Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: N. Damenia

5 Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

The article substantiates that youth employment in Georgia, especially in the agricultural sector, is an acute socio-economic problem. The paper analyzes the indicators of youth employment and unemployment rates by age and gender in the agriculture sector. Research revealed that over the past decade, the unemployment rate in rural areas has decreased; however, the problem of unemployment is more sensitive than in the city in this field. The article established youth unemployment rates in rural areas; it assesses labor and educational migration causes. Based on the survey, there are proposed findings and recommendations of the agricultural sector about improving youth employment, reducing unemployment rate, reaching migration processes optimization.

Keywords: youth employment, the agricultural sector, unemployment rate, youth migration, agricultural education

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4 Stimulating Policy for Attracting Foreign Direct Investment in Georgia

Authors: G. Erkomaishvili, M. Kobalava, T. Lazariashvili, N. Damenia

Abstract:

Current state of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Georgia is analyzed and evaluated in the paper, the existing legislative background for regulating investments and stimulating policies to attract investments are shown. It is noted that in developing countries encouragement of investment activity, support and implementation are of the most important tasks, implying a consistent investment policy, investor-friendly tax regime and the legal system, reducing administrative barriers and restrictions, fare competitive conditions and business development infrastructure. The work deals with the determining factor of FDIs and the main directions of stimulation, as well as prospective industries where new investments are needed. Contributing and hindering factors and stimulating measures are analyzed. As a result of the research, the direct and indirect factors attracting FDI have been identified. Facilitating factors to FDI inflow are as follows: simplicity of starting business, geopolitical location, low taxes, access to credit, ease of ownership registration, natural resources, low burden of regulations, low level of corruption and low crime rates. Hindering factors to FDI inflow are as follows: small market, lack of policy for attracting investments, low qualification of the workforce (despite the large number of unemployed people it is difficult to find workers with necessary special skills and qualifications), high interest rates, instability of national currency exchange rate, presence of conflict zones within the country and so forth.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, investor, investment attracting marketing policies, reinvestment

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3 Women's Employment Issues in Georgia and Solutions Based on European Experience

Authors: N. Damenia, E. Kharaishvili, N. Sagareishvili, M. Saghareishvili

Abstract:

Women's Employment is one of the most important issues in the global economy. The article discusses the stated topic in Georgia, through historical content, Soviet experience, and modern perspectives. The paper discusses segmentation insa terms of employment and related problems. Based on statistical analysis, women's unemployment rate and its factors are analyzed. The level of employment of women in Transcaucasia (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) is discussed and is compared with Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia). The study analyzes women’s level of development, according to the average age of marriage and migration level. The focus is on Georgia's Association Agreement with the EU in 2014, which includes economic, social, trade and political issues. One part of it is gender equality at workplaces. According to the research, the average monthly remuneration of women managers in the financial and insurance sector equaled to 1044.6 Georgian Lari, while in overall business sector average monthly remuneration equaled to 961.1 GEL. Average salaries are increasing; however, the employment rate remains problematic. For example, in 2017, 74.6% of men and 50.8% of women were employed from a total workforce. It is also interesting that the proportion of men and women at managerial positions is 29% (women) to 71% (men). Based on the results, the main recommendation for government and civil society is to consider women as a part of the country’s economic development. In this aspect, the experience of developed countries should be considered. It is important to create additional jobs in urban or rural areas and help migrant women return and use their working resources properly.

Keywords: employment of women, segregation in terms of employment, women's employment level in Transcaucasia, migration level

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2 The Youth Employment Peculiarities in Post-Soviet Georgia

Authors: M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia

Abstract:

The article analyzes the current structural changes in the economy of Georgia, liberalization and integration processes of the economy. In accordance with this analysis, the peculiarities and the problems of youth employment are revealed. In the paper, the Georgian labor market and its contradictions are studied. Based on the analysis of materials, the socio-economic losses caused by the long-term and mass unemployment of young people are revealed, the objective and subjective circumstances of getting higher education are studied. The youth employment and unemployment rates are analyzed. Based on the research, the factors that increase unemployment are identified. According to the analysis of the youth employment, it has appeared that the unemployment share in the number of economically active population has increased in the younger age group. It demonstrates the high requirements of the labour market in terms of the quality of the workforce. Also, it is highlighted that young people are exposed to a highly paid job. The following research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical (selection, grouping, observation, trend, etc.) and qualitative research (in-depth interview), as well as analysis, induction and comparison methods. The article presents the data by the National Statistics Office of Georgia and the Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia, policy documents of the Parliament of Georgia, scientific papers by Georgian and foreign scientists, analytical reports, publications and EU research materials on similar issues. The work estimates the students and graduates employment problems existing in the state development strategy and priorities. The measures to overcome the challenges are defined. The article describes the mechanisms of state regulation of youth employment and the ways of improving this regulatory base. As for major findings, it should be highlighted that the main problems are: lack of experience and incompatibility of youth qualification with the requirements of the labor market. Accordingly, it is concluded that the unemployment rate of young people in Georgia is increasing.

Keywords: migration of youth, youth employment, migration management, youth employment and unemployment

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1 Risk-taking and Avoidance Decisions in Pandemic Agriculture in Georgia

Authors: Nino Damenia

Abstract:

The paper discusses the risks arising in agriculture in Georgia, the possibilities of their acceptance and prevention, the threat created by the pandemic crisis, and the state programs for overcoming them. The share of agriculture in the country's GDP is 8.3%. Over the past five years, Georgia has imported $ 5.9 billion worth of agri-food products. Despite these figures, agriculture has become an important sector for the Georgian government since 2012, as evidenced by the more than 1.5 billion GEL spent from the 2012-2020 budget for agricultural development. Any field of agriculture, be it poultry, livestock, cereals, fruits, or vegetables, is very sensitive to various climatic and viral risks. Avoiding these risks requires additional investment. It is noteworthy that small farms are mainly affected by the risks, while relatively large farms face fewer problems because they are relatively prepared to face the problems and can avoid them more easily. An example of viral risk in the article is the export of hazelnuts, which has quite a lot of potential. Due to the spoilage of the crop caused by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), hazelnut exports have declined considerably over the years. If the volume of hazelnuts exported in 2016 was 179 378 thousand USD, due to the deficit caused by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) in 2018, it became 57 124 thousand USD. And after the situation was relatively settled, hazelnut seedlings were poisoned. By 2020, this figure improved to 91,088 thousand US dollars. The development of the agricultural sector and the reduction of risks require technological development, investor interest, and even more state support to enable more small farms to have the potential for greater production and sustainable development. The aim of the study is to identify the risks arising in the agricultural sector of Georgia before and after the pandemic, to evaluate them, compare them with the agriculture of some European countries, and to develop the necessary recommendations to avoid the emerging risks. The research uses methods of analysis and synthesis, observation, induction, deduction, and analysis of statistics. The paper is based on both Georgian and foreign scientific research, as well as state-published documentation on agricultural assistance programs. The research is based on the analysis of data published by the European Statistics Office, the National Statistics Office of Georgia, and many other organizations. The results of the study and the recommendations will help reduce the risks in agriculture in Georgia and, in general, to identify the existing potential and the development of the sector as a whole.

Keywords: risk, agriculture, pandemi, brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)

Procedia PDF Downloads 44