the new control method using PSO approach is not only easy to be implanted, but also very effective in reducing the unwanted harmonics and compensating reactive power. The studies carried out have been accomplished using the MATLAB Simulink Power System Toolbox.

Keywords: shunt active power filter, power quality, current control, proportional integral controller, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
103 Control of Chaotic Behaviour in Parallel-Connected DC-DC Buck-Boost Converters

Authors: Ammar Nimer Natsheh


Chaos control is used to design a controller that is able to eliminate the chaotic behaviour of nonlinear dynamic systems that experience such phenomena. The paper describes the control of the bifurcation behaviour of a parallel-connected DC-DC buck-boost converter used to provide an interface between energy storage batteries and photovoltaic (PV) arrays as renewable energy sources. The paper presents a delayed feedback control scheme in a module converter comprises two identical buck-boost circuits and operates in the continuous-current conduction mode (CCM). MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation results show the effectiveness and robustness of the scheme.

Keywords: chaos, bifurcation, DC-DC Buck-Boost Converter, Delayed Feedback Control

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
102 Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based on the 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


In this paper, we are interested in the problem of finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the intensity of the pixel. This approach can overcome the drawback of the conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.

Keywords: 2-D histogram, statistical moments, indexing, similarity distance, histograms intersection

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
101 Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature

Authors: Ishak Hashim, Ammar Alsabery


The problem of conjugate free convection in a square cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method. Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2), wave number ((0 ≤ λ ≤ 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 ≤ Kr ≤ 6). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with the increment of the non-uniform heating.

Keywords: conjugate free convection, square cavity, nanofluid, spatial temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
100 Contribution to Energy Management in Hybrid Energy Systems Based on Agents Coordination

Authors: Djamel Saba, Fatima Zohra Laallam, Brahim Berbaoui


This paper presents a contribution to the design of a multi-agent for the energy management system in a hybrid energy system (SEH). The multi-agent-based energy-coordination management system (MA-ECMS) is based mainly on coordination between agents. The agents share the tasks and exchange information through communications protocols to achieve the main goal. This intelligent system can fully manage the consumption and production or simply to make proposals for action he thinks is best. The initial step is to give a presentation for the system that we want to model in order to understand all the details as much as possible. In our case, it is to implement a system for simulating a process control of energy management.

Keywords: communications protocols, control process, energy management, hybrid energy system, modelization, multi-agents system, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
99 Image Compression Using Block Power Method for SVD Decomposition

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Chawki Youness, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


In these recent decades, the important and fast growth in the development and demand of multimedia products is contributing to an insufficient in the bandwidth of device and network storage memory. Consequently, the theory of data compression becomes more significant for reducing the data redundancy in order to save more transfer and storage of data. In this context, this paper addresses the problem of the lossless and the near-lossless compression of images. This proposed method is based on Block SVD Power Method that overcomes the disadvantages of Matlab's SVD function. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a better compression performance compared with the existing compression algorithms that use the Matlab's SVD function. In addition, the proposed approach is simple and can provide different degrees of error resilience, which gives, in a short execution time, a better image compression.

Keywords: image compression, SVD, block SVD power method, lossless compression, near lossless

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
98 Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium and Strontium Doped Sulphate-Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Ammar Z. Alshemary, Yi-Fan Goh, Rafaqat Hussain


Magnesium (Mg2+), strontium (Sr2+) and sulphate ions (SO42-) were successfully substituted into hydroxyapatite (Ca10-x-y MgxSry(PO4)6-z(SO4)zOH2-z) structure through ion exchange process at cationic and anionic sites. Mg2+and Sr2+ ions concentrations were varied between (0.00-0.10), keeping concentration of SO42- ions at z=0.05. [Mg (NO3)2], [Sr (NO3)2] and (Na2SO4) were used as Mg2+, Sr2+, and SO42- sources respectively. The synthesized white precipitate were subjected to heat treatment at 500ºC and finally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the substitution of Mg2+, Sr2+ and SO42- ions into the HA lattice resulted in an increase in the broadness and reduction of XRD peaks. This confirmed that the crystallinity was reduced due to the substitution of ions. Similarly, FTIR result showed the effect of substitution on phosphate bands as well as exchange of hydroxyl group by SO42- ions to balance the charges on HA surface.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, substitution, characterization, XRD, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
97 Steady and Oscillatory States of Swirling Flows under an Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Rachid Bessaïh


In this paper, a numerical study of steady and oscillatory flows with heat transfer submitted to an axial magnetic field is studied. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations along with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by using the finite-volume method. The flow and temperature fields are presented by stream function and isotherms, respectively. The flow between counter-rotating end disks is very unstable and reveals a great richness of structures. The results are presented for various values of the Hartmann number, Ha=5, 10, 20, and 30, and Richardson numbers , Ri=0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4, in order to see their effects on the value of the critical Reynolds number, Recr. Stability diagrams are established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams put in evidence the dependence of Recr with the increase of Ha for various values of Ri.

Keywords: swirling, counter-rotating end disks, magnetic field, oscillatory, cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
96 Economic Implications of the Arrival of Syrian Refugees in Jordan

Authors: Ammar Z. Alwrekiat, Sara Ojeda Gonzalez, Maria Jose Miranda Martel, Antonio Mihi-Ramirez


This paper analyses the economic situation in Jordan, which has been the political asylum destination for Syrians since 2011. We analyze the effects of the Jordanian situation through the following indicators: international aid, gross domestic product, remittances, and unemployment. A correlation analysis has been used to identify the main connections of these parameters with the reception of refugees. Although the economic effects of Syrian refugees in Jordan are uncertain, it involves an important challenge in the development of migration policies. Jordan has a special economic situation and limited capacities, but the country has provided humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees. In this case, the support of the international community is of particular importance, taking an important role in the negotiation of international agreements on refugees.

Keywords: correlation analysis, economic implications, migration, refugees

Procedia PDF Downloads 46