Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: plasticization of remuneration

44 Attractiveness of Cafeteria Systems as Viewed by Generation Z

Authors: Joanna Nieżurawska, Hanna Karaszewska, Anna Dziadkiewicz

Abstract:

Contemporary conditions force companies to constantly implement changes and improvements, which is connected with plasticization of their activity in all spheres. Cafeteria systems are a good example of flexible remuneration systems. Cafeteria systems are well-known and often used in the United States, Great Britain and in Western Europe. In Poland, they are hardly ever used and greater flexibility in remuneration packages refers mainly to senior managers and executives. The main aim of this article is to research the attractiveness of the cafeteria system as viewed by generation Z. The additional aim of the article is to prioritize using the importance index of particular types of cafeteria systems from the generation Z’s perspective, as well as to identify the factors which determine the development of cafeteria systems in Poland. The research was conducted in June 2015 among 185 young employees (generation Z). The paper presents some of the results.

Keywords: cafeteria, generation X, generation Y, generation Z, flexible remuneration systems, plasticization of remuneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
43 The Influence of Remuneration Committees, Directors' Shareholding and Institutional Ownership on the Remuneration of Directors in the Large Listed Companies in South Africa

Authors: Henriette Scholtz

Abstract:

Excessive executive directors’ remuneration remains a major concern for many stakeholders and are some of the factors to blame for the recent global financial crisis. The objective of this study was to examine whether certain firm characteristics are an effective way of protecting shareholders’ interests with respect to executive directors’ remuneration. To achieve this, an ordinary least squares model was used to test the relationship between the remuneration of executive directors and a number of firm and corporate governance characteristics to determine whether these characteristics have an influence on executive directors’ remuneration of large listed companies in South Africa. It was found that corporate governance reforms relating to institutional ownership, shareholder voting on the remuneration policy and the number of remuneration committee meetings acts as an effective governance tool to protect shareholder’s interests with regard to executive remuneration. There is no evidence that the number of non-executive directors on the remuneration committee has an influence on the executive directors’ remuneration.

Keywords: executive directors’ remuneration, agency theory, corporate governance, remuneration committee, directors’ shareholding, institutional ownership

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
42 Government Policy over the Remuneration System of The Board of Commissioners in Indonesian Stated-Owned Enterprises

Authors: Synthia Atas Sari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of reward system which determine by government over the work of Board of Commissioners to implement good corporate governance in Indonesian state-owned enterprises. To do so, this study analyzes the adequacy of the remuneration, the job attractiveness, and the board commitment and dedication with the remuneration system. Qualitative method used to examine the significant features and challenges to the government policy over the remuneration determination for the board of commissioners to their roles. Data gathered through semi-structure in-depth interview to the twenty-one participants over nine Indonesian stated-owned enterprises and written documents. Findings of this study indicate that government policies over the remuneration system is not effective to increase the performance of board of commissioners in implementing good corporate governance in Indonesian stated-owned enterprises due to unattractiveness of the remuneration amount, demotivate active members, and conflict interest over members of the remuneration committee.

Keywords: reward system, board of commissioners, stated-owned enterprises, government policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
41 Emerging Challenges with Collective Bargaining Agreements In Kenya: The Introduction of Salary and Remuneration Commission Through The Constitution of Kenya 2010

Authors: Benard Omogo

Abstract:

The Kenyan Constitution 2010 introduced various commissions to devolve the powers that were previously centralized through the imperial Presidency. One of the commissions that directly determine the levels of remuneration and terms of service of Kenyan workers is the Salary and Remuneration Commission (SRC). Article 230 of the Kenyan Constitution 2010 mandates this commission to regularly review the remuneration and benefits of all the state officers and to advise the national and county governments on the remuneration and benefits of all other public officers. At the same time, article 54 of the Kenyan Labor Relations Act 2007 provides for the recognition of trade unions and collective bargaining agreements. The emerging challenges, therefore, originate from the conflicts of the mandate of the Salary and Remuneration Commission, whose advice is almost adopted as the order and this undermines the outcome of the Collective Bargaining Agreements. This has seen so many trade unions in Kenya being rendered irrelevant. This research paper is therefore going to sample the various trade unions of Kenya to assess the challenges that result from the position of the Salary and Remuneration Commission. We will also extend it by purposively sampling several trade unions in Africa to determine how they handle such challenges. The results from this paper will be useful to the Kenyan Lawmakers and Africa at large and may inform them to consider reviewing the laws and acts that relate to the trade unions for prosperity.

Keywords: salary, remuneration, collective, bargaining, labor laws

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
40 The Impact of Board Structure to the Roles of Board of Commissioners in Implementing Good Corporate Governance at Indonesian State-Owned Enterprises

Authors: Synthia Atas Sari, Engkos Achmad Kuncoro, Haryadi Sarjono

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of reward system which is determined by government over the work of Board of Commissioners in implementing good corporate governance in Indonesian state-owned enterprises. To do so, this study analyses the adequacy of the remuneration, the job attractiveness, and the board commitment and dedication with the remuneration system. Qualitative method used to examine the significant features and challenges to the government policy over the remuneration determination for the board of commissioners to their roles. Data are gathered through semi-structure in-depth interview to the 21 participants over 10 Indonesian stated-owned enterprises and written documents. Findings in this study indicate that government policies over the remuneration system is not effective to increase the performance of board of commissioners in implementing good corporate governance in Indonesian state-owned enterprises due to unattractiveness of the remuneration amount, demotivate active members, and conflict interest over members of the remuneration committee.

Keywords: reward system, board of commissioners, state-owned enterprises, good corporate governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
39 The Importance of Electronic Medical Record Systems in Health Care Economics

Authors: Mutaz Shurahabeel Ahmed Ombada

Abstract:

This paper investigates potential health and financial settlement of health information technology, this paper evaluates health care with the use of IT and other associated industries. It assesses prospective savings and costs of extensive acceptance of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMRS), models significant to health as well as safety remuneration, and conclude that efficient EMRS execution and networking could ultimately save more than US $55 billion annually through recuperating health care effectiveness and that Health Information Technology -enabled prevention and administration of chronic disease could eventually double those savings while rising health and other social remuneration. On the contrary, this is improbable to be realized without related to significant modifications to the health care system.

Keywords: electronic medical record systems, health care economics, EMRS

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
38 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde

Abstract:

The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: board of directors, compensation, experience, multilevel, tenure

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
37 Investigation of the Effect of Plasticization Temperature on Polymer Thin Film Stability through Spin Coating Process

Authors: Bilge Bozdogan, Selda T. Sendogdular, Levent Sendogdular

Abstract:

We report a technique to control chain conformation during the plasticization process to achieve homogeneous and stable thin films, which allows to reduce post-process annealing times along with enhanced properties like controlled irreversible adsorbed layer (Guiselin brushes) formation. In this study, spin coating temperature was considered as a parameter; hence, all equipment, including the spin coater, substrate, vials, and the solution, was kept inside the same heated fume hood where solution was spin-coated after the temperature was stabilized at a desired value. AFM and SEM results revealed severe difference for solid and air interface between ambient and temperature-controlled samples, which suggest that enthalpic contribution dynamically helps to control film stability in a way where chain entanglements and conformational restrictions are avoided before film growing and allowing to control grafting density through spin coating temperature. The adsorbed layer was also characterized with SEM and Raman-spectroscopy technique right after seeding the adsorbed layer with gold nanoparticles. Stabilized gold nanoparticles and their surface distribution manifest the existence of a controllable polymer brush structure. Acknowledgments: This study was funded by Erciyes University Scientific Research Projects (BAP) Funding(Project ID:10058)

Keywords: chain stability, Guiselin brushes, polymer thin film, spin coating temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
36 Nanocellulose Reinforced Biocomposites Based on Wheat Plasticized Starch for Food Packaging

Authors: Belen Montero, Carmen Ramirez, Maite Rico, Rebeca Bouza, Irene Derungs

Abstract:

Starch is a promising polymer for producing biocomposite materials because it is renewable, completely biodegradable and easily available at a low cost. Thermoplastic starches (TPS) can be obtained after the disruption and plasticization of native starch with a plasticizer. In this work, the solvent casting method was used to obtain TPS films from wheat starch plasticized with glycerol and reinforced with nanocellulose (CNC). X-ray diffraction analysis was used to follow the evolution of the crystallinity. The native wheat starch granules have shown a profile corresponding to A-type crystal structures typical for cereal starches. When TPS films are analyzed a high amorphous halo centered on 19º is obtained, indicating the plasticization process is completed. SEM imaging was made in order to analyse the morphology. The image from the raw wheat starch granules shows a bimodal granule size distribution with some granules in large round disk-shape forms (A-type) and the others as smaller spherical particles (B-type). The image from the neat TPS surface shows a continuous surface. No starch aggregates or swollen granules can be seen so, the plasticization process is complete. In the surfaces of reinforced TPS films aggregates are seen as the CNC concentration in the matrix increases. The CNC influence on the mechanical properties of TPS films has been studied by dynamic mechanical analysis. A direct relation exists between the storage modulus values, E’, and the CNC content in reinforced TPS films: higher is the content of nanocellulose in the composite, higher is the value of E’. This reinforcement effect can be explained by the appearance of a strong and crystalline nanoparticle-TPS interphase. Thermal stability of films was analysed by TGA. It has not observed any influence on the behaviour related to the thermal degradation of films with the incorporation of the CNC. Finally, the resistance to the water absorption films was analysed following the standard UNE-EN ISO 1998:483. The percentage of water absorbed by the samples at each time was calculated. The addition of 5 wt % of CNC to the TPS matrix leads to a significant improvement in the moisture resistance of the starch based material decreasing their diffusivity. It has been associated to the formation of a nanocrystal network that prevents swelling of the starch and therefore water absorption and to the high crystallinity of cellulose compared to starch. As a conclusion, the wheat film reinforced with 5 wt % of cellulose nanocrystals seems to be a good alternative for short-life applications into the packaging industry, because of its greatest rigidity, thermal stability and moisture sorption resistance.

Keywords: biocomposites, nanocellulose, starch, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
35 Integration of Corporate Social Responsibility Criteria in Employee Variable Remuneration Plans

Authors: Jian Wu

Abstract:

Since a few years, some French companies have integrated CRS (corporate social responsibility) criteria in their variable remuneration plans to ‘restore a good working atmosphere’ and ‘preserve the natural environment’. These CSR criteria are based on concerns on environment protection, social aspects, and corporate governance. In June 2012, a report on this practice has been made jointly by ORSE (which means Observatory on CSR in French) and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Facing this initiative from the business world, we need to examine whether it has a real economic utility. We adopt a theoretical approach for our study. First, we examine the debate between the ‘orthodox’ point of view in economics and the CSR school of thought. The classical economic model asserts that in a capitalist economy, exists a certain ‘invisible hand’ which helps to resolve all problems. When companies seek to maximize their profits, they are also fulfilling, de facto, their duties towards society. As a result, the only social responsibility that firms should have is profit-searching while respecting the minimum legal requirement. However, the CSR school considers that, as long as the economy system is not perfect, there is no ‘invisible hand’ which can arrange all in a good order. This means that we cannot count on any ‘divine force’ which makes corporations responsible regarding to society. Something more needs to be done in addition to firms’ economic and legal obligations. Then, we reply on some financial theories and empirical evident to examine the sound foundation of CSR. Three theories developed in corporate governance can be used. Stakeholder theory tells us that corporations owe a duty to all of their stakeholders including stockholders, employees, clients, suppliers, government, environment, and society. Social contract theory tells us that there are some tacit ‘social contracts’ between a company and society itself. A firm has to respect these contracts if it does not want to be punished in the form of fine, resource constraints, or bad reputation. Legitime theory tells us that corporations have to ‘legitimize’ their actions toward society if they want to continue to operate in good conditions. As regards empirical results, we present a literature review on the relationship between the CSR performance and the financial performance of a firm. We note that, due to difficulties in defining these performances, this relationship remains still ambiguous despite numerous research works realized in the field. Finally, we are curious to know whether the integration of CSR criteria in variable remuneration plans – which is practiced so far in big companies – should be extended to other ones. After investigation, we note that two groups of firms have the greatest need. The first one involves industrial sectors whose activities have a direct impact on the environment, such as petroleum and transport companies. The second one involves companies which are under pressures in terms of return to deal with international competition.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, variable remuneration, stakeholder theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
34 Women's Employment Issues in Georgia and Solutions Based on European Experience

Authors: N. Damenia, E. Kharaishvili, N. Sagareishvili, M. Saghareishvili

Abstract:

Women's Employment is one of the most important issues in the global economy. The article discusses the stated topic in Georgia, through historical content, Soviet experience, and modern perspectives. The paper discusses segmentation insa terms of employment and related problems. Based on statistical analysis, women's unemployment rate and its factors are analyzed. The level of employment of women in Transcaucasia (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) is discussed and is compared with Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia). The study analyzes women’s level of development, according to the average age of marriage and migration level. The focus is on Georgia's Association Agreement with the EU in 2014, which includes economic, social, trade and political issues. One part of it is gender equality at workplaces. According to the research, the average monthly remuneration of women managers in the financial and insurance sector equaled to 1044.6 Georgian Lari, while in overall business sector average monthly remuneration equaled to 961.1 GEL. Average salaries are increasing; however, the employment rate remains problematic. For example, in 2017, 74.6% of men and 50.8% of women were employed from a total workforce. It is also interesting that the proportion of men and women at managerial positions is 29% (women) to 71% (men). Based on the results, the main recommendation for government and civil society is to consider women as a part of the country’s economic development. In this aspect, the experience of developed countries should be considered. It is important to create additional jobs in urban or rural areas and help migrant women return and use their working resources properly.

Keywords: employment of women, segregation in terms of employment, women's employment level in Transcaucasia, migration level

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
33 Hydrothermal Aging Behavior of Continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6 Composites

Authors: Jifeng Zhang , Yongpeng Lei

Abstract:

Continuous carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 6 (CF/PA6) composites are potential for application in the automotive industry due to their high specific strength and stiffness. However, PA6 resin is sensitive to the moisture in the hydrothermal environment and CF/PA6 composites might undergo several physical and chemical changes, such as plasticization, swelling, and hydrolysis, which induces a reduction of mechanical properties. So far, little research has been reported on the assessment of the effects of hydrothermal aging on the mechanical properties of continuous CF/PA6 composite. This study deals with the effects of hydrothermal aging on moisture absorption and mechanical properties of polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyamide 6 reinforced with continuous carbon fibers composites (CF/PA6) by immersion in distilled water at 30 ℃, 50 ℃, 70 ℃, and 90 ℃. Degradation of mechanical performance has been monitored, depending on the water absorption content and the aging temperature. The experimental results reveal that under the same aging condition, the PA6 resin absorbs more water than the CF/PA6 composite, while the water diffusion coefficient of CF/PA6 composite is higher than that of PA6 resin because of interfacial diffusion channel. In mechanical properties degradation process, an exponential reduction in tensile strength and elastic modulus are observed in PA6 resin as aging temperature and water absorption content increases. The degradation trend of flexural properties of CF/PA6 is the same as that of tensile properties of PA6 resin. Moreover, the water content plays a decisive role in mechanical degradation compared with aging temperature. In contrast, hydrothermal environment has mild effect on the tensile properties of CF/PA6 composites. The elongation at breakage of PA6 resin and CF/PA6 reaches the highest value when their water content reaches 6% and 4%, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also used to explain the mechanism of mechanical properties alteration. After exposed to the hydrothermal environment, the Tg (glass transition temperature) of samples decreases dramatically with water content increase. This reduction can be ascribed to the plasticization effect of water. For the unaged specimens, the fibers surface is coated with resin and the main fracture mode is fiber breakage, indicating that a good adhesion between fiber and matrix. However, with absorbed water content increasing, the fracture mode transforms to fiber pullout. Finally, based on Arrhenius methodology, a predictive model with relate to the temperature and water content has been presented to estimate the retention of mechanical properties for PA6 and CF/PA6.

Keywords: continuous carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composite, hydrothermal aging, Arrhenius methodology, interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
32 Accountability Mechanisms of Leaders and Its Impact on Performance and Value Creation: Comparative Analysis (France, Germany, United Kingdom)

Authors: Bahram Soltani, Louai Ghazieh

Abstract:

The responsibility has a big importance further to the financial crisis and the various pressures, which companies face their duties. The main objective of this study is to explain the variation of mechanisms of the responsibility of the manager in the company among the advanced capitalist economies. Then we study the impact of these mechanisms on the performance and the value creation in European companies. To reach our goal, we established a final sample composed on average of 284 French, British and German companies quoted in stock exchanges with 2272 annual reports examined during the period from 2005 to 2012. We examined at first the link of causalities between the determining-mechanisms bound to the company such as the characteristics of the board of directors, the composition of the shareholding and the ethics of the company on one side and the profitability of the company on the other side. The results show that the smooth running of the board of directors and its specialist committees are very important determinants of the responsibility of the managers who impact positively the performance and the value creation in the company. Furthermore, our results confirm that the presence of a solid ethical environment within the company will be effective to increase the probability that the managers realize ethical choices in the organizational decision-making. At the second time, we studied the impact of the determining mechanisms bound to the function and to the profile of manager to know its relational links, his remuneration, his training, his age and his experiences about the performance and the value creation in the company. Our results highlight the existence of a negative relation between the relational links of the manager, his very high remuneration and the general profitability of the company. This study is a contribution to the literature on the determining mechanisms of company director's responsibility (Accountability). It establishes an empirical and comparative analysis between three influential countries of Europe, to know France, the United Kingdom and Germany.

Keywords: leaders, company’s performance, accountability mechanisms, corporate governance, value creation of firm, financial crisis

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
31 Using Internal Marketing to Investigate Nursing Staff Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Tsung Chin Wu, Yu Chen Tsai, Rhay Hung Weng, Weir Sen Lin

Abstract:

In recent years, nursing staff’s lower job satisfaction has led to higher turnover rates, and high turnover rates not only cause medical institution costs to increase but also the quality of medical care to decrease. From the perspective of internal marketing, institution staffs are internal customers, and institutions should focus and meet the needs of staff, so that staff will strive to meet the needs of external customers and provide them with the required care. However, few previous studies have investigated the impact of internal staff satisfaction on external customers. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct job satisfaction surveys on internal staff to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and quality of medical care through statistical analysis of the study results. The related study results may serve as a reference for healthcare managers. This study was conducted using a questionnaire and the subjects were nursing staff from four hospitals. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed and 577 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 96.1%. After collecting the data, the reliability and validity of the study variables were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The impact of internal marketing and job satisfaction on turnover intention of nursing staff was analyzed using descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The study results showed that there was a significant difference between nursing staff’s job title and ‘professional participation’ and ‘shifts’. There was a significant difference between salary and ‘shifts’ and ‘turnover intention’, as well as between marriage and ‘remuneration’ and ‘turnover intention’. A significant difference was found between professional advancement and ‘professional growth’ and ‘type of leave’, as well as between division of service and ‘shifts’ and ‘turnover intention’. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between turnover intention and ‘internal marketing’, ‘interaction’, ‘professional participation’, ‘grasp of environment’, ‘remuneration’ and ‘shifts’, meaning that the higher the satisfaction, the lower the turnover intention. It is recommended that hospitals establish a comprehensive internal marketing mechanism to enhance staff satisfaction and in turn, reduce intention to resign, and the key to increasing job satisfaction is by establishing effective methods of internal communication.

Keywords: internal marketing, job satisfaction, turnover intention, nursing staff

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
30 Resourcing Remote Rural Social Enterprises to Foster Resilience and Regional Development

Authors: Heather Fulford, Melanie Liddell

Abstract:

The recruitment and retention of high quality employees can prove to be challenging for social enterprises, particularly in some of the core business support functions such as marketing, communications, IT and finance. This holds true for social enterprises in urban contexts, where roles with more attractive remuneration in these business functions can often be found quite readily in the private sector. For social enterprises situated in rural locations, the challenges of staff recruitment and retention are even more acute. Such challenges can lead to a skills deficit in rural social enterprises, which can, at best, hinder their growth potential, and worse, jeopardise their chances of survival. This in turn, can have a negative impact on the sustainability and resilience of the surrounding rural community in which the social enterprise is located. The purpose of this paper is to report on aspects of a collaborative initiative established to stimulate innovation and business growth in remote rural businesses in Scotland. Launched in 2010, this initiative was designed to attract young students and graduates from the region to stay in the region upon completion of their studies, and to attract others from outside the region to re-locate there post-university. To facilitate this, SMEs in the region were offered wage subsidies to encourage them to recruit a student or graduate on a work placement for up to one year to participate in an innovation or business growth-oriented project. A number of the employers offering work placements were social enterprises. Through analysis of the placement project and role specifications devised by the participating social enterprises, an overview is provided of their business development needs and the skills they require to stimulate innovation and growth. Scrutiny of the reflective accounts compiled by the students and graduates at the close of their work placements highlights the benefits they derived from being able to put their academic knowledge and skills into action within a social enterprise. Examination of interviews conducted with a sample of placement employers reveals the contribution the students and graduates made during the business development projects with the social enterprises. The challenges of hosting such placements are also discussed. The paper concludes with indications of the lessons learned and an outline of the wider implications for other remote rural locations in which social enterprises play an important role in the local economy and life of the community.

Keywords: resilience, rural development, regeneration, regional development, recruitment, resource management, retention, remuneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
29 Hedging and Corporate Governance: Lessons from the Financial Crisis

Authors: Rodrigo Zeidan

Abstract:

The paper identifies failures of decision making and corporate governance that allow non-financial companies around the world to develop hedging strategies that lead to hefty losses in the aftermath of the financial crisis. The sample is comprised of 346 companies from 10 international markets, of which 49 companies (and a subsample of 13 distressed companies) lose a combined US$18.9 billion. An event study shows that most companies that present losses in derivatives experience negative abnormal returns, including a number of companies in which the effect is persistent after a year. The results of a probit model indicate that the lack of a formal hedging policy, no monitoring to the CFOs, and considerations of hubris and remuneration contribute to the mismanagement of hedging policies.

Keywords: risk management, hedging, derivatives, monitoring, corporate governance structure, event study, hubris

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
28 Occupational Stress in Nurses of a Maternity Ward in Lubango, Angola

Authors: Lídia Chienda, Tchilissila A. Simoes

Abstract:

Angola is known for the low quality of maternal health services, registering one of the highest maternal and child mortality of Africa. Working in these health facilities may be of great challenge for health professionals. In this study, we aimed to identify the presence of occupational stress in 76 nurses working in a maternity ward in Lubango, Southern Angola. The participants completed the Health Professional Stress Questionnaire and reported a moderate and high level of stress. To these individuals, 'receiving a low salary,' 'inadequate/insufficient salary,' 'overwork or very demanding work' and 'working long hours in a row' seemed to be the main indicators of occupational stress. Moreover, there was an influence of the work overload, the remuneration earned, the career, and family conflicts in the occupational stress index. These results contributed to a better understanding of the difficulties Angolan nurses are facing and the need to implement policies that envisage the wellbeing of this population.

Keywords: Africa, maternity wards, nursing, occupational stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
27 Online Shopping vs Privacy – Results of an Experimental Study

Authors: Andrzej Poszewiecki

Abstract:

The presented paper contributes to the experimental current of research on privacy. The question of privacy is being discussed at length at present, primarily among lawyers and politicians. However, the matter of privacy has been of interest for economists for some time as well. The valuation of privacy by people is of great importance now. This article is about how people valuate their privacy. An experimental method has been utilised in the conducted research – the survey was carried out among customers of an online store, and the studied issue was whether their readiness to sell their data (WTA) was different from the willingness to buy data back (WTP). The basic aim of this article is to analyse whether people shopping on the Internet differentiate their privacy depending on whether they protect or sell it. The achieved results indicate the presence of major differences in this respect, which do not always come up with the original expectations. The obtained results have supported the hypothesis that people are more willing to sell their data than to repurchase them. However, the hypothesis that the value of proposed remuneration affects the willingness to sell/buy back personal data (one’s privacy) has not been supported.

Keywords: privacy, experimental economics, behavioural economics, internet

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
26 Board of Directors Characteristics and Credit Union Financial Performance

Authors: Luisa Unda, Kamran Ahmed, Paul Mather

Abstract:

We examine the effect of board characteristics on the performance and asset quality of credit unions in Australia, using a large sample covering the period 2004-2012. Credit unions are unique in that they are customer-owned financial institutions and directors are democratically elected by members, which is distinctly different from other financial institutions, such as commercial banks. We find that board remuneration, board expertise, and attendance at board meetings have significantly positive impacts on credit union performance and asset quality, while board members who hold multiple directorships (busy directors), have a significant negative impact on credit union performance. Financial performance also improves with larger boards and long-tenured directors in credit unions. All of these relations hold after we control for alternative measures of performance, credit union characteristics and endogeneity problem.

Keywords: credit unions, corporate governance, board of directors, financial performance, Australia, asset quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
25 Durability Study of Pultruded CFRP Plates under Sustained Bending in Distilled Water and Seawater Immersions: Effects on the Visco-Elastic Properties

Authors: Innocent Kafodya, Guijun Xian

Abstract:

This paper presents effects of distilled water, seawater and sustained bending strains of 30% and 50% ultimate strain at room temperature, on the durability of unidirectional pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates. In this study, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to investigate the synergic effects of the immersions and bending strains on the visco-elastic properties of (CFRP) such as storage modulus, tan delta and glass transition temperature. The study reveals that the storage modulus and glass transition temperature increase while tan delta peak decreases in the initial stage of both immersions due to the progression of curing. The storage modulus and Tg subsequently decrease and tan delta increases due to the matrix plasticization. The blister induced damages in the unstrained seawater samples enhance water uptake and cause more serious degradation of Tg and storage modulus than in water immersion. Increasing sustained bending decreases Tg and storage modulus in a long run for both immersions due to resin matrix cracking and debonding. The combined effects of immersions and strains are not clearly reflected due to the statistical effects of DMA sample sizes and competing processes of molecular reorientation and postcuring.

Keywords: pultruded CFRP plate, bending strain, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, tan delta

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
24 Management of the Experts in the Research Evaluation System of the University: Based on National Research University Higher School of Economics Example

Authors: Alena Nesterenko, Svetlana Petrikova

Abstract:

Research evaluation is one of the most important elements of self-regulation and development of researchers as it is impartial and independent process of assessment. The method of expert evaluations as a scientific instrument solving complicated non-formalized problems is firstly a scientifically sound way to conduct the assessment which maximum effectiveness of work at every step and secondly the usage of quantitative methods for evaluation, assessment of expert opinion and collective processing of the results. These two features distinguish the method of expert evaluations from long-known expertise widespread in many areas of knowledge. Different typical problems require different types of expert evaluations methods. Several issues which arise with these methods are experts’ selection, management of assessment procedure, proceeding of the results and remuneration for the experts. To address these issues an on-line system was created with the primary purpose of development of a versatile application for many workgroups with matching approaches to scientific work management. Online documentation assessment and statistics system allows: - To realize within one platform independent activities of different workgroups (e.g. expert officers, managers). - To establish different workspaces for corresponding workgroups where custom users database can be created according to particular needs. - To form for each workgroup required output documents. - To configure information gathering for each workgroup (forms of assessment, tests, inventories). - To create and operate personal databases of remote users. - To set up automatic notification through e-mail. The next stage is development of quantitative and qualitative criteria to form a database of experts. The inventory was made so that the experts may not only submit their personal data, place of work and scientific degree but also keywords according to their expertise, academic interests, ORCID, Researcher ID, SPIN-code RSCI, Scopus AuthorID, knowledge of languages, primary scientific publications. For each project, competition assessments are processed in accordance to ordering party demands in forms of apprised inventories, commentaries (50-250 characters) and overall review (1500 characters) in which expert states the absence of conflict of interest. Evaluation is conducted as follows: as applications are added to database expert officer selects experts, generally, two persons per application. Experts are selected according to the keywords; this method proved to be good unlike the OECD classifier. The last stage: the choice of the experts is approved by the supervisor, the e-mails are sent to the experts with invitation to assess the project. An expert supervisor is controlling experts writing reports for all formalities to be in place (time-frame, propriety, correspondence). If the difference in assessment exceeds four points, the third evaluation is appointed. As the expert finishes work on his expert opinion, system shows contract marked ‘new’, managers commence with the contract and the expert gets e-mail that the contract is formed and ready to be signed. All formalities are concluded and the expert gets remuneration for his work. The specificity of interaction of the examination officer with other experts will be presented in the report.

Keywords: expertise, management of research evaluation, method of expert evaluations, research evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
23 Analysis of Solvent Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) Using Nano-Indentation

Authors: Tanveer Iqbal, Saima Yasin, Muhammad Zafar, Ahmad Shakeel, Fahad Nazir, Paul F. Luckham

Abstract:

The contact performance of polymeric composites is dependent on the localized mechanical properties of materials. This is particularly important for fiber oriented polymeric materials where self-lubrication from top layers has been the basic requirement. The nanoindentation response of fiber reinforced poly(etheretherketone), PEEK, composites have been evaluated to determine the near-surface mechanical characteristics. Load-displacement compliance, hardness and elastic modulus data based on contact compliance mode (CSM) indentation of carbon fiber oriented and glass fiber oriented PEEK composites are reported as a function of indentation contact displacement. The composite surfaces were indented to a maximum penetration depth of 5µm using Berkovich tip indenter. A typical multiphase response of the composite surface is depicted from analysis of the indentation data for the composites, showing presence of polymer matrix, fibers, and interphase regions. The observed experimental results show that although the surface mechanical properties of carbon fiber based PEEK composite were comparatively higher, the properties of matrix material were seen to be increased in the presence of glass fibers. The experimental methodology may provide a convenient means to understand morphological description of the multimodal polymeric composites.

Keywords: nanoindentation, PEEK, modulus, hardness, plasticization

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
22 The Staff Performance Efficiency of the Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Nipawan Tharasak, Ladda Hirunyava

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to study factors affecting working efficiency and the relationship between working environment, satisfaction to human resources management and operation employees’ working efficiency of Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The sample size of the research was based on 33 employees of Faculty of Management Science. The researcher had classified the support employees into 4 divisions by using Stratified Random Sampling. Individual sample was randomized by using Simple Random Sampling. Data was collected through the instrument. The Statistical Package for the Windows was utilized for data processing. Percentage, mean, standard deviation, the t-test, One-way ANOVA, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient were applied. The result found the support employees’ satisfaction in human resources management of Faculty of Management Science in following areas: remuneration; employee recruitment & selection; manpower planning; performance evaluation; staff training & developing; and spirit & fairness were overall in good level.

Keywords: faculty of management science, operational factors, practice performance, staff working

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
21 Investigation of Stress and Its Effects on Health Workers in Federal Medical Centres in Nigeria

Authors: Chisom N. Nwaigwe, Blessing N. Egbulefu, Angela Uwakwem

Abstract:

A study on Stress and its’ effect on the health of workers in Federal Medical Centres in Nigeria is presented. The aim is to evaluate how much stress related hazards health workers in our tertiary health institutions are exposed to and to create awareness and reduce the rate at which stress affect the health of the working population in Nigeria, using workers in Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia as a case study. The descriptive survey design was adopted with the aid of 100 questionnaires delivered to the respondents in order to obtain first-hand information. From the findings, the major causes of stress were identified as inadequate staffing, unresolved family problems and psychological/cultural factors like the return of a lactating mother to work after three months post-delivery. The effects of stress on the workers were identified as hypertension, poor job performances, depression, asthma, and peptic ulcers. The study recommended instituting counseling units for stress management, holding seminars on stress management and increasing the salary scale (remuneration) and proper roster planning as solutions to stress reduction in our hospitals. This study is important to management in planning staffing, roaster, and a rehabilitation programme for her staff.

Keywords: stress, causes, effects, workers

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
20 Time for the United Kingdom to Implement Statutory Clawback Provision on Directors’ Remunerations: Lessons and Experiences from the United States and the Netherlands

Authors: John Kong Shan Ho

Abstract:

Senior executives’ remunerations of public companies have aroused much debate and attention in the media. In the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), excessive executive pay arrangements were blamed for contributing to excessive risk-taking, which caused the financial meltdown. Since then, regulators and lawmakers around the world have introduced regulations to strengthen the corporate governance of listed companies. A key aspect of such reform is by strengthening regulatory intervention over executives’ remunerations and increasing the transparency of such information. This article is written against such background and examines the recent proposal by the UK BEIS to ask the FRC to amend the UK Corporate Governance Code (UKCGC) to strengthen clawback provisions for directors’ remuneration in listed companies as part of its audit reform. The article examines the background and debates regarding the possible implementation of such a measure in the UK. Contrary to the BEIS’ proposal, it argues that implementing it through the UKCGC is unlikely to enhance overall corporate governance and audit quality. It argues that the UK should follow the footsteps of its US and Dutch counterparts by enacting legislation to claw back directors’ remunerations. It will also provide some recommendations as to the key factors that need to be considered in drafting such a statutory provision.

Keywords: company law, corporate governance, agency problem, directors' remunerations, clawbacks

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
19 Independence of the Judiciary in South Africa: An Assessment After Twenty Years of Democracy

Authors: Serges Djoyou Kamga, Gerard Emmanuel Kamdem Kamga

Abstract:

Any serious constitutionalism entails a system of government characterised by the separation of powers between the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary. The latter is generally in charge of upholding the rule of law and the respect for human rights which are vital for the functioning of any democracy. Therefore, for the judiciary to play its role as a watchdog, it should be independent from other branches of government. The aim of this paper is to examine the independence of the judiciary in South Africa after 20 of democracy. Defining judicial independence as the courts’ ability ‘to decide cases on the basis of established law and the merits of the case, without interference from other political or governmental agents’, the paper examines the extent to which the South African judiciary is independent after twenty years of democracy. As part of assessing the independence of the judiciary, the paper begins by looking at the situation during apartheid, then proceeds with an examination of the post-apartheid legal order. It also examines the institutional independence of the judiciary by looking into its day to day activities which revolve around its self-governance, or administrative and financial independence. In addition, the paper assesses the judges’ individual independence by examining whether judicial appointment, security of tenure, judges’ remuneration and disciplinary actions and the removal of judges from office do not contain loopholes that can hinder judicial independence. Ultimately, the chapter argues that although the South African model of judicial independence is yet to be perfect, it is a good practice that can be emulated by other African countries.

Keywords: judical independence, South Africa, democracy, separation of powers

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
18 Interfacial Adhesion and Properties Improvement of Polyethylene/Thermoplastic Starch Blend Compatibilized by Stearic Acid-Grafted-Starch

Authors: Nattaporn Khanoonkon, Rangrong Yoksan, Amod A. Ogale

Abstract:

Polyethylene (PE) is one of the most petroleum-based thermoplastic materials used in many applications including packaging due to its cheap, light-weight, chemically inert and capable to be converted into various shapes and sizes of products. Although PE is a commercially potential material, its non-biodegradability caused environmental problems. At present, bio-based polymers become more interesting owing to its bio-degradability, non-toxicity, and renewability as well as being eco-friendly. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) is a bio-based and biodegradable plastic produced from the plasticization of starch under applying heat and shear force. In many researches, TPS was blended with petroleum-based polymers including PE in order to reduce the cost and the use of those polymers. However, the phase separation between hydrophobic PE and hydrophilic TPS limited the amount of TPS incorporated. The immiscibility of two different polarity polymers can be diminished by adding compatibilizer. PE-based compatibilizers, e.g. polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride, polyethylene-co-vinyl alcohol, etc. have been applied for the PE/TPS blend system in order to improve their miscibility. Until now, there is no report about the utilization of starch-based compatibilizer for PE/TPS blend system. The aims of the present research were therefore to synthesize a new starch-based compatibilizer, i.e. stearic acid-grafted starch (SA-g-starch) and to study the effect of SA-g-starch on chemical interaction, morphological properties, tensile properties and water vapor as well as oxygen barrier properties of the PE/TPS blend films. PE/TPS blends without and with incorporating SA-g-starch with a content of 1, 3 and 5 part(s) per hundred parts of starch (phr) were prepared using a twin screw extruder and then blown into films using a film blowing machine. Incorporating 1 phr and 3 phr of SA-g-starch could improve miscibility of the two polymers as confirmed from the reduction of TPS phase size and the good dispersion of TPS phase in PE matrix. In addition, the blend containing SA-g-starch with contents of 1 phr and 3 phr exhibited higher tensile strength and extensibility, as well as lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities than the naked blend. The above results suggested that SA-g-starch could be potentially applied as a compatibilizer for the PE/TPS blend system.

Keywords: blend, compatibilizer, polyethylene, thermoplastic starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
17 The Perceptions of Students in Tourism and Hospitality in Relation to the Pursuit of Higher Degrees: A Case of Walter Sisulu University

Authors: Adelaide Rethabile Motshabi Pitso-Mbili

Abstract:

Higher education institutions (HEIs) are under pressure in producing PhD graduates so that they can position themselves higher in terms of rankings. However, hospitality and tourism higher degree enrolment numbers are very low within South African universities. Furthermore, hospitality and tourism students choose these fields of study because they want to travel, be social, and have fun. Students in higher education are anxious about their future after studies as they are particularly worried about the job conditions in the hospitality and tourism sector, the remuneration, and the status perceptions of many jobs in the sector. Hence, there is a need for a continuous increase in the level of education with the formation of professional aptitudes and personnel quality. In order to understand the reasons for low enrolments, this study aims to explore the perceptions of the final year in tourism and hospitality diploma students towards enrolling for higher degree qualifications after their graduation. This paper utilised a quantitative research method, and data was gathered through questionnaires. In addition, the Linkert scale design was used for questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to 137 hospitality and tourism students who are on their exit level at Walter Sisulu University. SPSS was used to analyse data. The findings revealed that students do not wish to continue studying for higher degrees as they believe higher degrees are not important for the industry. Furthermore, families already have financial expectations as they think one qualification is enough. In addition, some students mentioned that they would love to study further, but lack of funding is a problem since NSFAS only funds the first qualification. Thus, it is recommended that students are made aware of the benefits and opportunities available after obtaining higher degrees.

Keywords: hospitality and tourism education, higher degrees, higher education, student’s perceptions, hospitality and tourism sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
16 Development of PVA/polypyrrole Scaffolds by Supercritical CO₂ for Its Application in Biomedicine

Authors: Antonio Montes, Antonio Cozar, Clara Pereyra, Diego Valor, Enrique Martinez de la Ossa

Abstract:

Tissues and organs can be damaged because of traumatism, congenital illnesses, or cancer and the traditional therapeutic alternatives, such as surgery, cannot usually completely repair the damaged tissues. Tissue engineering allows regeneration of the patient's tissues, reducing the problems caused by the traditional methods. Scaffolds, polymeric structures with interconnected porosity, can be promoted the proliferation and adhesion of the patient’s cells in the damaged area. Furthermore, by means of impregnation of the scaffold with beneficial active substances, tissue regeneration can be induced through a drug delivery process. The objective of the work is the fabrication of a PVA scaffold coated with Gallic Acid and polypyrrole through a one-step foaming and impregnation process using the SSI technique (Supercritical Solvent Impregnation). In this technique, supercritical CO₂ penetrates into the polymer chains producing the plasticization of the polymer. In the depressurization step a CO₂ cellular nucleation and growing to take place to an interconnected porous structure of the polymer. The foaming process using supercritical CO₂ as solvent and expansion agent presents advantages compared to the traditional scaffolds’ fabrication methods, such as the polymer’s high solubility in the solvent or the possibility of carrying out the process at a low temperature, avoiding the inactivation of the active substance. In this sense, the supercritical CO₂ avoids the use of organic solvents and reduces the solvent residues in the final product. Moreover, this process does not require long processing time that could cause the stratification of substance inside the scaffold reducing the therapeutic efficiency of the formulation. An experimental design has been carried out to optimize the SSI technique operating conditions, as well as a study of the morphological characteristics of the scaffold for its use in tissue engineerings, such as porosity, conductivity or the release profiles of the active substance. It has been proved that the obtained scaffolds are partially porous, conductors of electricity and are able to release Gallic Acid in the long term.

Keywords: scaffold, foaming, supercritical, PVA, polypyrrole, gallic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
15 Effect of Molecular Weight Distribution on Toughening Performance of Polybutadiene in Polystyrene

Authors: Mohamad Mohsen Yavarizadeh

Abstract:

Polystyrene (PS) and related homopolymers are brittle materials that typically fail in tensile tests at very low strains. These polymers can be toughened by the addition of rubbery particles which initiate a large number of crazes that produce substantial plastic strain at relatively low stresses. Considerable energy is dissipated in the formation of these crazes, producing a relatively tough material that shows an impact toughness of more than 5 times of pure PS. While cross linking of rubbery phase is necessary in aforementioned mechanism of toughening, another mechanism of toughening was also introduced in which low molecular weight liquid rubbers can also toughen PS when dispersed in the form of small pools in the glassy matrix without any cross linking. However, this new mechanism which is based on local plasticization, fails to act properly at high strain rate deformations, i.e. impact tests. In this work, the idea of combination of these two mechanisms was tried. To do so, Polybutadiene rubbers (PB) with bimodal distribution of molecular weight were prepared in which, comparable fractions of very high and very low molecular weight rubbers were mixed. Incorporation of these materials in PS matrix in a reactive process resulted in more significant increases in toughness of PS. In other words, although low molecular weight PB is ineffective in high strain rate impact test by itself, it showed a significant synergistic effect when combined with high molecular weight PB. Surprisingly, incorporation of just 10% of low molecular weight PB doubled the impact toughness of regular high impact PS (HIPS). It was observed that most of rubbery particles could initiate crazes. The effectiveness of low molecular weight PB in impact test was attributed to low strain rate deformation of each individual craze as a result of producing a large number of crazes in this material. In other words, high molecular weight PB chains make it possible to have an appropriate dispersion of rubbery phase in order to create a large number of crazes in the PS matrix and consequently decrease the velocity of each craze. Low molecular weight PB, in turn, would have enough time to locally plasticize craze fibrils and enhance the energy dissipation.

Keywords: molecular weight distribution, polystyrene, toughness, homopolymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 378