Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 291

Search results for: expertise

291 The Impact of Audit Committee Industry Expertise on Internal Audit Function

Authors: Abdulaziz Alzeban

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This study examines whether internal audit function is indeed greater when audit committee members have industry expertise combined with auditing expertise. Data from a survey of 64 chief internal auditors from companies registered on the Saudi Stock Exchange TADAWL, provides results that suggest that when audit committee members possess both industry expertise and auditing expertise, the committee’s role in improving the quality of internal audit is enhanced. This outcome is concluded as one that can be generalized beyond the Saudi Arabian context.

Keywords: internal audit, audit committee, industry expertise, function

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290 Audit Committee Financial Expertise and Financial Reporting Timeliness in Emerging Market: The Role of Audit Committee Chair

Authors: Saeed Rabea Baatwah, Zalailah Salleh, Norsiah Ahmad

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This study examines whether audit committee chair with financial expertise enhances the audit committee role in financial reporting quality in emerging market. We investigate this influence by employing the direct effect and moderating effect of audit committee chair with financial expertise on financial reporting timeliness. By using Omani data and the panel data method for two proxies for financial reporting timeliness, we find that audit committee chair with financial expertise enhances the timeliness of financial reporting through making the disclosure of annual reports timely. Further, we report evidence showing that both accounting and non-accounting financial expertise on the audit committee have a positive and significant influence on the timeliness of financial reporting. We also document that the association between financial expertise and the timeliness of financial reporting is more pronounced when the chair of the audit committee has financial expertise. This study is among the first to comprehensively prove that audit committee chair with financial expertise contributes to the quality of financial reporting in emerging market.

Keywords: audit committee, chair with financial expertise, timeliness of financial reporting, Oman

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289 A Study on the Relationship between Nonverbal Communication, Perceived Expertise, Service Quality, and Trust: Focusing on Cosmetic Stores in Korea

Authors: Park Sung-Min, Chan Kwon Park, Kim Chae-Bogk

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This study aims to analyze the relationship between nonverbal communication, perceived expertise, service quality, and trust. The study was conducted with clients using cosmetic stores in the Daegu area of Korea. Based on the prior study, the measurement questions are correctly amended and organized in this study. The exploration factor analysis was performed using SPSS 22 for the configured measurement questions. And PLS 2.0 was used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. As a result of the analysis, nonverbal communication has been categorized as physical appearance, kinesics, vocal behavior and proxemics. It has been shown that all of the factors in nonverbal communication have a (+) significant effect on perceived expertise. The degree of impact has been analyzed to influence the perceived expertise in the order in which physical appearance, vocal behavior, kinesics and proxemics. The perceived expertise was analyzed to have a (+) significant effect on the service quality. It has been shown that the service quality has a (+) significant effect on trust.

Keywords: nonverbal communication, perceived expertise, service quality, trust

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288 To Know the Way to the Unknown: A Semi-Experimental Study on the Implication of Skills and Knowledge for Creative Processes in Higher Education

Authors: Mikkel Snorre Wilms Boysen

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From a theoretical perspective, expertise is generally considered a precondition for creativity. The assumption is that an individual needs to master the common and accepted rules and techniques within a certain knowledge-domain in order to create something new and valuable. However, real life cases, and a limited amount of empirical studies, demonstrate that this assumption may be overly simple. In this article, this question is explored through a number of semi-experimental case studies conducted within the fields of music, technology, and youth culture. The studies indicate that, in various ways, expertise plays an important part in creative processes. However, the case studies also indicate that expertise sometimes leads to an entrenched perspective, in the sense that knowledge and experience may work as a path into the well-known rather than into the unknown. In this article, these issues are explored with reference to different theoretical approaches to creativity and learning, including actor-network theory, the theory of blind variation and selective retention, and Csikszentmihalyi’s system model. Finally, some educational aspects and implications of this are discussed.

Keywords: creativity, expertise , education, technology

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287 Impact of Audit Committee on Real Earnings Management: Cases of Netherlands

Authors: Sana Masmoudi Mardassi, Yosra Makni Fourati

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Regulators highlight the importance of the Audit Committee (AC) as a key internal corporate governance mechanism. One of the most important roles of this committee is to oversee the financial reporting process. The purpose of this paper is to examine the link between the characteristics of an audit committee and the financial reporting quality by investigating whether the characteristics of audit committees are associated with improved financial reporting quality, especially the Real Earnings Management. In the current study, a panel data from 80 nonfinancial companies listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange during the period between 2010 and 2017 were used. To measure audit committee characteristics, four proxies have been used, specifically, audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity and AC meetings. For this research, a linear regression model was used to identify the influence of a set of board characteristics of the audit committee on real earnings management after controlling for firm audit committee size, leverage, size, loss, growth and board size. This research provides empirical evidence of the association between audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity and meetings and Real Earnings Management (REM) as a proxy of financial reporting quality. The study finds that independence and AC Gender diversity are strongly related to financial reporting quality. In fact, these two characteristics constrain REM. The results also suggest that AC- financial expertise reduces to some extent, the likelihood of engaging in REM. These conclusions provide support then to the audit committee requirement under the Dutch Corporate Governance Code rules regarding gender diversity and AC meetings.

Keywords: audit committee, financial expertise, independence, real earnings management

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286 The Impact of Audit Committee on Real Earnings Management: Evidence from Netherlands

Authors: Sana Masmoudi, Yosra Makni

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Regulators highlight the importance of the Audit Committee (AC) as a key internal corporate governance mechanism. One of the most important roles of this committee is to oversee the financial reporting process. The purpose of this paper is to examine the link between the characteristics of an audit committee and the financial reporting quality by investigating whether the formation of audit committees and their characteristics are associated with improved financial reporting quality. This study provides empirical evidence of the association between audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity, and meetings and Real Earnings Management (REM) as a proxy of financial reporting quality. Using data from, with a sample of 80 companies listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange during 2010-2017, the study finds that independence and AC Gender diversity are strongly related to financial reporting quality. In fact, these two characteristics constrain REM. The results also suggest that AC-financial expertise reduces to some extent, the likelihood of engaging in REM. These conclusions provide support then to the audit committee requirement under the Dutch Corporate Governance Code rules regarding gender diversity and AC meetings.

Keywords: audit committee, financial expertise, independence, real earnings management

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285 Bridging the Gap: Theoretical Challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies and the Language Industry

Authors: Alvaro Marin

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This paper explores the challenges in Cognitive Translation Studies (CTS) conceptual development to accommodate professionals’ perceptions in the language industry into CTS established theoretical apparatus, empirical research projects, and university pedagogical proposals. A comparative conceptual assessment framework is developed from a pluralist epistemological stance that promotes interdisciplinary explorations of the translation process. The framework is used to review key notions such as expertise or feedback, as understood by language industry stakeholders. This review is followed by an analysis of how these notions can enrich research constructs to be applied in empirical investigations of translators’ cognitive processes from an embedded, situated cognition perspective. Thus, it will be proposed to apply the conceptual assessment framework as an effort towards strengthening the interpretative research tools and bridging the gap between industry and academia. The conclusions of this analysis will serve as a basis to further discuss how professional practices, combined with our current knowledge about expertise development in cognitive science and Expertise Studies, can enhance the learning experience of university translation students and help them better understand the processes and requirements of professional cross-linguistic mediation.

Keywords: language industry, cognitive translation studies, translation cognitive theory, translation teaching

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284 Utilization of Multi-Criteria Evaluation in Forensic Engineering and the Expertise outside Wall Subsystem

Authors: Tomas Barnak, Libor Matejka

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The aim of this study is to create a standard application using multi-criteria evaluation in the field of forensic engineering. This situation can occur in the professional assessment in several cases such as when it is necessary to consider more criteria variant of the structural subsystems, more variants according to several criteria based on a court claim, which requires expert advice. A problematic situation arises when it is necessary to clearly determine the ranking of the options according to established criteria, and reduce subjective evaluation. For the procurement in the field of construction which is based on the prepared text of the law not only economic criteria but also technical, technological and environmental criteria will be determined. This fact substantially changes the style of evaluation of individual bids. For the above-mentioned needs of procurement, the unification of expert’s decisions and the use of multi-criteria assessment seem to be a reasonable option. In the case of experimental verification when using multi-criteria evaluation of alternatives construction subsystem the economic, technical, technological and environmental criteria will be compared. The core of the solution is to compare a selected number of set criteria, application methods and evaluation weighting based on the weighted values assigned to each of the criteria to use multi-criteria evaluation methods. The sequence of individual variations is determined by the evaluation of the importance of the values of corresponding criteria concerning expertise in the problematic of outside wall constructional subsystems.

Keywords: criteria, expertise, multi-criteria evaluation, outside wall subsystems

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283 Music Reading Expertise Facilitates Implicit Statistical Learning of Sentence Structures in a Novel Language: Evidence from Eye Movement Behavior

Authors: Sara T. K. Li, Belinda H. J. Chung, Jeffery C. N. Yip, Janet H. Hsiao

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Music notation and text reading both involve statistical learning of music or linguistic structures. However, it remains unclear how music reading expertise influences text reading behavior. The present study examined this issue through an eye-tracking study. Chinese-English bilingual musicians and non-musicians read English sentences, Chinese sentences, musical phrases, and sentences in Tibetan, a language novel to the participants, with their eye movement recorded. Each set of stimuli consisted of two conditions in terms of structural regularity: syntactically correct and syntactically incorrect musical phrases/sentences. They then completed a sentence comprehension (for syntactically correct sentences) or a musical segment/word recognition task afterwards to test their comprehension/recognition abilities. The results showed that in reading musical phrases, as compared with non-musicians, musicians had a higher accuracy in the recognition task, and had shorter reading time, fewer fixations, and shorter fixation duration when reading syntactically correct (i.e., in diatonic key) than incorrect (i.e., in non-diatonic key/atonal) musical phrases. This result reflects their expertise in music reading. Interestingly, in reading Tibetan sentences, which was novel to both participant groups, while non-musicians did not show any behavior differences between reading syntactically correct or incorrect Tibetan sentences, musicians showed a shorter reading time and had marginally fewer fixations when reading syntactically correct sentences than syntactically incorrect ones. However, none of the musicians reported discovering any structural regularities in the Tibetan stimuli after the experiment when being asked explicitly, suggesting that they may have implicitly acquired the structural regularities in Tibetan sentences. This group difference was not observed when they read English or Chinese sentences. This result suggests that music reading expertise facilities reading texts in a novel language (i.e., Tibetan), but not in languages that the readers are already familiar with (i.e., English and Chinese). This phenomenon may be due to the similarities between reading music notations and reading texts in a novel language, as in both cases the stimuli follow particular statistical structures but do not involve semantic or lexical processing. Thus, musicians may transfer their statistical learning skills stemmed from music notation reading experience to implicitly discover structures of sentences in a novel language. This speculation is consistent with a recent finding showing that music reading expertise modulates the processing of English nonwords (i.e., words that do not follow morphological or orthographic rules) but not pseudo- or real words. These results suggest that the modulation of music reading expertise on language processing depends on the similarities in the cognitive processes involved. It also has important implications for the benefits of music education on language and cognitive development.

Keywords: eye movement behavior, eye-tracking, music reading expertise, sentence reading, structural regularity, visual processing

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282 Modeling the Acquisition of Expertise in a Sequential Decision-Making Task

Authors: Cristóbal Moënne-Loccoz, Rodrigo C. Vergara, Vladimir López, Domingo Mery, Diego Cosmelli

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Our daily interaction with computational interfaces is plagued of situations in which we go from inexperienced users to experts through self-motivated exploration of the same task. In many of these interactions, we must learn to find our way through a sequence of decisions and actions before obtaining the desired result. For instance, when drawing cash from an ATM machine, choices are presented in a step-by-step fashion so that a specific sequence of actions must be performed in order to produce the expected outcome. But, as they become experts in the use of such interfaces, do users adopt specific search and learning strategies? Moreover, if so, can we use this information to follow the process of expertise development and, eventually, predict future actions? This would be a critical step towards building truly adaptive interfaces that can facilitate interaction at different moments of the learning curve. Furthermore, it could provide a window into potential mechanisms underlying decision-making behavior in real world scenarios. Here we tackle this question using a simple game interface that instantiates a 4-level binary decision tree (BDT) sequential decision-making task. Participants have to explore the interface and discover an underlying concept-icon mapping in order to complete the game. We develop a Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based approach whereby a set of stereotyped, hierarchically related search behaviors act as hidden states. Using this model, we are able to track the decision-making process as participants explore, learn and develop expertise in the use of the interface. Our results show that partitioning the problem space into such stereotyped strategies is sufficient to capture a host of exploratory and learning behaviors. Moreover, using the modular architecture of stereotyped strategies as a Mixture of Experts, we are able to simultaneously ask the experts about the user's most probable future actions. We show that for those participants that learn the task, it becomes possible to predict their next decision, above chance, approximately halfway through the game. Our long-term goal is, on the basis of a better understanding of real-world decision-making processes, to inform the construction of interfaces that can establish dynamic conversations with their users in order to facilitate the development of expertise.

Keywords: behavioral modeling, expertise acquisition, hidden markov models, sequential decision-making

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281 Virtual Team Performance: A Transactive Memory System Perspective

Authors: Belbaly Nassim

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Virtual teams (VT) initiatives, in which teams are geographically dispersed and communicate via modern computer-driven technologies, have attracted increasing attention from researchers and professionals. The growing need to examine how to balance and optimize VT is particularly important given the exposure experienced by companies when their employees encounter globalization and decentralization pressures to monitor VT performance. Hence, organization is regularly limited due to misalignment between the behavioral capabilities of the team’s dispersed competences and knowledge capabilities and how trust issues interplay and influence these VT dimensions and the effects of such exchanges. In fact, the future success of business depends on the extent to which VTs are managing efficiently their dispersed expertise, skills and knowledge to stimulate VT creativity. Transactive memory system (TMS) may enhance VT creativity using its three dimensons: knowledge specialization, credibility and knowledge coordination. TMS can be understood as a composition of both a structural component residing of individual knowledge and a set of communication processes among individuals. The individual knowledge is shared while being retrieved, applied and the learning is coordinated. TMS is driven by the central concept that the system is built on the distinction between internal and external memory encoding. A VT learns something new and catalogs it in memory for future retrieval and use. TMS uses the role of information technology to explain VT behaviors by offering VT members the possibility to encode, store, and retrieve information. TMS considers the members of a team as a processing system in which the location of expertise both enhances knowledge coordination and builds trust among members over time. We build on TMS dimensions to hypothesize the effects of specialization, coordination, and credibility on VT creativity. In fact, VTs consist of dispersed expertise, skills and knowledge that can positively enhance coordination and collaboration. Ultimately, this team composition may lead to recognition of both who has expertise and where that expertise is located; over time, the team composition may also build trust among VT members over time developing the ability to coordinate their knowledge which can stimulate creativity. We also assess the reciprocal relationship between TMS dimensions and VT creativity. We wish to use TMS to provide researchers with a theoretically driven model that is empirically validated through survey evidence. We propose that TMS provides a new way to enhance and balance VT creativity. This study also provides researchers insight into the use of TMS to influence positively VT creativity. In addition to our research contributions, we provide several managerial insights into how TMS components can be used to increase performance within dispersed VTs.

Keywords: virtual team creativity, transactive memory systems, specialization, credibility, coordination

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280 Three-Dimensional Model of Leisure Activities: Activity, Relationship, and Expertise

Authors: Taekyun Hur, Yoonyoung Kim, Junkyu Lim

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Previous works on leisure activities had been categorizing activities arbitrarily and subjectively while focusing on a single dimension (e.g. active-passive, individual-group). To overcome these problems, this study proposed a Korean leisure activities’ matrix model that considered multidimensional features of leisure activities, which was comprised of 3 main factors and 6 sub factors: (a) Active (physical, mental), (b) Relational (quantity, quality), (c) Expert (entry barrier, possibility of improving). We developed items for measuring the degree of each dimension for every leisure activity. Using the developed Leisure Activities Dimensions (LAD) questionnaire, we investigated the presented dimensions of a total of 78 leisure activities which had been enjoyed by most Koreans recently (e.g. watching movie, taking a walk, watching media). The study sample consisted of 1348 people (726 men, 658 women) ranging in age from teenagers to elderlies in their seventies. This study gathered 60 data for each leisure activity, a total of 4860 data, which were used for statistical analysis. First, this study compared 3-factor model (Activity, Relation, Expertise) fit with 6-factor model (physical activity, mental activity, relational quantity, relational quality, entry barrier, possibility of improving) fit by using confirmatory factor analysis. Based on several goodness-of-fit indicators, the 6-factor model for leisure activities was a better fit for the data. This result indicates that it is adequate to take account of enough dimensions of leisure activities (6-dimensions in our study) to specifically apprehend each leisure attributes. In addition, the 78 leisure activities were cluster-analyzed with the scores calculated based on the 6-factor model, which resulted in 8 leisure activity groups. Cluster 1 (e.g. group sports, group musical activity) and Cluster 5 (e.g. individual sports) had generally higher scores on all dimensions than others, but Cluster 5 had lower relational quantity than Cluster 1. In contrast, Cluster 3 (e.g. SNS, shopping) and Cluster 6 (e.g. playing a lottery, taking a nap) had low scores on a whole, though Cluster 3 showed medium levels of relational quantity and quality. Cluster 2 (e.g. machine operating, handwork/invention) required high expertise and mental activity, but low physical activity. Cluster 4 indicated high mental activity and relational quantity despite low expertise. Cluster 7 (e.g. tour, joining festival) required not only moderate degrees of physical activity and relation, but low expertise. Lastly, Cluster 8 (e.g. meditation, information searching) had the appearance of high mental activity. Even though clusters of our study had a few similarities with preexisting taxonomy of leisure activities, there was clear distinctiveness between them. Unlike the preexisting taxonomy that had been created subjectively, we assorted 78 leisure activities based on objective figures of 6-dimensions. We also could identify that some leisure activities, which used to belong to the same leisure group, were included in different clusters (e.g. filed ball sports, net sports) because of different features. In other words, the results can provide a different perspective on leisure activities research and be helpful for figuring out what various characteristics leisure participants have.

Keywords: leisure, dimensional model, activity, relationship, expertise

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279 Assessing the Celebrity Effects on Change in Brand Association and Consumer’s Attitude in a Celebrity-Collaborated Fashion Brand in Hong Kong

Authors: Chu Wai Ching, Kan Chi Wai

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Fashion industry is fast moving with intense competitions; it is hard for fashion retailers to stand out among their peers. In order to promote and enhance uniqueness, fashion retailers have collaborated with different brands or celebrity in their marketing campaign recently. As brand-celebrity collaboration is a growing phenomenon in the Hong Kong fashion industry, this research aims to investigate the effect of celebrity on altering consumer’s brand association and the overall attitude towards the co-branded products. One of the popular celebrity-collaborated fashion brands was chosen for this study and a survey was conducted among university students in Hong Kong which yielded 222 responses. By using factor analysis, linear regression and bootstrap test for the mediation, the results show that three celebrity attributes namely “expertise”, “trustworthiness” and “attractiveness” affect the evaluation of the co-branded products. In addition, the change in the association of the brand and co-branded product attributes mediates the relationship between the characteristics of the celebrity and the overall attitude of the co-branded product. The result shows “expertise” of the celebrity has a perfect mediation, while “trustworthiness” and “attractiveness” of the celebrity have partial mediation. This implies that expertise of the celebrity is capable in altering the association towards both the brand and core product attributes and bringing a positive attitude towards the co-brand. The trustworthiness and the attractiveness of the celebrity are able to alter the consumer association towards the brand, but do not guarantee a complete positive attitude towards the co-branded product. This means that change in brand attributes is not a definite mediator as direct relationship may happen or there may be other factors that can affect the relationship between the celebrity’s persuasiveness and the overall attitude towards the co-branded collection.

Keywords: brand attribute, brand-celebrity collaborations, co-branding, fashion industry

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278 Design Off-Campus Interactive Cloud-Based Learning Model

Authors: Osamah Al Qadoori

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Using cloud computing in educational sectors grow rapidly in UAE. Initially, within Cloud-Learning Environment Students whenever and wherever can remotely join the online-classroom, on the other hand, Cloud-Based Learning is greatly decreasing the infrastructure and the maintenance cost. Nowadays in many schools (K-12), institutes, colleges as well as universities in UAE Cloud-Based Teaching and Learning environments gain a higher demand and concern. Many students don’t use the available online-educational resources effectively. The challenging question is to which extend these educational resources which are installed in the cloud environment are valuable and constructive? In this paper the researcher is seeking to design an expert agent prototype where the huge information being accommodated inside the cloud environment will go through expert filtration before going to be utilized by other clients (students). To achieve this goal, the focus of the present research would be on two different directions the educational human expertise and the automated-educational expert systems.

Keywords: cloud computing, cloud-learning environment, online-classroom, the educational human expertise, the automated-educational expert systems

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277 A Study on the Relation between Auditor Rotation and Audit Quality in Iranian Firms

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Marjan Fayyazi, Parisa Sefati

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Audit quality is a popular topic in accounting and auditing research because recent decades’ financial crises reduce the reliability of financial reports to public investors and cause significant doubt about the audit profession. Therefore, doing research to identify effective factors in improving audit quality is necessary for bringing back public investors’ trust to financial statements as well as audit reports. In this study, we explore the relationship between audit rotation and audit quality. For this purpose, we employ the Duff (2009) model of audit quality to measure audit quality and use a questionnaire survey of 27 audit service quality attributes. Our results show that there is a negative relationship between auditor’s rotation and audit quality as we consider the auditor’s reputation, capability, assurance, experience, and responsiveness as surrogates for audit quality. There is no evidence for verifying a same relationship when we use the auditor’s independence and expertise for measuring audit quality.

Keywords: audit quality, auditor’s rotation, reputation, capability, assurance, experience, responsiveness, independence, expertise

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276 A Q-Methodology Approach for the Evaluation of Land Administration Mergers

Authors: Tsitsi Nyukurayi Muparari, Walter Timo De Vries, Jaap Zevenbergen

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The nature of Land administration accommodates diversity in terms of both spatial data handling activities and the expertise involved, which supposedly aims to satisfy the unpredictable demands of land data and the diverse demands of the customers arising from the land. However, it is known that strategic decisions of restructuring are in most cases repelled in favour of complex structures that strive to accommodate professional diversity and diverse roles in the field of Land administration. Yet despite of this widely accepted knowledge, there is scanty theoretical knowledge concerning the psychological methodologies that can extract the deeper perceptions from the diverse spatial expertise in order to explain the invisible control arm of the polarised reception of the ideas of change. This paper evaluates Q methodology in the context of a cadastre and land registry merger (under one agency) using the Swedish cadastral system as a case study. Precisely, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of Q methodology towards modelling the diverse psychological perceptions of spatial professionals who are in a widely contested decision of merging the cadastre and land registry components of Land administration using the Swedish cadastral system as a case study. An empirical approach that is prescribed by Q methodology starts with the concourse development, followed by the design of statements and q sort instrument, selection of the participants, the q-sorting exercise, factor extraction by PQMethod and finally narrative development by logic of abduction. The paper uses 36 statements developed from a dominant competing value theory that stands out on its reliability and validity, purposively selects 19 participants to do the Qsorting exercise, proceeds with factor extraction from the diversity using varimax rotation and judgemental rotation provided by PQMethod and effect the narrative construction using the logic abduction. The findings from the diverse perceptions from cadastral professionals in the merger decision of land registry and cadastre components in Sweden’s mapping agency (Lantmäteriet) shows that focus is rather inclined on the perfection of the relationship between the legal expertise and technical spatial expertise. There is much emphasis on tradition, loyalty and communication attributes which concern the organisation’s internal environment rather than innovation and market attributes that reveals customer behavior and needs arising from the changing humankind-land needs. It can be concluded that Q methodology offers effective tools that pursues a psychological approach for the evaluation and gradations of the decisions of strategic change through extracting the local perceptions of spatial expertise.

Keywords: cadastre, factor extraction, land administration merger, land registry, q-methodology, rotation

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275 Summary of the Actual Conditions of SME Management Consultants

Authors: Takao Maeda, Tomofumi Tohara, Shigeaki Mishima

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Focusing on the “SME management consultants” in Japan, this study intends (1) to clarify implications as to their self-actualization, motivation and (2) to revitalize SMEs, on which local economies depend. On the basis of these study purposes, the presenters conducted an interview survey of several SME management consultants and SME managers. This survey identified the current circumstances and challenges as follow: SME management consultants are high-level professionals who acquired very difficult national qualifications (examination pass rate 4%) to provide consultation and business analysis for SMEs. Nevertheless, only 20% of the qualified consultants run their business independently, while the rest (80%) are corporate employees as in-house consultants, the majority of whom belong to big companies. They acquired the qualification merely for the purpose of self-development. Therefore, they have few opportunities to demonstrate their expertise inside and outside their companies.On the other hand, the SMEs, which are to receive analysis and consultation from SME management consultants, constitute 99.7% of all industries, and are very important to local communities, for they sustain the economy and provide employment. SMEs used to be supported by the consultants in company management due to their scarce managerial resources compared with big companies. Nowadays, however, SMEs are regarded as the source of Japanese economic dynamism. To have the same degree of managerial skills as big companies, therefore, SMEs now need analysis and consultation by the consultants in more active ways, such as discovering and utilizing their dormant technologies. Partly because SME management consultants have not been fully utilized in Japan, the number of SMEs has been on a long-term downward trend since 1986. Utilizing expertise of the in-house consultants, who have rich experience in their big companies and deep knowledge regarding SMEs obtained through qualification, will potentially lead to revitalization of SMEs and consequently to economic growth in Japan. Through detailed analysis of the interview results, this study revealed short-term and long-term challenges regarding how to utilize SME management consultants. The most urgent issue is to study managerial approaches that will provide the consultants serving in big companies with more “opportunities to demonstrate their expertise.” The long-term issue is to enable the consultants to demonstrate their expertise in financial institutions, or financial supporter of SMEs, to examine farsighted and innovative financing strategy and criteria based on managers’ personalities and their business plans, instead of the conventional financing based on prompt fund collection.

Keywords: small and medium enterprise(SME), SME managemant consultant, self-actualization, motivation

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274 ‘Doctor Knows Best’: Reconsidering Paternalism in the NICU

Authors: Rebecca Greenberg, Nipa Chauhan, Rashad Rehman

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Paternalism, in its traditional form, seems largely incompatible with Western medicine. In contrast, Family-Centred Care, a partial response to historically authoritative paternalism, carries its own challenges, particularly when operationalized as family-directed care. Specifically, in neonatology, decision-making is left entirely to Substitute Decision Makers (most commonly parents). Most models of shared decision-making employ both the parents’ and medical team’s perspectives but do not recognize the inherent asymmetry of information and experience – asking parents to act like physicians to evaluate technical data and encourage physicians to refrain from strong medical opinions and proposals. They also do not fully appreciate the difficulties in adjudicating which perspective to prioritize and, moreover, how to mitigate disagreement. Introducing a mild form of paternalism can harness the unique skillset both parents and clinicians bring to shared decision-making and ultimately work towards decision-making in the best interest of the child. The notion expressed here is that within the model of shared decision-making, mild paternalism is prioritized inasmuch as optimal care is prioritized. This mild form of paternalism is known as Beneficent Paternalism and justifies our encouragement for physicians to root down in their own medical expertise to propose treatment plans informed by medical expertise, standards of care, and the parents’ values. This does not mean that we forget that paternalism was historically justified on ‘beneficent’ grounds; however, our recommendation is that a re-integration of mild paternalism is appropriate within our current Western healthcare climate. Through illustrative examples from the NICU, this paper explores the appropriateness and merits of Beneficent Paternalism and ultimately its use in promoting family-centered care, patient’s best interests and reducing moral distress. A distinctive feature of the NICU is the fact that communication regarding a patient’s treatment is exclusively done with substitute decision-makers and not the patient, i.e., the neonate themselves. This leaves the burden of responsibility entirely on substitute decision-makers and the clinical team; the patient in the NICU does not have any prior wishes, values, or beliefs that can guide decision-making on their behalf. Therefore, the wishes, values, and beliefs of the parent become the map upon which clinical proposals are made, giving extra weight to the family’s decision-making responsibility. This leads to why Family Directed Care is common in the NICU, where shared decision-making is mandatory. However, the zone of parental discretion is not as all-encompassing as it is currently considered; there are appropriate times when the clinical team should strongly root down in medical expertise and perhaps take the lead in guiding family decision-making: this is just what it means to adopt Beneficent Paternalism.

Keywords: care, ethics, expertise, NICU, paternalism

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273 Investigating Translations of Websites of Pakistani Public Offices

Authors: Sufia Maroof

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This empirical study investigated the web-translations of five Pakistani public offices (FPSC, FIA, HEC, USB, and Ministry of Finance) offering Urdu tab as an option to access information on their official websites. Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative research design informed the researcher of the semantic, lexical and syntactic caveats in these translations. The study hypothesized that majority of the Pakistani population is oblivious of the Supreme Court’s amendments in language policy concerning national and official language; hence, Urdu web-translations of the public departments have not been accessed effectively. Firstly, the researcher conducted an online survey, comprising of two sections, close ended and short answer based questions. Secondly, the researcher compiled corpus of the five selected websites in a tabular form to compare the data. Thirdly, the administrators of the departments had been contacted regarding the methods of translation and the expertise of the personnel involved. The corpus was assessed for TQA after examining the lexical, semantic, syntactical and technical alignment inaccuracies and imperfections. The study suggests the public offices to invest in their Urdu webs by either hiring expert translators or engaging expertise of a translation agency for this project to offer quality translation to public.

Keywords: machine translations, public offices, Urdu translations, websites

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272 Creating a Professional Knowledge Base for Multi-Grade Teaching: Case Studies

Authors: Matshidiso Joyce Taole, Linley Cornish

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Teacher’s professional knowledge has become the focus of interest over decades and the interest has intensified in the 21st century. Teachers are expected to develop their professional academic expertise continually, on an ongoing basis. Such professional development may relate to acquiring enhanced expertise in terms of leadership, curriculum development, teaching and learning, assessment of/for learning and feedback for enhanced learning. The paper focuses on professional knowledge base required for teachers in multi-grade contexts. This paper argues that although teacher knowledge is strongly related to individual experiences and contexts, there are elements of teacher knowledge that are particular to multi-grade context. The study employed qualitative design using interviews and observations. The participants were multi-grade teachers and teaching principals. The study revealed that teachers need to develop skills such as learner grouping, differentiating the curriculum, planning, time management and be life-long learners so that they stay relevant and up to date with developments not only in the education sector but globally. This will help teachers to learn increasingly sophisticated methods for engaging the diverse needs of students in their classrooms.

Keywords: curriculum differentiation, multi-grade, planning, teacher knowledge

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271 Impact of E-Commerce Integrated for Export Marketing on Performance of Thai Export Businesses

Authors: Peerawat Chailom, Pimgarn Suwan-Natada

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The objective of this study is to examine the effects of e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy on export advantage and firm performance. This study indicates that e-commerce infrastructure, organizational learning for e-commerce, and internet dissemination were antecedent of e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy. In additional, export expertise is moderating variable of the research. In this study, 151 export businesses in Thailand are the sample of study. The results of study indicate that e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy has significant positive influences on export advantage and export performance. Moreover, e-commerce infrastructure, organizational learning for e-commerce, and internet dissemination are have positive effects on e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy. For moderating effect, export expertise significant influences on the relationships between e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy and export advantage, and significant influences on the relationships between e-commerce integrated for export marketing strategy and export performance. Theoretical and practical implications are presented. Conclusion and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Keywords: e-commerce integrated for export marketing, e-commerce infrastructure, organizational learning for e-commerce, export performance

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270 A Mixed-method Study of Psychological Empowerment in Child Protection Practitioners

Authors: Amy Bromley

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Child protection practitioners are a vital part of systems designed to protect children from abuse and neglect. Reforms in Anglo-American systems have shown a trend towards compliance-culture that reduces practitioner autonomy and empowerment, increasing staff turnover and negatively impacting outcomes for children. This explanatory mixed-methods study examined psychological empowerment in a national sample of child protection practitioners in Australia (n=109) using the Psychological Empowerment Instrument followed by semi-structured interviews (n=19). The results show that practitioners experience the sub-dimensions of psychological empowerment differently, perceiving themselves to have high levels of competence and satisfaction in their work but limited opportunities for self-determination and low levels of impact on decision-making in their organizations. The qualitative data revealed that practitioners do not trust systemic reforms and have experienced them as ineffective, politically driven, and bureaucratic. The increased compliance demanded from these reforms has left practitioners feeling that their expertise is not valued, leading many to leave their organizations. The practitioners who remain employed in child protection identified their use of advocacy, curiosity, and child-centered values as ways of protecting their psychological empowerment. The findings highlight the ways psychological empowerment can be promoted within child protection systems, improving staff retention and building expertise.

Keywords: child protection, implementation, psychological empowerment, systems theory

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269 Artificial Intelligence in Disease Diagnosis

Authors: Shalini Tripathi, Pardeep Kumar

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The method of translating observed symptoms into disease names is known as disease diagnosis. The ability to solve clinical problems in a complex manner is critical to a doctor's effectiveness in providing health care. The accuracy of his or her expertise is crucial to the survival and well-being of his or her patients. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has a huge economic influence depending on how well it is applied. In the medical sector, human brain-simulated intellect can help not only with classification accuracy, but also with reducing diagnostic time, cost and pain associated with pathologies tests. In light of AI's present and prospective applications in the biomedical, we will identify them in the paper based on potential benefits and risks, social and ethical consequences and issues that might be contentious but have not been thoroughly discussed in publications and literature. Current apps, personal tracking tools, genetic tests and editing programmes, customizable models, web environments, virtual reality (VR) technologies and surgical robotics will all be investigated in this study. While AI holds a lot of potential in medical diagnostics, it is still a very new method, and many clinicians are uncertain about its reliability, specificity and how it can be integrated into clinical practice without jeopardising clinical expertise. To validate their effectiveness, more systemic refinement of these implementations, as well as training of physicians and healthcare facilities on how to effectively incorporate these strategies into clinical practice, will be needed.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, medical diagnosis, virtual reality, healthcare ethical implications 

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268 Novel Practices in Research and Innovation Management

Authors: A. Ravinder Nath, D. Jaya Prakash, T. Venkateshwarlu, P. Raja Rao

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The introduction of novel practices in research and innovation management at the university are likely to make a real difference in improving the quality of life and boost the global competitiveness for sustainable economic growth. Establishment a specific institutional structure at the university level provides professional management and administrative expertise to the university’s research community by sourcing out funding opportunities, extending guidance in grant proposal preparation and submission and also assisting in the post award reporting and regulatory observance. In addition to these it can involve in negotiating fair and equitable research contracts. Further it administer research governance to provide support and encourage collaborations across all disciplines of the university with industry, government, community based organizations, foundations, and associations at the local, regional, national and international levels/scales. The partnerships in research and innovation are more powerful and far needed tools for knowledge-based economy, where the universities can offer the services of much wanted human resources to promote, foster, and sustain excellence in research. In addition to this the institutes provide amply desired infrastructure and expertise to work with the investigators, and the industry will generate required financial resources in a coordinated manner. Further it is possible to carryout high-end applied research and synergizes the research capabilities and professional skills of students, faculty, scientists, and industrial work force.

Keywords: collaborations, competitiveness, contracts, governance

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267 A BIM-Based Approach to Assess COVID-19 Risk Management Regarding Indoor Air Ventilation and Pedestrian Dynamics

Authors: T. Delval, C. Sauvage, Q. Jullien, R. Viano, T. Diallo, B. Collignan, G. Picinbono

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In the context of the international spread of COVID-19, the Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment (CSTB) has led a joint research with the French government authorities Hauts-de-Seine department, to analyse the risk in school spaces according to their configuration, ventilation system and spatial segmentation strategy. This paper describes the main results of this joint research. A multidisciplinary team involving experts in indoor air quality/ventilation, pedestrian movements and IT domains was established to develop a COVID risk analysis tool based on Building Information Model. The work started with specific analysis on two pilot schools in order to provide for the local administration specifications to minimize the spread of the virus. Different recommendations were published to optimize/validate the use of ventilation systems and the strategy of student occupancy and student flow segmentation within the building. This COVID expertise has been digitized in order to manage a quick risk analysis on the entire building that could be used by the public administration through an easy user interface implemented in a free BIM Management software. One of the most interesting results is to enable a dynamic comparison of different ventilation system scenarios and space occupation strategy inside the BIM model. This concurrent engineering approach provides users with the optimal solution according to both ventilation and pedestrian flow expertise.

Keywords: BIM, knowledge management, system expert, risk management, indoor ventilation, pedestrian movement, integrated design

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266 The Precarious Chinese Ecology of Financial Expertise: Discontent in the Mix

Authors: Giulia Dal Maso

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Within the contemporary financial capitalist configuration, the interplay of Chinese statecraft and financialization has shaped a new ‘ecology of financial expertise.’ This indicates the emergence of a new financial technocratic governance; that is increasingly changing the Chinese economy, reducing the state’s administrative and fiscal functions and increasing state assets in accordance with a new shareholder logic. In this shift, the creation of the stock market by the state was conceived not only as a new redistributor of wealth but as a ‘clearing house’ for social discontent resulting from work casualization, wage repression and a lack of social welfare. Since its inception in the wake of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms, the Chinese state has used the stock market as a means of securing social legitimation by providing a prearranged space where the disaggregated and vulnerable subjects left behind by the dismantlement of the collective work units of the Maoist period (danwei) can congregate. However, fieldwork which included both participant observation as well as interviews with investors in brokerage rooms in Shanghai (where one of only two mainland Chinese stock exchanges is situated) reveals that both new formal and informal financial experts—namely the haigui (Chinese returnees with a financial degree abroad) and sanhu (individual Chinese scattered players), are equally dissatisfied with their investing activities. They express discontent with the state, which they hold responsible for the summer 2015 financial crisis and for the financial turmoil that jeopardizes China’s financial and political project. What the investors want is a state that will guarantee the continuation of the current gupiaore ‘stock fever’. This paper holds that, by embracing financialization, the state is undermining the contract at the base of its legitimacy.

Keywords: Chinese state, Deng Xiaoping, financial capitalism, individual investors

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265 Corporate Governance and Audit Report Lag: The Case of Tunisian Listed Companies

Authors: Lajmi Azhaar, Yab Mdallelah

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This study examines the Tunisian market in which recent events, notably financial scandals, provide an appropriate framework for studying the impact of corporate governance on the audit report lag. Moreover, very little research has been done to examine this relationship in this context. The objective of this work is, therefore, to understand the factors influencing audit report lag, drawing primarily on agency theory (Jensen and Meckling, 1976), which shows that the characteristics of the board of directors have an impact on the report lag (independence, diligence, and size). In addition, the characteristics of the committee also have an impact on the audit report lag (size, independence, diligence, and expertise). Therefore, our research provides empirical evidence on the impact of governance mechanisms attributes on audit report lag. Using a sample of forty-seven (47) Tunisian companies listed on the Tunis Stock Exchange (BVMT) during the period from 2014 to 2019, and basing on the GMM method of the dynamic panel, multivariate analysis shows that most corporate governance attributes have a significant effect on audit report lag. Specifically, the audit committee diligence and the audit committee expertise have a significant and positive effect on audit report lag. But the diligence of the board has a significant and negative effect on audit report lag. However, this study finds no evidence that the audit committee independence, the size, independence, and diligence of the director’s board are associated with the audit report lag. In addition, the results of this study also show that there is a significant effect of some control variables. Finally, we are contributing to this study by using the GMM method of the dynamic panel. We are also using an emerging context that is very poorly developed and exploited by previous studies.

Keywords: governance mechanisms, audit committee, board of directors, audit report lag

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264 Audit Committee Characteristics and Earnings Quality of Listed Food and Beverages Firms in Nigeria

Authors: Hussaini Bala

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There are different opinions in the literature on the relationship between Audit Committee characteristics and earnings management. The mix of opinions makes the direction of their relationship ambiguous. This study investigated the relationship between Audit Committee characteristics and earnings management of listed food and beverages Firms in Nigeria. The study covered the period of six years from 2007 to 2012. Data for the study were extracted from the Firms’ annual reports and accounts. After running the OLS regression, a robustness test was conducted for the validity of statistical inferences. The dependent variable was generated using two steps regression in order to determine the discretionary accrual of the sample Firms. Multiple regression was employed to run the data of the study using Random Model. The results from the analysis revealed a significant association between audit committee characteristics and earnings management of the Firms. While audit committee size and committees’ financial expertise showed an inverse relationship with earnings management, committee’s independence, and frequency of meetings are positively and significantly related to earnings management. In line with the findings, the study recommended among others that listed food and beverages Firms in Nigeria should strictly comply with the provision of Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) and SEC Code of Corporate Governance on the issues regarding Audit Committees. Regulators such as SEC should increase the minimum number of Audit Committee members with financial expertise and also have a statutory position on the maximum number of Audit Committees meetings, which should not be greater than four meetings in a year as SEC code of corporate governance is silent on this.

Keywords: audit committee, earnings management, listed Food and beverages size, leverage, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
263 Survey on Awareness, Knowledge and Practices: Managing Osteoporosis among Practitioners in a Tertiary Hospital, Malaysia

Authors: P. H. Tee, S. M. Zamri, K. M. Kasim, S. K. Tiew

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This study evaluates the management of osteoporosis in a tertiary care government hospital in Malaysia. As the number of admitted patients having osteoporotic fractures is on the rise, osteoporotic medications are an increasing financial burden to government hospitals because they account for half of the orthopedic budget and expenditure. Comprehensive knowledge among practitioners is important to detect early and avoid this preventable disease and its serious complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, and practices in managing osteoporosis among practitioners in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (HTAR), Klang. A questionnaire from an overseas study in managing osteoporosis among primary care physicians is adapted to Malaysia’s Clinical Practice Guideline of Osteoporosis 2012 (revised 2015) and international guidelines were distributed to all orthopedic practitioners in HTAR Klang (including surgeons, orthopedic medical officers), endocrinologists, rheumatologists and geriatricians. The participants were evaluated on their expertise in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment decision and medications for osteoporosis. Collected data were analyzed for all descriptive and statistical analyses as appropriate. All 45 participants responded to the questionnaire. Participants scored highest on expertise in prevention, followed by diagnosis, treatment decision and lastly, medication. Most practitioners stated that own-initiated continuing professional education from articles and books was the most effective way to update their knowledge, followed by attendance in conferences on osteoporosis. This study confirms the importance of comprehensive training and education regarding osteoporosis among tertiary care physicians and surgeons, predominantly in pharmacotherapy, to deliver wholesome care for osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: awareness, knowledge, osteoporosis, practices

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262 Identifying and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Communication Channels between Employees and Management Based on the EFQM Excellence Model

Authors: Mehrdad Hosseinishakib, Mozhgan Chakani, Gholamreza Babaei

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This study aims to investigate the relationship between the bilateral communication channels, communication technologies with effective communications and communication technologies, employee participation in motivated decision-making of employees using the EFQM excellence model in Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj. This research is an applied research in terms of the purpose and is a descriptive survey research in terms of nature and method and assesses the current situation using field studies. The statistical population consists of all employees and managers of Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj including 5442 persons and random sampling was used and sample size is 359 using Cochran formula. Measurement tool is a researcher-made questionnaire with 20 questions including two categories of expertise and general questions. The first category includes general questions about respondents' personal characteristics such as gender and level of education, work experience and courses of study. The second category includes expertise questions of the questionnaire that have been designed to test research hypotheses that its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.916 and its validity was approved according to the vies of teachers and some senior managers of Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj. The results of the analysis of the findings show that there is a significant relationship between mutual communication channels, communication technologies with effective communication between employees and management. There is also a significant relationship between communication technologies and employee motivation and employee participation in their motivated decision-making in Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj.

Keywords: communication channels, effective communication, EFQM model, ANOVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 160