Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 652

Search results for: board of directors

652 Supervisory Board in the Governance of Cooperatives: Disclosing Power Elements in the Selection of Directors

Authors: Kari Huhtala, Iiro Jussila

Abstract:

The supervisory board is assumed to use power in the governance of a firm, but the actual use of power has been scantly investigated. The research question of the paper is “How does the supervisory board use power in the selection of the board of directors”. The data stem from 11 large Finnish agricultural cooperatives. The research approach was qualitative including semi-structured interviews of the board of directors and supervisory board chairpersons. The results were analyzed and interpreted against theories of social power. As a result, the use of power is approached from two perspectives: (1) formal position-based authority and (2) informal power. Central elements of power were the mandate of the supervisory board, the role of the supervisory board, the supervisory board chair, the nomination committee, collaboration between the supervisory board and the board of directors, the role of regions and the role of the board of directors. The study contributes to the academic discussion on corporate governance in cooperatives and on the supervisory board in the context of the two-tier model. Additional research of the model in other countries and of other types of cooperatives would further academic understanding of supervisory boards.

Keywords: board, co-operative, supervisory board, selection, director

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651 Board of Directors Gender Diversity, Board Committees and Financial Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Aminu Baba, Yahaya Danjuma, Ahmad Sule Liman-Katagum

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This paper examines the effects of the board of directors’ diversity on firm performance. We investigate the relationship between the number of women directors on the board and important board committees and financial performance measured as return on assets. Our statistical analysis supports the theoretical position of the effect diversity on financial performance. These studies enhanced the previous studies on the board of director’s gender diversity, board committees, and its impacts on firm financial performance. The study uses data from eighteen (18) Nigerian commercial banks. The study finds that banks with a higher number of females directors on board and board committees have higher Earning per share(EPS)) and Return on Assets (ROA). It also finds that some banks did not even have a single female on its corporate board. Evidence imply that decisions concerning the appointment of women to corporate boards should be on criteria and financial performance. It is recommended that banks can enhance their financial performance by having more female directors on their corporate board.

Keywords: board of directors, gender diversity, board committees, financial performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
650 Board of Directors Characteristics and Credit Union Financial Performance

Authors: Luisa Unda, Kamran Ahmed, Paul Mather

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We examine the effect of board characteristics on the performance and asset quality of credit unions in Australia, using a large sample covering the period 2004-2012. Credit unions are unique in that they are customer-owned financial institutions and directors are democratically elected by members, which is distinctly different from other financial institutions, such as commercial banks. We find that board remuneration, board expertise, and attendance at board meetings have significantly positive impacts on credit union performance and asset quality, while board members who hold multiple directorships (busy directors), have a significant negative impact on credit union performance. Financial performance also improves with larger boards and long-tenured directors in credit unions. All of these relations hold after we control for alternative measures of performance, credit union characteristics and endogeneity problem.

Keywords: credit unions, corporate governance, board of directors, financial performance, Australia, asset quality

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649 Sustainable Development Goals: The Effect of a Board Structure on the Sustainability Performance

Authors: V. Naciti, L. Pulejo, F. Cesaroni

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This study empirically analyzes whether the composition of the board of directors (BoD) enhances sustainability performance, in order to understand how the BoD contribute to the integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their businesses. Hypotheses are developed based on the agency theory and stakeholder theory. Using a system generalized method of the moment (SGMM) two-step estimator, with data from Sustainalytics and Compustat databases for 362 firms in six regions, we find that firms with more diversity on the board and a separation of chair and CEO roles have higher sustainability performance. Moreover, our findings provide that a higher number of independent directors is negatively associated with sustainability performance. This study contributes to the literature on corporate governance and the firm’s performance by demonstrating that the composition of the board of directors contributes to a better sustainability performance: by the implementation of a particular corporate governance mechanism, it is possible to integrate SDGs in the corporate strategy.

Keywords: sustainable development goals, corporate governance, board of directors, sustainability performance

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648 Board of Directors of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises to Go Public: Characteristics and Moderating Factors

Authors: María-José Palacin-Sanchez, Filippo Di Pietro, Reyes Samaniego-Medina

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This article examines, in an institutional context such as Spanish one, the corporate board structure characteristics and determinants in entrepreneurial firms to go public. Specifically, it explores these issues through all the initial public offerings in the Spanish Alternative Equity Market (MAB), which is a market segment for smaller growing companies. The results show that: a) firm size, age of the company, and the reputation of the auditor and the nominated advisor and Corporate Governance Code favour a larger and more independent board structure that enhances its monitoring functions; and b) leverage, opportunities of growth, sector risk and ownership by executive directors all lead towards a smaller broad of directors where the role of entrepreneurship provided by executive directors remains crucial. This reflects the delicate balance of power between small-business entrepreneurs and financial equity market forces, which demand more transparency and monitoring in the companies.

Keywords: board composition, board size, corporate governance, IPO, SMEs

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647 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde

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The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: board of directors, compensation, experience, multilevel, tenure

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646 Board of Directors' Structure and Corporate Restructuring: A Preliminary Evidences

Authors: Norazlan Alias, Mohd. Hasimi Yaacob

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This study examines the impact of governance structure via corporate restructuring decision on selected firm characteristics and performance. Results of selected ratios that represent corporate decision, governance structure and performance in pre and post restructuring are analyzed for some conclusions. This study uses annual data of companies that are consistently listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia and announced completed corporate restructuring. The results show that only debt ratio is significantly different before and after asset restructuring. This study concludes that firms do not view corporate restructuring namely asset restructuring as an opportunity to simultaneous enhance governance structure that could also contribute enhance firm performance and board of directors’ structure subsequent to asset restructuring only has significantly influence on changing capital structure but not on firm performance.

Keywords: board of directors, capital structure, corporate restructuring, performance

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645 Endogeneity between Shari'ah Governance and Board Governance and Its Impact on Financial Stability

Authors: Sabur Mollah, Asma Mobarek

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This study aims to explore the endogenous relationship between Shari’ah governance and board governance for Islamic banks to identify complementary or substituting relationship between these governance parameters. By using a sample of 161 Islamic Banks from 24 countries for the period of 2005-2013, we show an endogenous relationship between Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) and Board of Directors (BoD). In this relationship, SSB and BoD complement each other. We also show that this complementary relationship between SSB and BoD helps enhance both management and asset quality, but mitigates capital adequacy, earnings, and liquidity in Islamic banks. The study has important implications for financial stability in the Islamic banking system.

Keywords: Shari’ah Supervisory Board, Boards of Directors, Islamic banking, financial stability

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644 The Impact of Board of Directors on CEO Compensation: Evidence from the UK

Authors: Saleh Alagla, Murya Habbash

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The paper investigates whether the board of directors plays a monitoring role or not in CEO compensation for the UK firms during the eve of the recent financial crisis, 2004-2008. The use of heteroscedastic and autocorrelated error consistent estimation of the panel data shows, surprisingly, that four board characteristics variables are found to play a significant role in increasing the level of CEO compensation. This insightful result would suggest evidence of the managerial power theory in general and the cronyism hypothesis in particular. Moreover, the interesting evidence supporting managerial power perspective is that CEO-Chair duality reduces long-term compensation while increasing short-term compensation, thus suggesting that CEOs are risk averse who prefer short-term compensation to long-term compensation. Finally, consistent with the agency perspective board size is found to increase all compensation variables as expected.

Keywords: corporate governance, CEO compensation, board of directors, internal governance mechanisms, agency theory, managerial power theory, cronyism hypothesis

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643 Exploring Corporate Governance Structure in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

Authors: Zahra A. Al Nasser, Domenico Campa

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This paper investigates board of directors and firms’ ownership structure on non-financial companies listed in Gulf Cooperation council (GCC) countries using data from 2009 to 2013. The overall result of the study is that board size and board meeting have increased over years. Additionally, all combined committee variables have improved as well as audit committee size, audit committee meeting and audit committee experience have improved over the years. Furthermore, Oman is the only country that has not shown any statistically significant change in value of its associated variables.

Keywords: corporate governance, GCC countries, board of directors, ownership structure

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642 Analyzing the Impact of Board Diversity on Firm Performance: Case Study of the Nigerian Banking Sector

Authors: Data Collete Bob-Manuel

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In light of global financial crisis in 2007-2008 various factors including board diversity, succession planning and board evaluation have been identified as essential ingredients in ensuring board effectiveness. The composition and structure of the board is of outmost importance in assessing a board’s ability and success in achieving its objectives. Following the corporate frauds and accounting scandals such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Oceanic Bank Nigeria and AfriBank Nigeria, there has been a notable amount of research about the effectiveness of the board of directors in the corporate governance of firms. The need to have an effective board cannot be over emphasized as it results in a more stable and thriving company. There has been an overarching need in the business world for a more diverse workforce and board of directors. Big corporations like Texaco, Ford Motors and DuPont have stated how diversity at every level of the workforce including the board of directors has been cited as a vital element for a company to succeed. Developed countries are also seeking for companies to have a more diverse board. For instance Norway has implemented a 60:40 board ratio to all companies. In West Africa, particularly Nigeria, the topic of diversity has received little attention as most studies conducted have focused on the gender aspect of diversity, which results found to have a negative impact on firm performance. This paper seeks to examine four variables of diversity; age, ethnicity, gender and skills to weigh the positive or negative impact the variables have on firm performance, based on evidence from the Nigerian Financial sector. Information used for this study will be gathered from financial statements and annual reports so as to enable the researcher to reflect on past years to know what is being done differently today. The findings of this study will help the researcher to develop a working definition for ethnicity with regards to the West African context where the issue of “tribe” is a sensitive topic.

Keywords: Board of Directors, Board Diversity, Firm Performance, Nigeria

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641 Board Gender Diversity and Firm Sustainable Investment: An Empirical Evidence

Authors: Muhammad Atif, M. Samsul Alam

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of board room gender diversity on firm sustainable investment. We test the extent to which sustainable investment is affected by the presence of female directors on U.S. corporate boards. Using data of S&P 1500 indexed firms collected from Bloomberg covering the period 2004-2016, we estimate the baseline model to investigate the effects of board room gender diversity on firm sustainable investment. We find a positive relationship between board gender diversity and sustainable investment. We also find that boards with two or more women have a pronounced impact on sustainable investment, consistent with the critical mass theory. Female independent directors have a stronger impact on sustainable investment than female executive directors. Our findings are robust to different identification and estimation techniques. The study offers another perspective of the ongoing debate in the social responsibility literature about the accountability relationships between business and society.

Keywords: sustainable investment, gender diversity, environmental proctection, social responsibility

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640 Toward an Appropriate Index for Corporate Governance

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Farzaneh Jalali, Alemeh Yazdanian

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This study contributes to identifying the corporate governance indices in previous researches by using content analysis on relevant papers published in 20 top accounting journals according to Google Scholar ranking, dated from 1990 to 2016. For this purpose, 65 papers are scrutinized deeply, and the concepts of corporate governance are coded and categorized. Then extracted indices are clustered into 10 and 51 categories and subcategories, respectively; and their frequencies are determined. Results show that the board of directors’ characteristics is employed more frequently in reviewed papers, and the board of directors’ independency is the most frequent index within the 97 percent of our sample. Duality, board size, and ownership structure have more frequencies in comparison with other extracted corporate governance indices.

Keywords: corporate governance, content analysis, corporate governance index, top accounting journals

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639 On the Limits of Board Diversity: Impact of Network Effect on Director Appointments

Authors: Vijay Marisetty, Poonam Singh

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Research on the effect of director's network connections on investor welfare is inconclusive. Some studies suggest that directors' connections are beneficial, in terms of, improving earnings information, firms valuation for new investors. On the other hand, adverse effects of directorial networks are also reported, in terms of higher earnings management, options back dating fraud, reduction in firm performance, lower board monitoring. From regulatory perspective, the role of directorial networks on corporate welfare is crucial. Cognizant of the possible ill effects associated with directorial networks, large investors, for better representation on the boards, are building their own database of prospective directors who are highly qualified, however, sourced from outside the highly connected directorial labor market. For instance, following Dodd-Frank Reform Act, California Public Employees' Retirement Systems (CalPERs) has initiated a database for registering aspiring and highly qualified directors to nominate them for board seats (proxy access). Our paper stems from this background and tries to explore the chances of outside directors getting directorships who lack established network connections. The paper is able to identify such aspiring directors' information by accessing a unique Indian data sourced from an online portal that aims to match the supply of registered aspirants with the growing demand for outside directors in India. The online portal's tie-up with stock exchanges ensures firms to access the new pool of directors. Such direct access to the background details of aspiring directors over a period of 10 years, allows us to examine the chances of aspiring directors without corporate network, to enter directorial network. Using this resume data of 16105 aspiring corporate directors in India, who have no prior board experience in the directorial labor market, the paper analyses the entry dynamics in corporate directors' labor market. The database also allows us to investigate the value of corporate network by comparing non-network new entrants with incumbent networked directors. The study develops measures of network centrality and network degree based on merit, i.e. network of individuals belonging to elite educational institutions, like Indian Institute of Management (IIM) or Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) and based on job or company, i.e. network of individuals serving in the same company. The paper then measures the impact of these networks on the appointment of first time directors and subsequent appointment of directors. The paper reports the following main results: 1. The likelihood of becoming a corporate director, without corporate network strength, is only 1 out 100 aspirants. This is inspite of comparable educational background and similar duration of corporate experience; 2. Aspiring non-network directors' elite educational ties help them to secure directorships. However, for post-board appointments, their newly acquired corporate network strength overtakes as their main determinant for subsequent board appointments and compensation. The results thus highlight the limitations in increasing board diversity.

Keywords: aspiring corporate directors, board diversity, director labor market, director networks

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638 The Effect of the 2015 Revision to the Corporate Governance Code on Japanese Listed Firms

Authors: Tomotaka Yanagida

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The Corporate Governance Code, revised in 2015, requires firms listed within the first and second sections of Japan’s Tokyo stock exchange to select two or more independent outside directors (the Corporate Governance Code4-8). Therefore, Japanese listed firms must do this or explain the reason why they are not able to do so. This study investigates how the Corporate Governance Code affects Japanese listed firms. We find that the Corporate Governance Code increases the ratio of outside directors by nearly 8.8% for a sample of Japanese firms comprising nearly 4,200 firm-year observations from 2014 to 2015 using a difference-in-differences approach. This implies that they felt it would have been difficult to explain why it was not appropriate to have an outside director at the annual shareholders' meeting. Moreover, this suggests that they appoint outside directors as defined by the Corporate Governance Code, but maintain board size. This situation shows that compliance in Japan may simply be 'window dressing,' that is, more form than substance.

Keywords: board structure, comply or explain, corporate governance code, soft law

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637 The Characteristics of the Chairman of Board of Directors That Are Associated with Better Levels of Performance

Authors: Abilio Pires Zacarias

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Analyzing company boards of directors is a relevant and timely topic. As the representative of shareholders, the board is the most senior management body of this type of company. Therefore, ascertaining the best kind of candidates to nominate, namely the most appropriate characteristics for leading the board to achieve better levels of performance, is certainly of great interest. The companies selected for this study were the 1,000 largest non-financial companies and the 100 largest financial companies in Portugal according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística for 2010. The information stemmed from a questionnaire addressed to the person in charge of daily company management and then processed through STATA 17 with the multivariate analysis of variables - MANOVA. The study may correspondingly report that the vast majority of boards in the sample operate a dual leadership structure. By in terms of its prevalence, unitary leadership represents only a minority. Agency theory and stewardship theory postulate different characteristics for the ideal chairman but neither receive confirmation from our results. On the other hand, our findings do validate the behavioral theory of firms (BToF), concluding that experience is associated with organizational performance. This study is also relevant due to its analysis of companies not listed on the financial markets not only because of their weighting in the economy but also because they remain only very poorly studied in this field and thus also correspondingly contributing to deepening the literature.

Keywords: agency theory, behavioral theory of the firm, board of directors, corporate governance, stewardship theory

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636 Demographic Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence in the French Context

Authors: Elhem Zaatir, Taher Hamza

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Several governments seek to implement gender parity on boards, but the results of doing so are not clear and could harm corporations and economies. The present paper aims to investigate the relationship between women’s presence on boards and firms’ performance in the context of the French listed firms during the quota period. A dynamic panel generalized method of moment estimation is applied to control the endogenous effect of board structure and reverse the causality impact of the financial performance. Our results show that the impact of gender diversity manifests in conflicting directions, positively affecting accounting performance and negatively influencing market performance. These results suggest that female directors create economic value, but the market discounts their impact. Apparently, they are subject to a biased evaluation by the market, which undervalues their presence on boards. Added to that, our results confirm a twofold nature of female representation in the French market. The effect of female directorship on firm performance varies with the affiliation of the directors. In other words, the positive impact of gender diversity on return on assets primarily originates from the positive effect of non-family-affiliated women directors on market performance rather than on the effect of family-affiliated women directors on ROA. Finally, according to our results, women’s demographic attributes namely the level of education and multiple directorships strongly and positively impact firm performance as measured by return on assets (ROA). Obviously, women directors seem to be appointed to the business case rather than as token directors.

Keywords: corporate governance, board of directors, women, gender diversity, demographic attributes, firm performance

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635 The Impact of Board Characteristics on Firm Performance: Evidence from Banking Industry in India

Authors: Manmeet Kaur, Madhu Vij

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The Board of Directors in a firm performs the primary role of an internal control mechanism. This Study seeks to understand the relationship between internal governance and performance of banks in India. The research paper investigates the effect of board structure (proportion of nonexecutive directors, gender diversity, board size and meetings per year) on the firm performance. This paper evaluates the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on bank’s financial performance using panel data for 28 listed banks in National Stock Exchange of India for the period of 2008-2014. Returns on Asset, Return on Equity, Tobin’s Q and Net Interest Margin were used as the financial performance indicators. To estimate the relationship among governance and bank performance initially the Study uses Pooled Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Estimation and Generalized Least Square (GLS) Estimation. Then a well-developed panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) Estimator is developed to investigate the dynamic nature of performance and governance relationship. The Study empirically confirms that two-step system GMM approach controls the problem of unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity as compared to the OLS and GLS approach. The result suggests that banks with small board, boards with female members, and boards that meet more frequently tend to be more efficient and subsequently have a positive impact on performance of banks. The study offers insights to policy makers interested in enhancing the quality of governance of banks in India. Also, the findings suggest that board structure plays a vital role in the improvement of corporate governance mechanism for financial institutions. There is a need to have efficient boards in banks to improve the overall health of the financial institutions and the economic development of the country.

Keywords: board of directors, corporate governance, GMM estimation, Indian banking

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634 The Impact of Corporate Governance, Ownership Structure, and Cash Holdings on Firm Value with Profitability as Intervening Variable

Authors: Lucy Novianti

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The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of corporate governance, ownership structure, and cash holdings on firm value, either direct or indirect through profitability as an intervening variable for non-financial companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2014. Samples of 176 firms are chosen based on purposive sampling method. The results of this study conclude that profitability, the size of Audit Committee, audit quality, and cash flow have positive effects on firm value. This study also shows that the meeting frequency of the Board of Directors and free cash flow have negative effects on firm value. In addition, this study finds that the size of the Board of Directors, Independent Commissioner, and ownership structure do not have significant effects on firm value. In this study, the function of profitability as an intervening variable can only be done on the impact of the meeting frequency of the Board of Directors and cash flow on firm value. This study provides a reference for management in decision making concerning the application of corporate governance, cash holdings, and financial performance. Moreover, it can be used as additional information for investors in assessing the feasibility of an investment. Finally, it provides a suggestion for the government regarding the regulation of corporate governance.

Keywords: cash holdings, corporate governance, firm value, ownership structure, profitability

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633 Corporate Governance Role of Audit Committees in the Banking Sector: Evidence from Libya

Authors: Abdulaziz Abdulsaleh

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This study aims at identifying the practices that should be taken into consideration by audit committees as a tool of corporate governance in Libyan commercial banks by investigating various perceptions on this topic. The study is based on a questionnaire submitted to audit committees ‘members at Libyan commercial banks, directors of internal audit departments as well as members of board of directors at these banks in addition to a number of external auditors and academic staff from Libyan universities. The study reveals that the role of audit committees has to be shifted from traditional areas of accounting to a broader role including functions related to financial reporting, audit planning, support the independence of internal and external auditors, acting as a channel of communication between external auditors and board of directors, reviewing external audit, and evaluating internal control systems. Although the study is a starting point in developing a framework of good audit committees’ practices in Libya, it is believed that the adoption of its results can result in enhancing the corporate governance practices not only in the banking sector but also in the entire corporate sector in Libya.

Keywords: audit committees, corporate governance, commercial banks, Libya

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632 The Misuse of Free Cash and Earnings Management: An Analysis of the Extent to Which Board Tenure Mitigates Earnings Management

Authors: Michael McCann

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Managerial theories propose that, in joint stock companies, executives may be tempted to waste excess free cash on unprofitable projects to keep control of resources. In order to conceal their projects' poor performance, they may seek to engage in earnings management. On the one hand, managers may manipulate earnings upwards in order to post ‘good’ performances and safeguard their position. On the other, since managers pursuit of unrewarding investments are likely to lead to low long-term profitability, managers will use negative accruals to reduce current year’s earnings, smoothing earnings over time in order to conceal the negative effects. Agency models argue that boards of directors are delegated by shareholders to ensure that companies are governed properly. Part of that responsibility is ensuring the reliability of financial information. Analyses of the impact of board characteristics, particularly board independence on the misuse of free cash flow and earnings management finds conflicting evidence. However, existing characterizations of board independence do not account for such directors gaining firm-specific knowledge over time, influencing their monitoring ability. Further, there is little analysis of the influence of the relative experience of independent directors and executives on decisions surrounding the use of free cash. This paper contributes to this literature regarding the heterogeneous characteristics of boards by investigating the influence of independent director tenure on earnings management and the relative tenures of independent directors and Chief Executives. A balanced panel dataset comprising 51 companies across 11 annual periods from 2005 to 2015 is used for the analysis. In each annual period, firms were classified as conducting earnings management if they had discretionary accruals in the bottom quartile (downwards) and top quartile (upwards) of the distributed values for the sample. Logistical regressions were conducted to determine the marginal impact of independent board tenure and a number of control variables on the probability of conducting earnings management. The findings indicate that both absolute and relative measures of board independence and experience do not have a significant impact on the likelihood of earnings management. It is the level of free cash flow which is the major influence on the probability of earnings management. Higher free cash flow increases the probability of earnings management significantly. The research also investigates whether board monitoring of earnings management is contingent on the level of free cash flow. However, the results suggest that board monitoring is not amplified when free cash flow is higher. This suggests that the extent of earnings management in companies is determined by a range of company, industry and situation-specific factors.

Keywords: corporate governance, boards of directors, agency theory, earnings management

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631 Gender Quotas in Italy: Effects on Corporate Performance

Authors: G. Bruno, A. Ciavarella, N. Linciano

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The proportion of women in boardroom has traditionally been low around the world. Over the last decades, several jurisdictions opted for active intervention, which triggered a tangible progress in female representation. In Europe, many countries have implemented boardroom diversity policies in the form of legal quotas (Norway, Italy, France, Germany) or governance code amendments (United Kingdom, Finland). Policy actions rest, among other things, on the assumption that gender balanced boards result in improved corporate governance and performance. The investigation of the relationship between female boardroom representation and firm value is therefore key on policy grounds. The evidence gathered so far, however, has not produced conclusive results also because empirical studies on the impact of voluntary female board representation had to tackle with endogeneity, due to either differences in unobservable characteristics across firms that may affect their gender policies and governance choices, or potential reverse causality. In this paper, we study the relationship between the presence of female directors and corporate performance in Italy, where the Law 120/2011 envisaging mandatory quotas has introduced an exogenous shock in board composition which may enable to overcome reverse causality. Our sample comprises Italian firms listed on the Italian Stock Exchange and the members of their board of directors over the period 2008-2016. The study relies on two different databases, both drawn from CONSOB, referring respectively to directors and companies’ characteristics. On methodological grounds, information on directors is treated at the individual level, by matching each company with its directors every year. This allows identifying all time-invariant, possibly correlated, elements of latent heterogeneity that vary across firms and board members, such as the firm immaterial assets and the directors’ skills and commitment. Moreover, we estimate dynamic panel data specifications, so accommodating non-instantaneous adjustments of firm performance and gender diversity to institutional and economic changes. In all cases, robust inference is carried out taking into account the bidimensional clustering of observations over companies and over directors. The study shows the existence of a U-shaped impact of the percentage of women in the boardroom on profitability, as measured by Return On Equity (ROE) and Return On Assets. Female representation yields a positive impact when it exceeds a certain threshold, ranging between about 18% and 21% of the board members, depending on the specification. Given the average board size, i.e., around ten members over the time period considered, this would imply that a significant effect of gender diversity on corporate performance starts to emerge when at least two women hold a seat. This evidence supports the idea underpinning the critical mass theory, i.e., the hypothesis that women may influence.

Keywords: gender diversity, quotas, firms performance, corporate governance

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630 Antecedence of Accounting Value: the Role of Board Capital and Control

Authors: Suresh Ramachandra

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Accounting values of firms are determined by strategies that firms pursue which are influenced by board characteristics specific to firms. Using two broad constructs of board characteristics, namely, board capital and board control, in the Malaysian context, this research attempts to infer their conjoint relevance to accounting values. The results of this research indicate that firms are able to increase their accounting values by deliberately selecting board characteristics which include director reputation and political affiliations.

Keywords: accounting values, board characteristics, board capital, board control

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629 The Influence of Remuneration Committees, Directors' Shareholding and Institutional Ownership on the Remuneration of Directors in the Large Listed Companies in South Africa

Authors: Henriette Scholtz

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Excessive executive directors’ remuneration remains a major concern for many stakeholders and are some of the factors to blame for the recent global financial crisis. The objective of this study was to examine whether certain firm characteristics are an effective way of protecting shareholders’ interests with respect to executive directors’ remuneration. To achieve this, an ordinary least squares model was used to test the relationship between the remuneration of executive directors and a number of firm and corporate governance characteristics to determine whether these characteristics have an influence on executive directors’ remuneration of large listed companies in South Africa. It was found that corporate governance reforms relating to institutional ownership, shareholder voting on the remuneration policy and the number of remuneration committee meetings acts as an effective governance tool to protect shareholder’s interests with regard to executive remuneration. There is no evidence that the number of non-executive directors on the remuneration committee has an influence on the executive directors’ remuneration.

Keywords: executive directors’ remuneration, agency theory, corporate governance, remuneration committee, directors’ shareholding, institutional ownership

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628 The Contribution of Boards to Company Performance via Strategic Management

Authors: Peter Crow

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Boards and directors have been subjects of much scholarly research and public interest over several decades, more so since the succession of high profile company failures of the early 2000s. An array of research outputs including information, correlations, descriptions, models, hypotheses and theories have been reported. While some of this research has shed light on aspects of the board–performance relationship and on board tasks and behaviours, the nature and characteristics of the supposed board–performance relationship remain undetermined. That satisfactory explanations of how boards influence company performance have yet to emerge is a significant blind spot. Yet the board is ultimately responsible for company performance, in accordance with the wishes of shareholders. The aim of this paper is to explore corporate governance and board practice through the lens of strategic management, and to take tentative steps towards a new conception of corporate governance. The findings of a recent longitudinal multiple-case study designed to explore the board’s involvement in strategic management are reported. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected from two quasi-public large companies in New Zealand including from first-hand observations of boards in session, semi-structured interviews with chief executives and chairmen and the inspection of company and board documentation. A synthetic timeline framework was used to collate the financial, board structure, board activity and decision-making data, in order to provide a holistic perspective. Decision sequences were identified, and realist techniques of abduction and retroduction were iteratively applied to analyse the multi-year data set. Using several models previously proposed in the literature as a guide, conjectures were formed, tested and refined—the culmination of which was a provisional model of how boards can influence performance via strategic management. The model builds on both existing theoretical perspectives and theoretical models proposed in the corporate governance and strategic management literature. This paper seeks to add to the understanding of how boards can make meaningful contributions to value creation via strategic management, and to comment on the qualities of directors, social interactions in boardrooms and other circumstances within which influence might be possible given the highly contingent relationship between board activity and business performance outcomes.

Keywords: board practice, case study, corporate governance, strategic management

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627 Relationship between Independence Directors and Performance of Firms During Financial Crisis

Authors: Gladie Lui

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The global credit crisis of 2008 aroused renewed interest in the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanisms to safeguard investor interests. In this paper, we measure the effect of the crisis from 2008 to 2009 on the stock performance of 976 Hong Kong-listed companies and examine its link to corporate governance mechanisms. It is evident that the crisis and the economic downturn affected different industries. Empirical results show that firms with an independent board and a high concentration of ownership and management ownership had lower abnormal stock returns, but a lower price volatility during the global financial crisis. These results highlight that no single corporate governance mechanism is fit for all types of financial crises and time frames. To strengthen investors’ confidence in the ability of companies to deal with such swift financial catastrophes, companies should enhance the dynamism and responsiveness of their governance mechanisms in times of turbulence.

Keywords: board of directors, capital market, corporate governance, financial crisis

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626 Effects of Financial and Non-Financial Reports On - Firms Performance

Authors: Vithaya Intaraphimol

Abstract:

This research investigates the effect of financial accounting information and non-financial accounting reports on corporate credibility via strength of board of directors and market environment volatility as moderating effect. Data in this research is collected by questionnaire form non-financial companies listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand. Multiple regression statistic technique is chosen for analyzing the data. The empirical results find that firms with greater financial accounting information reports and non-financial accounting information reports will gain greater corporate credibility. Therefore, the corporate reporting has the value for the firms. Moreover, the strength of board of directors will positively moderate the financial and non-financial accounting information reports and corporate credibility relationship. Whereas, market environment volatility will negatively moderate the financial and nonfinancial accounting information reports and corporate credibility relationship.

Keywords: corporate credibility, financial and non-financial reports, firms performance, economics

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625 The Effect of Corporate Governance to Islamic Banking Performance Using Maqasid Index Approach in Indonesia

Authors: Audia Syafa'atur Rahman, Rozali Haron

Abstract:

The practices of Islamic banking are more attuned to the goals of profit maximization rather than obtaining ethical profit. Ethical profit is obtained from interest-free earnings and to give an impact which benefits to the growth of society and economy. Good corporate governance practices are needed to assure the sustainability of Islamic banks in order to achieve Maqasid Shariah with the main purpose of boosting the well-being of people. The Maqasid Shariah performance measurement is used to measure the duties and responsibilities expected to be performed by Islamic banks. It covers not only unification dimension like financial measurement, but also many dimensions covered to reflect the main purpose of Islamic banks. The implementation of good corporate governance is essential because it covers the interests of the stakeholders and facilitates effective monitoring to encourage Islamic banks to utilize resources more efficiently in order to achieve the Maqasid Shariah. This study aims to provide the empirical evidence on the Maqasid performance of Islamic banks in relation to the Maqasid performance evaluation model, to examine the influence of SSB characteristics and board structures to Islamic Banks performance as measured by Maqasid performance evaluation model. By employing the simple additive weighting method, Maqasid index for all the Islamic Banks in Indonesia within 2012 to 2016 ranged from above 11% to 28%. The Maqasid Syariah performance index where results reached above 20% are obtained by Islamic Banks such as Bank Muamalat Indonesia, Bank Panin Syariah, and Bank BRI Syariah. The consistent achievement above 23% is achieved by BMI. Other Islamic Banks such as Bank Victoria Syariah, Bank Jabar Banten Syariah, Bank BNI Syariah, Bank Mega Syariah, BCA Syariah, and Maybank Syariah Indonesia shows a fluctuating value of the Maqasid performance index every year. The impact of SSB characteristics and board structures are tested using random-effects generalized least square. The findings indicate that SSB characteristics (Shariah Supervisory Board size, Shariah Supervisory Board cross membership, Shariah Supervisory Board Education, and Shariah Supervisory Board reputation) and board structures (Board size and Board independence) have an essential role in improving the performance of Islamic Banks. The findings denote Shariah Supervisory Board with smaller size, higher portion of Shariah Supervisory Board cross membership; lesser Shariah Supervisory Board holds doctorate degree, lesser reputable scholar, more members on board of directors, and less independence non-executive directors will enhance the performance of Islamic Banks.

Keywords: Maqasid Shariah, corporate governance, Islamic banks, Shariah supervisory board

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624 Board Regulation and Its Impact on Composition and Effects: Evidence from German Cooperative Banks

Authors: Markus Stralla

Abstract:

This study employs a GMM framework to examine the impact of potential regulatory intervention regarding the occupations of supervisory board members in cooperative banking. To achieve insights, the study proceeds in two different ways. First, it investigates the changes in board structure prior and following to the German Act to Strengthen Financial Market and Insurance Supervision (FinVAG). Second, the study estimates the influence of Ph.D.Share, professional concentration and supervisory power on bank-risk changes in consideration of the implementation of FinVAG. Therefore, the study is based on a sample of 246 German cooperative banks from 2006-2011 while applying four different measures of bank risk, namely credit-, equity-, liquidity-risk, and Z-Score, with the former three also being addressed in FinVAG. Results indicate that the implementation of FinVAG results in (most likely unintentional) structural changes, especially at the expense of farmers, and affects all risk measures and relations between risk measures and supervisory board characteristics in a risk-reducing and therefore intended way. To disentangle the complex relationship between board characteristics and risk measures, the study utilizes two-step system GMM estimator to account for unobserved heterogeneity and simultaneity in order to reduce endogeneity problems. The findings may be especially relevant for stakeholders, regulators, supervisors and managers.

Keywords: bank governance, bank risk-taking, board of directors, regulation

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623 The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Extent and Quality: The Case of Jordan

Authors: Hani Alkayed, Belal Omar, Eileen Roddy

Abstract:

This study focuses on investigating the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD) extent and quality in Jordan. The study examines factors that influence CSR disclosure extent and quality, such as corporate characteristics (size, gearing, firm’s age, and industry type), corporate governance (board size, number of meetings, non-executive directors, female directors in the board, family directors in the board, foreign members, audit committee, type of external auditors, and CEO duality) and ownership structure (government ownership, institutional ownership, and ownership concentration). Legitimacy theory is utilised as the main theory for our theoretical framework. A quantitative approach is adopted for this research and content analysis technique is used to gather CSR disclosure extent and quality from the annual reports. The sample is withdrawn from the annual reports of 118 Jordanian companies over the period of 2010-2015. A CSRD index is constructed, and includes the disclosures of the following categories; environmental, human resources, product and consumers, and community involvement. A 7 point-scale measurement was developed to examine the quality of disclosure, were 0= No Disclosures, 1= General disclosures, (Non-monetary), 2= General disclosures, (Non-monetary) with pictures, charts, and graphs 3= Descriptive/ qualitative disclosures, specific details (Non-monetary), 4= Descriptive/ qualitative disclosures, specific details with pictures, charts, and graphs, 5= Numeric disclosures, full descriptions with supporting numbers, 6= Numeric disclosures, full descriptions with supporting numbers, pictures, and Charts. This study fills the gap in the literature regarding CSRD in Jordan, and the fact that all the previous studies have ignored a clear categorisation as a measurement of quality. The result shows that the extent of CSRD is higher than the quality in Jordan. Regarding the determinants of CSR disclosures, the followings were found to have a significant relationship with both extent and quality of CSRD except non-executives, were the significant relationship was found just with the extent of CSRD: board size, non-executive directors, firm’s age, foreign members on the board, number of boards meetings, the presence of audit committees, big 4, government ownership, firm’s size, industry type.

Keywords: content analysis, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility disclosure, Jordan, quality of disclosure

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