Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2768

Search results for: diffusion coefficient

2768 Determination of Natural Logarithm of Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy of Thin Layer Drying Process of Ginger Rhizome Slices

Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Sam Nna Omenyi, Sabuj Malli


This study is an extension of the previous work done with ARS-680 Environmental Chamber. Drying is a complex operation that demands much energy and time. Drying is essentially important for preservation of ginger rhizome. Drying of ginger was modeled, and then the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy where determined. For this purpose, the experiments were done at six levels of varied temperature ranging from (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60°C). The average effective diffusion coefficient for their studies samples for temperature range of 40°C to 70°C was 4.48 x10-10m²/s, 4.96 x10-10m²/s, and 5.31 x10-10m²/s for 0.8, 1.5 and 3m/s drying air velocity respectively. These values closely agreed with the values of effective diffusion coefficients obtained in these studies for the variously treated ginger rhizomes and test conducted.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusion coefficients, drying model, drying time, ginger rhizomes, moisture ratio, thin layer

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2767 Analysis of Vapor-Phase Diffusion of Benzene from Contaminated Soil

Authors: Asma A. Parlin, K. Nakamura, N. Watanabe, T. Komai


Understanding the effective diffusion of benzene vapor in the soil-atmosphere interface is important as an intrusion of benzene into the atmosphere from the soil is largely driven by diffusion. To analyze the vertical one dimensional effective diffusion of benzene vapor in porous medium with high water content, diffusion experiments were conducted in soil columns using Andosol soil and Toyoura silica sand with different water content; for soil water content was from 0 to 30 wt.% and for sand it was from 0.06 to 10 wt.%. In soil, a linear relation was found between water content and effective diffusion coefficient while the effective diffusion coefficient didn’t change in the sand with increasing water. A numerical transport model following unsteady-state approaches based on Fick’s second law was used to match the required time for a steady state of the gas phase concentration profile of benzene to the experimentally measured concentration profile gas phase in the column. The result highlighted that both the water content and porosity might increase vertical diffusion of benzene vapor in soil.

Keywords: benzene vapor-phase, effective diffusion, subsurface soil medium, unsteady state

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2766 Influence of Photophysical Parameters of Photoactive Materials on Exciton Diffusion Length and Diffusion Coefficient in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Douglas Yeboah, Jai Singh


It has been experimentally demonstrated that exciton diffusion length in organic solids can be improved by fine-tuning the material parameters that govern exciton transfer. Here, a theoretical study is carried out to support this finding. We have therefore derived expressions for the exciton diffusion length and diffusion coefficient of singlet and triplet excitons using Förster resonance energy transfer and Dexter carrier transfer mechanisms and are plotted as a function of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield, spectral overlap integral, refractive index and dipole moment of the photoactive material. We found that singlet exciton diffusion length increases with PL quantum yield and spectral overlap integral, and decreases with increase in refractive index. Likewise, the triplet exciton diffusion length increases when PL quantum yield increases and dipole moment decreases. The calculated diffusion lengths in different organic materials are compared with existing experimental values and found to be in reasonable agreement. The results are expected to provide insight in developing new organic materials for fabricating bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) with better photoconversion efficiency.

Keywords: Dexter carrier transfer, diffusion coefficient, exciton diffusion length, Föster resonance energy transfer, photoactive materials, photophysical parameters

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2765 A Combinatorial Representation for the Invariant Measure of Diffusion Processes on Metric Graphs

Authors: Michele Aleandri, Matteo Colangeli, Davide Gabrielli


We study a generalization to a continuous setting of the classical Markov chain tree theorem. In particular, we consider an irreducible diffusion process on a metric graph. The unique invariant measure has an atomic component on the vertices and an absolutely continuous part on the edges. We show that the corresponding density at x can be represented by a normalized superposition of the weights associated to metric arborescences oriented toward the point x. A metric arborescence is a metric tree oriented towards its root. The weight of each oriented metric arborescence is obtained by the product of the exponential of integrals of the form ∫a/b², where b is the drift and σ² is the diffusion coefficient, along the oriented edges, for a weight for each node determined by the local orientation of the arborescence around the node and for the inverse of the diffusion coefficient at x. The metric arborescences are obtained by cutting the original metric graph along some edges.

Keywords: diffusion processes, metric graphs, invariant measure, reversibility

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2764 Effects of Electric Field on Diffusion Coefficients and Share Viscosity in Dusty Plasmas

Authors: Muhammad Asif ShakoorI, Maogang He, Aamir Shahzad


Dusty (complex) plasmas contained micro-sized charged dust particles in addition to ions, electrons, and neutrals. It is typically low-temperature plasma and exists in a wide variety of physical systems. In this work, the effects of an external electric field on the diffusion coefficient and share viscosity are investigated through equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations in three-dimensional (3D) strongly coupled (SC) dusty plasmas (DPs). The effects of constant and varying normalized electric field strength (E*) have been computed along with different combinations of plasma states on the diffusion of dust particles using EMD simulations. Diffusion coefficient (D) and share viscosity (η) along with varied system sizes, in the limit of varying E* values, is accounted for an appropriate range of plasma coupling (Γ) and screening strength (κ) parameters. At varying E* values, it is revealed that the 3D diffusion coefficient increases with increasing E* and κ; however, it decreases with an increase of Γ but within statistical limits. The share viscosity increases with increasing E*and Γ and decreases with increasing κ. New simulation results are outstanding that the combined effects of electric field and screening strengths give well-matched values of Dandη at low-intermediate to large Γ with varying small-intermediate to large N. The current EMD simulation outcomes under varying electric field strengths are in satisfactory well-matched with previous known simulation data of EMD simulations of the SC-DPs. It has been shown that the present EMD simulation data enlarged the range of E* strength up to 0.1 ≤ E*≤ 1.0 in order to find the linear range of the DPs system and to demonstrate the fundamental nature of electric field linearity of 3D SC-DPs.

Keywords: strongly coupled dusty plasma, diffusion coefficient, share viscosity, molecular dynamics simulation, electric field strength

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2763 Study of the Kinetic of the Reduction of Alpha and Beta PbO2 in H2SO4 on the Microcavity Electrode

Authors: N. Chahmana, I. Zerroual


The aim of our work is the contribution to the improvement of the performances of the positive plate of the lead acid battery. For that, we synthesized two varieties of PbO2 used in industry, alpha and beta PbO2 by electrochemical way starting from the not formed industrial plates. We studied the kinetics of reduction of the alpha varieties and PbO2 beta on electrode with microcavity in sulphuric medium. The electrochemical study of the powders of α and β-PbO2 was made by cyclic voltamperometry with sweeping of potential by using a traditional assembly with three electrodes. Values of the coefficient of diffusion of the proton in α and β-PbO2 are respectively equal to 0.498*10-8cm2 /s and 0.793*10-8 cm2 /s. During the cycling of the two varieties of PbO2, we obtain a clear increase in the capacity.

Keywords: lead accumulator, α and β - PbO2, synthesis, kinetics, cyclic voltametry, coefficient of diffusion

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2762 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

Authors: K. Benhabib, X. Pierens, V-D Nguyen, G. Mimanne


The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

Keywords: pesticide, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods, steady state, analytical model

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2761 Resistance to Chloride Penetration of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes: Pumice and Zeolite Effect

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Siham Kamali-Bernard, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi


This paper aims to contribute to the characterization and the understanding of fresh state, compressive strength and chloride penetration tendency of high strength self-compacting concretes (HSSCCs) where Portland cement type II is partially substituted by 10% and 15% of natural pumice and zeolite. First, five concrete mixtures with a control mixture without any pozzolan are prepared and tested in both fresh and hardened states. Then, resistance to chloride penetration for all formulation is investigated in non-steady state and steady state by measurement of chloride penetration and diffusion coefficient. In non-steady state, the correlation between initial current and chloride penetration with diffusion coefficient is studied. Moreover, the relationship between diffusion coefficient in non-steady state and electrical resistivity is determined. The concentration of free chloride ions is also measured in steady state. Finally, chloride penetration for all formulation is studied in immersion and tidal condition. The result shows that, the resistance to chloride penetration for HSSCC in immersion and tidal condition increases by incorporating pumice and zeolite. However, concrete with zeolite displays a better resistance. This paper shows that the HSSCC with 15% pumice and 10% zeolite is suitable in fresh, hardened, and durability characteristics.

Keywords: Chloride penetration, immersion, pumice, HSSCC, tidal, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
2760 Speckle Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Filter Based on Wavelets

Authors: Kritika Bansal, Akwinder Kaur, Shruti Gujral


In this paper, the approach of denoising is solved by using a new hybrid technique which associates the different denoising methods. Wavelet thresholding and anisotropic diffusion filter are the two different filters in our hybrid techniques. The Wavelet thresholding removes the noise by removing the high frequency components with lesser edge preservation, whereas an anisotropic diffusion filters is based on partial differential equation, (PDE) to remove the speckle noise. This PDE approach is used to preserve the edges and provides better smoothing. So our new method proposes a combination of these two filtering methods which performs better results in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), coefficient of correlation (COC) and equivalent no of looks (ENL).

Keywords: denoising, anisotropic diffusion filter, multiplicative noise, speckle, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
2759 The Mechanism Study on the Difference between High and Low Voltage Performance of Li3V2(PO4)3

Authors: Enhui Wang, Qingzhu Ou, Yan Tang, Xiaodong Guo


As one of most popular polyanionic compounds in lithium-ion cathode materials, Li3V2(PO4)3 has always suffered from the low rate capability especially during 3~4.8V, which is considered to be related with the ion diffusion resistance and structural transformation during the Li+ de/intercalation. Here, as the change of cut-off voltages, cycling numbers and current densities, the process of SEI interfacial film’s formation-growing- destruction-repair on the surface of the cathode, the structural transformation during the charge and discharge, the de/intercalation kinetics reflected by the electrochemical impedance and the diffusion coefficient, have been investigated in detail. Current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage impacting on interfacial film and structure was studied specifically. Firstly, the matching between electrolyte and material was investigated, it turned out that the batteries with high voltage electrolyte showed the best electrochemical performance and high voltage electrolyte would be the best electrolyte. Secondly, AC impedance technology was used to study the changes of interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient, the results showed that current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage influenced the interfacial film together and the one who changed the interfacial properties most was the key factor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that the attenuation of discharge specific capacity was associated with the destruction and repair process of the SEI film. Thirdly, the X-ray diffraction was used to study the changes of structure, which was also impacted by current density, cycle numbers and cut-off voltage. The results indicated that the cell volume of Li3V2 (PO4 )3 increased as the current density increased; cycle numbers merely influenced the structure of material; the cell volume decreased first and moved back gradually after two Li-ion had been deintercalated as the charging cut-off voltage increased, and increased as the intercalation number of Li-ion increased during the discharging process. Then, the results which studied the changes of interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient turned out that the interface impedance and lithium ion diffusion coefficient increased when the cut-off voltage passed the voltage platforms and decreased when the cut-off voltage was between voltage platforms. Finally, three-electrode system was first adopted to test the activation energy of the system, the results indicated that the activation energy of the three-electrode system (22.385 KJ /mol) was much smaller than that of two-electrode system (40.064 KJ /mol).

Keywords: cut-off voltage, de/intercalation kinetics, solid electrolyte interphase film, structural transformation

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2758 Electrochemical Properties of Bimetallic Silver-Platinum Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: Fredrick O. Okumu, Mangaka C. Matoetoe


Silver-platinum (Ag-Pt) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with varying mole fractions (1:1, 1:3 and 3:1) were prepared by co-reduction of hexachloroplatinate and silver nitrate with sodium citrate. Upon successful formation of both monometallic and bimetallic (BM) core shell nanoparticles, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the NPs. The drop coated nanofilms on the GC substrate showed characteristic peaks of monometallic Ag NPs; Ag+/Ag0 redox couple as well as the Pt NPs; hydrogen adsorption and desorption peaks. These characteristic peaks were confirmed in the bimetallic NPs voltammograms. The following varying current trends were observed in the BM NPs ratios; GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 > GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 > GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1. Fundamental electrochemical properties which directly or indirectly affects the applicability of films such as; diffusion coefficient (D), electroactive surface coverage, electrochemical band gap, electron transfer coefficient (α) and charge (Q) were assessed using Randles - Sevcik plot and Laviron’s equations . High charge and surface coverage was observed in GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 which supports its enhanced current. GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 showed high diffusion coefficient while GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1 possessed high electron transfer coefficient that is facilitated by its high apparent heterogeneous rate constant relative to other BM NPs ratios. Surface redox reaction was determined as adsorption controlled in all modified GCEs. Surface coverage is inversely proportional to size; therefore the surface coverage data suggests that Ag-Pt 1:1 NPs have a small particle size. Generally, GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 depicts the best electrochemical properties.

Keywords: characterization, core-shell, electrochemical, nanoparticles

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2757 Parametric Dependence of the Advection-Diffusion Equation in Two Dimensions

Authors: Matheus Fernando Pereira, Varese Salvador Timoteo


In this work, we have solved the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation numerically for a spatially dependent solute dispersion along non-uniform flow with a pulse type source in order to make a systematic study on the influence of medium heterogeneity, initial flow velocity, and initial dispersion coefficient parameters on the solutions of the equation. The behavior of the solutions is then investigated as we change the three parameters independently. Our results show that even though the parameters represent different physical features of the system, the effect on their variation is very similar. We also observe that the effects caused by the parameters on the concentration depend on the distance from the source. Finally, our numerical results are in good agreement with the exact solutions for all values of the parameters we used in our analysis.

Keywords: advection-diffusion equation, dispersion, numerical methods, pulse-type source

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2756 Numerical Modeling and Prediction of Nanoscale Transport Phenomena in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Layers by the Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

Authors: Seungho Shin, Keunwoo Choi, Ali Akbar, Sukkee Um


In this study, the nanoscale transport properties and catalyst utilization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) catalyst layers are computationally predicted by the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulation based on the quasi-random nanostructural model in pursuance of fuel cell catalyst performance improvement. A series of catalyst layers are randomly generated with statistical significance at the 95% confidence level to reflect the heterogeneity of the catalyst layer nanostructures. The nanoscale gas transport phenomena inside the catalyst layers are simulated by the D3Q19 (i.e., three-dimensional, 19 velocities) lattice Boltzmann method, and the corresponding mass transport characteristics are mathematically modeled in terms of structural properties. Considering the nanoscale reactant transport phenomena, a transport-based effective catalyst utilization factor is defined and statistically analyzed to determine the structure-transport influence on catalyst utilization. The tortuosity of the reactant mass transport path of VACNT catalyst layers is directly calculated from the streaklines. Subsequently, the corresponding effective mass diffusion coefficient is statistically predicted by applying the pre-estimated tortuosity factors to the Knudsen diffusion coefficient in the VACNT catalyst layers. The statistical estimation results clearly indicate that the morphological structures of VACNT catalyst layers reduce the tortuosity of reactant mass transport path when compared to conventional catalyst layer and significantly improve consequential effective mass diffusion coefficient of VACNT catalyst layer. Furthermore, catalyst utilization of the VACNT catalyst layer is substantially improved by enhanced mass diffusion and electric current paths despite the relatively poor interconnections of the ion transport paths.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann method, nano transport phenomena, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, vertically aligned carbon nanotube

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2755 A Combination of Anisotropic Diffusion and Sobel Operator to Enhance the Performance of the Morphological Component Analysis for Automatic Crack Detection

Authors: Ankur Dixit, Hiroaki Wagatsuma


The crack detection on a concrete bridge is an important and constant task in civil engineering. Chronically, humans are checking the bridge for inspection of cracks to maintain the quality and reliability of bridge. But this process is very long and costly. To overcome such limitations, we have used a drone with a digital camera, which took some images of bridge deck and these images are processed by morphological component analysis (MCA). MCA technique is a very strong application of sparse coding and it explores the possibility of separation of images. In this paper, MCA has been used to decompose the image into coarse and fine components with the effectiveness of two dictionaries namely anisotropic diffusion and wavelet transform. An anisotropic diffusion is an adaptive smoothing process used to adjust diffusion coefficient by finding gray level and gradient as features. These cracks in image are enhanced by subtracting the diffused coarse image into the original image and the results are treated by Sobel edge detector and binary filtering to exhibit the cracks in a fine way. Our results demonstrated that proposed MCA framework using anisotropic diffusion followed by Sobel operator and binary filtering may contribute to an automation of crack detection even in open field sever conditions such as bridge decks.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coarse component, fine component, MCA, Sobel edge detector and wavelet transform

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2754 Solutions of Fractional Reaction-Diffusion Equations Used to Model the Growth and Spreading of Biological Species

Authors: Kamel Al-Khaled


Reaction-diffusion equations are commonly used in population biology to model the spread of biological species. In this paper, we propose a fractional reaction-diffusion equation, where the classical second derivative diffusion term is replaced by a fractional derivative of order less than two. Based on the symbolic computation system Mathematica, Adomian decomposition method, developed for fractional differential equations, is directly extended to derive explicit and numerical solutions of space fractional reaction-diffusion equations. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Finally, the recent appearance of fractional reaction-diffusion equations as models in some fields such as cell biology, chemistry, physics, and finance, makes it necessary to apply the results reported here to some numerical examples.

Keywords: fractional partial differential equations, reaction-diffusion equations, adomian decomposition, biological species

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2753 Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Transport Properties of SCCs Composites: Influence of Mechanical Damage

Authors: Davood Niknezhad, Siham Kamali-Bernard


Concrete durability is one of the most important considerations in the design of new structures in aggressive environments. It is now common knowledge that the transport properties of a concrete, i.e; permeability and chloride diffusion coefficient are important indicators of its durability. The development of microcracking in concrete structures leads to significant permeability and to durability problems as a result. The main objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the influence of mineral admixtures and impact of compressive cracks by mechanical uniaxial compression up to 80% of the ultimate strength on transport properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) manufactured with the eco-materials (metakaolin, fly ash, slag HF). The chloride resistance and binding capacity of the different SCCs produced with the different admixtures in damaged and undamaged state are measured using a chloride migration test accelerated by an external applied electrical field. Intrinsic permeability is measured using the helium gas and one permeameter at constant load. Klinkenberg approach is used for the determination of the intrinsic permeability. Based on the findings of this study, the use of mineral admixtures increases the resistance of SCC to chloride ingress and reduces their permeability. From the impact of mechanical damage, we show that the Gas permeability is more sensitive of concrete damaged than chloride diffusion. A correlation is obtained between the intrinsic permeability and chloride migration coefficient according to the damage variable for the four studied mixtures.

Keywords: SCC, concrete durability, transport properties, gas permeability, chloride diffusion, mechanical damage, mineral admixtures

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
2752 A Study on Temperature and Drawing Speed for Diffusion Bonding Enhancement in Drawing of Hot Lined Pipes by FEM Analysis

Authors: M. T. Ahn, J. H. Park, S. H. Park, S. H. Ha


Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in hot drawing even if the reduction in the section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: diffusion bonding, temperature, pressure, drawing speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
2751 In-situ Monitoring of Residual Stress Behavior-Temperature Profiles in Transparent Polyimide/Tetrapod Zinc Oxide Whisker Composites

Authors: Ki-Ho Nam, Haksoo Han


Tetrapod zinc oxide whiskers (TZnO-Ws) were successfully synthesized by a thermal oxidation method. A series of transparent polyimide (PI)/TZnO-W composites were successfully synthesized via a solution-blending method. The structural and morphological features of TZnO-Ws and PI/TZnO-W composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), wide-angle X-Ray diffraction (WAXD), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Dynamic stress behaviors were investigated in-situ during thermal imidization of the soft-baked PI/TZnO-W composite precursor and thermally cured composite films using a thin film stress analyzer (TFSA) by wafer bending technique. The PI/TZnO-W composite films exhibited an optical transparency greater than 80% at 550 nm (≤ 0.5 wt% TZnO-W content), a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and enhanced glass transition temperature. However, the thermal decomposition temperature decreased as the TZnO-W content increased. The water diffusion coefficient and water uptake of the PI/TZNO-W composite films were obtained by best fits to a Fickian diffusion model. The water resistance capacity of PI was greatly enhanced and moisture diffusion in the pure PI was retarded by incorporating the TZnO-W. The PI composite films based on TZNO-W resultantly may have potential applications in optoelectronic manufacturing processes as a flexible transparent substrate.

Keywords: polyimide (PI), tetrapod ZnO whisker (TZnO-W), transparent, dynamic stress behavior, water resistance

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2750 Design and Evaluation on Sierpinski-Triangle Acoustic Diffusers Based on Fractal Theory

Authors: Lingge Tan, Hongpeng Xu, Jieun Yang, Maarten Hornikx


Acoustic diffusers are important components in enhancing the quality of room acoustics. This paper provides a type of modular diffuser based on the Sierpinski Triangle of the plane and combines it with fractal theory to expand the effective frequency range. In numerical calculations and full-scale model experiments, the effect of fractal design elements on normal-incidence diffusion coefficients is examined. It is demonstrated the reasonable times of iteration of modules is three, and the coverage density is 58.4% in the design frequency from 125Hz to 4kHz.

Keywords: acoustic diffuser, fractal, Sierpinski-triangle, diffusion coefficient

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2749 A Simple Finite Element Method for Glioma Tumor Growth Model with Density Dependent Diffusion

Authors: Shangerganesh Lingeshwaran


In this presentation, we have performed numerical simulations for a reaction-diffusion equation with various nonlinear density-dependent diffusion operators and proliferation functions. The mathematical model represented by parabolic partial differential equation is considered to study the invasion of gliomas (the most common type of brain tumors) and to describe the growth of cancer cells and response to their treatment. The unknown quantity of the given reaction-diffusion equation is the density of cancer cells and the mathematical model based on the proliferation and migration of glioma cells. A standard Galerkin finite element method is used to perform the numerical simulations of the given model. Finally, important observations on the each of nonlinear diffusion functions and proliferation functions are presented with the help of computational results.

Keywords: glioma invasion, nonlinear diffusion, reaction-diffusion, finite eleament method

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2748 Mechanical Properties and Chloride Diffusion of Ceramic Waste Aggregate Mortar Containing Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sappakittipakorn, M. Mizukoshi, O. Takahashi


Ceramic waste aggregates (CWAs) were made from electric porcelain insulator wastes supplied from an electric power company, which were crushed and ground to fine aggregate sizes. In this study, to develop the CWA mortar as an eco–efficient, ground granulated blast–furnace slag (GGBS) as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) was incorporated. The water–to–binder ratio (W/B) of the CWA mortars was varied at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6. The cement of the CWA mortar was replaced by GGBS at 20 and 40% by volume (at about 18 and 37% by weight). Mechanical properties of compressive and splitting tensile strengths, and elastic modulus were evaluated at the age of 7, 28, and 91 days. Moreover, the chloride ingress test was carried out on the CWA mortars in a 5.0% NaCl solution for 48 weeks. The chloride diffusion was assessed by using an electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). To consider the relation of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient and the pore size, the pore size distribution test was also performed using a mercury intrusion porosimetry at the same time with the EPMA. The compressive strength of the CWA mortars with the GGBS was higher than that without the GGBS at the age of 28 and 91 days. The resistance to the chloride ingress of the CWA mortar was effective in proportion to the GGBS replacement level.

Keywords: ceramic waste aggregate, chloride diffusion, GGBS, pore size distribution

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2747 A Study of Numerical Reaction-Diffusion Systems on Closed Surfaces

Authors: Mei-Hsiu Chi, Jyh-Yang Wu, Sheng-Gwo Chen


The diffusion-reaction equations are important Partial Differential Equations in mathematical biology, material science, physics, and so on. However, finding efficient numerical methods for diffusion-reaction systems on curved surfaces is still an important and difficult problem. The purpose of this paper is to present a convergent geometric method for solving the reaction-diffusion equations on closed surfaces by an O(r)-LTL configuration method. The O(r)-LTL configuration method combining the local tangential lifting technique and configuration equations is an effective method to estimate differential quantities on curved surfaces. Since estimating the Laplace-Beltrami operator is an important task for solving the reaction-diffusion equations on surfaces, we use the local tangential lifting method and a generalized finite difference method to approximate the Laplace-Beltrami operators and we solve this reaction-diffusion system on closed surfaces. Our method is not only conceptually simple, but also easy to implement.

Keywords: closed surfaces, high-order approachs, numerical solutions, reaction-diffusion systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2746 A Study on the Relationship between Shear Strength and Surface Roughness of Lined Pipes by Cold Drawing

Authors: Mok-Tan Ahn, Joon-Hong Park, Yeon-Jong Jeong


Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in heat drawing even if the reduction in section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: drawing speed, FEM (Finite Element Method), diffusion bonding, temperature, heat drawing, lined pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2745 Heat Transfer and Diffusion Modelling

Authors: R. Whalley


The heat transfer modelling for a diffusion process will be considered. Difficulties in computing the time-distance dynamics of the representation will be addressed. Incomplete and irrational Laplace function will be identified as the computational issue. Alternative approaches to the response evaluation process will be provided. An illustration application problem will be presented. Graphical results confirming the theoretical procedures employed will be provided.

Keywords: heat, transfer, diffusion, modelling, computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
2744 Real-Time Observation of Concentration Distribution for Mix Liquids including Water in Micro Fluid Channel with Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Method

Authors: Hiroki Takiguchi, Masahiro Furuya, Takahiro Arai


In order to quantitatively comprehend thermal flow for some industrial applications such as nuclear and chemical reactors, detailed measurements for temperature and abundance (concentration) of materials at high temporal and spatial resolution are required. Additionally, rigorous evaluation of the size effect is also important for practical realization. This paper introduces a real-time spectroscopic imaging method in micro scale field, which visualizes temperature and concentration distribution of a liquid or mix liquids with near-infrared (NIR) wavelength region. This imaging principle is based on absorption of pre-selected narrow band from absorption spectrum peak or its dependence property of target liquid in NIR region. For example, water has a positive temperature sensitivity in the wavelength at 1905 nm, therefore the temperature of water can be measured using the wavelength band. In the experiment, the real-time imaging observation of concentration distribution in micro channel was demonstrated to investigate the applicability of micro-scale diffusion coefficient and temperature measurement technique using this proposed method. The effect of thermal diffusion and binary mutual diffusion was evaluated with the time-series visualizations of concentration distribution.

Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopic imaging, micro fluid channel, concentration distribution, diffusion phenomenon

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
2743 Influence Maximization in Dynamic Social Networks and Graphs

Authors: Gkolfo I. Smani, Vasileios Megalooikonomou


Social influence and influence diffusion have been studied in social networks. However, most existing tasks on this subject focus on static networks. In this paper, the problem of maximizing influence diffusion in dynamic social networks, i.e., the case of networks that change over time, is studied. The DM algorithm is an extension of the MATI algorithm and solves the influence maximization (IM) problem in dynamic networks and is proposed under the linear threshold (LT) and independent cascade (IC) models. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm achieves a diffusion performance better by 1.5 times than several state-of-the-art algorithms and comparable results in diffusion scale with the Greedy algorithm. Also, the proposed algorithm is 2.4 times faster than previous methods.

Keywords: influence maximization, dynamic social networks, diffusion, social influence, graphs

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2742 Mathematical Study of CO₂ Dispersion in Carbonated Water Injection Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Non-Equilibrium 2D Simulator

Authors: Ahmed Abdulrahman, Jalal Foroozesh


CO₂ based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques have gained massive attention from major oil firms since they resolve the industry's two main concerns of CO₂ contribution to the greenhouse effect and the declined oil production. Carbonated water injection (CWI) is a promising EOR technique that promotes safe and economic CO₂ storage; moreover, it mitigates the pitfalls of CO₂ injection, which include low sweep efficiency, early CO₂ breakthrough, and the risk of CO₂ leakage in fractured formations. One of the main challenges that hinder the wide adoption of this EOR technique is the complexity of accurate modeling of the kinetics of CO₂ mass transfer. The mechanisms of CO₂ mass transfer during CWI include the slow and gradual cross-phase CO₂ diffusion from carbonated water (CW) to the oil phase and the CO₂ dispersion (within phase diffusion and mechanical mixing), which affects the oil physical properties and the spatial spreading of CO₂ inside the reservoir. A 2D non-equilibrium compositional simulator has been developed using a fully implicit finite difference approximation. The material balance term (k) was added to the governing equation to account for the slow cross-phase diffusion of CO₂ from CW to the oil within the gird cell. Also, longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients have been added to account for CO₂ spatial distribution inside the oil phase. The CO₂-oil diffusion coefficient was calculated using the Sigmund correlation, while a scale-dependent dispersivity was used to calculate CO₂ mechanical mixing. It was found that the CO₂-oil diffusion mechanism has a minor impact on oil recovery, but it tends to increase the amount of CO₂ stored inside the formation and slightly alters the residual oil properties. On the other hand, the mechanical mixing mechanism has a huge impact on CO₂ spatial spreading (accurate prediction of CO₂ production) and the noticeable change in oil physical properties tends to increase the recovery factor. A sensitivity analysis has been done to investigate the effect of formation heterogeneity (porosity, permeability) and injection rate, it was found that the formation heterogeneity tends to increase CO₂ dispersion coefficients, and a low injection rate should be implemented during CWI.

Keywords: CO₂ mass transfer, carbonated water injection, CO₂ dispersion, CO₂ diffusion, cross phase CO₂ diffusion, within phase CO2 diffusion, CO₂ mechanical mixing, non-equilibrium simulation

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2741 On Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong


Statistical inference of normal mean with known coefficient of variation has been investigated recently. This phenomenon occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments when the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. In this paper, we constructed new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. We also derived analytic expressions for the coverage probability of each confidence interval. To confirm our theoretical results, Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their coverage probabilities.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation

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2740 Heat Transfer Process Parameter Optimization in SI/Ge Using TAGUCHI Method

Authors: Evln Ranga Charyulu, S. P. Venu Madhavarao, S. Udaya kumar, S. V. S. S. N. V. G. Krishna Murthy


With the advent of new nanometer process technologies, it is possible to integrate billion transistors on a single substrate. When more and more functionality included there is the possibility of multi-million transistors switching simultaneously consuming more power and dissipating more power along with more leakage of current into the substrate of porous silicon or germanium material. These results in substrate heating and thermal noise generation coupled to signals of interest. The heating process is represented by coupled nonlinear partial differential equations in porous silicon and germanium. By identifying heat sources and heat fluxes may results in designing of ultra-low power circuits. The PDEs are solved by finite difference scheme assuming that boundary layer equations in porous silicon and germanium. Local heat fluxes along the vertical isothermal surface immersed in porous SI/Ge are considered. The parameters considered for optimization are thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal diffusion ratio, permeability, specific heat at constant temperatures, Rayleigh number, amplitude of wavy surface, mass expansion coefficient. The diffusion of heat was caused by the concentration gradient. Thermal physical properties are homogeneous and isotropic. By using L8, TAGUCHI method the parameters are optimized.

Keywords: heat transfer, pde, taguchi optimization, SI/Ge

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2739 Investigation of the Turbulent Cavitating Flows from the Viewpoint of the Lift Coefficient

Authors: Ping-Ben Liu, Chien-Chou Tseng


The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the lift coefficient and dynamic behaviors of cavitating flow around a two-dimensional Clark Y hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack, cavitation number of 0.8, and Reynolds number of 7.10⁵. The flow field is investigated numerically by using a vapor transfer equation and a modified turbulence model which applies the filter and local density correction. The results including time-averaged lift/drag coefficient and shedding frequency agree well with experimental observations, which confirmed the reliability of this simulation. According to the variation of lift coefficient, the cycle which consists of growth and shedding of cavitation can be divided into three stages, and the lift coefficient at each stage behaves similarly due to the formation and shedding of the cavity around the trailing edge.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, cavitation, turbulence, lift coefficient

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