Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 619

Search results for: polysemantic word

619 The Lexical Eidos as an Invariant of a Polysemantic Word

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

Phenomenological analysis is not based on natural language, but ideal language which is able to be a carrier of ideal meanings – eidos representing typical structures or essences. For this purpose, it’s necessary to release from the spatio-temporal definiteness of a subject and then state its noetic essence (eidos) by means of free fantasy generation. Herewith, as if a totally new objectness is created - the universal, confirming the thesis that thinking process takes place in generalizations passing by numerous means through the specific to the general and from the general through the specific to the singular.

Keywords: lexical eidos, phenomenology, noema, polysemantic word, semantic core

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618 New Ways of Vocabulary Enlargement

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

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Lexical invariants, being a sort of stereotypes within the frames of ordinary consciousness, are created by the members of a language community as a result of uniform division of reality. The invariant meaning is formed in person’s mind gradually in the course of different actualizations of secondary meanings in various contexts. We understand lexical the invariant as abstract language essence containing a set of semantic components. In one of its configurations it is the basis or all or a number of the meanings making up the semantic structure of the word.

Keywords: lexical invariant, invariant theories, polysemantic word, cognitive linguistics

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617 Using Corpora in Semantic Studies of English Adjectives

Authors: Oxana Lukoshus

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The methods of corpus linguistics, a well-established field of research, are being increasingly applied in cognitive linguistics. Corpora data are especially useful for different quantitative studies of grammatical and other aspects of language. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how present-day corpora can be applied in semantic studies in general and in semantic studies of adjectives in particular. Polysemantic adjectives have been the subject of numerous studies. But most of them have been carried out on dictionaries. Undoubtedly, dictionaries are viewed as one of the basic data sources, but only at the initial steps of a research. The author usually starts with the analysis of the lexicographic data after which s/he comes up with a hypothesis. In the research conducted three polysemantic synonyms true, loyal, faithful have been analyzed in terms of differences and similarities in their semantic structure. A corpus-based approach in the study of the above-mentioned adjectives involves the following. After the analysis of the dictionary data there was the reference to the following corpora to study the distributional patterns of the words under study – the British National Corpus (BNC) and the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). These corpora are continually updated and contain thousands of examples of the words under research which make them a useful and convenient data source. For the purpose of this study there were no special needs regarding genre, mode or time of the texts included in the corpora. Out of the range of possibilities offered by corpus-analysis software (e.g. word lists, statistics of word frequencies, etc.), the most useful tool for the semantic analysis was the extracting a list of co-occurrence for the given search words. Searching by lemmas, e.g. true, true to, and grouping the results by lemmas have proved to be the most efficient corpora feature for the adjectives under the study. Following the search process, the corpora provided a list of co-occurrences, which were then to be analyzed and classified. Not every co-occurrence was relevant for the analysis. For example, the phrases like An enormous sense of responsibility to protect the minds and hearts of the faithful from incursions by the state was perceived to be the basic duty of the church leaders or ‘True,’ said Phoebe, ‘but I'd probably get to be a Union Official immediately were left out as in the first example the faithful is a substantivized adjective and in the second example true is used alone with no other parts of speech. The subsequent analysis of the corpora data gave the grounds for the distribution groups of the adjectives under the study which were then investigated with the help of a semantic experiment. To sum it up, the corpora-based approach has proved to be a powerful, reliable and convenient tool to get the data for the further semantic study.

Keywords: corpora, corpus-based approach, polysemantic adjectives, semantic studies

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616 Word of Mouth and Its Impact on Marketing

Authors: Fatima Naz, Ayesha Tariq

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In view of growing of the internet users for e-commerce and taking into account, the emergent impact of word of mouth phenomenon this research has different aims. The aims of this study were built following dissimilar discussion with teachers and colleagues enlightening that word of mouth information for online purchasing do not have the same effect for everybody. Then they were born following dissimilar researchers together with what was already done in previous researches and what was completed. As a result different aims were drawn; the initial aim of this research is to study the attention of the customers in the word of mouth to power their online purchasing activities. The next aim is to analyze the people influenced by the interest of word of mouth. The following aim is to examine the marketing behavior bearing in mind the internet progress and word of mouth, their consideration for word of mouth marketing. In the form of research questions the aims of the study are: 1) How community utilizes and multiplies word of mouth information about online purchasing experience? 2) How communities perceive the word of mouth marketing? 3) How marketers take the word of mouth phenomenon and how they handle it?

Keywords: belief, power, inspiration, self-expression, positive attitude to online marketing, forwarding of contents, purchasing decision, standard marketing

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615 A Word-to-Vector Formulation for Word Representation

Authors: Sandra Rizkallah, Amir F. Atiya

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This work presents a novel word to vector representation that is based on embedding the words into a sphere, whereby the dot product of the corresponding vectors represents the similarity between any two words. Embedding the vectors into a sphere enabled us to take into consideration the antonymity between words, not only the synonymity, because of the suitability to handle the polarity nature of words. For example, a word and its antonym can be represented as a vector and its negative. Moreover, we have managed to extract an adequate vocabulary. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can capture the essence of the language, and can be generalized to estimate a correct similarity of any new pair of words.

Keywords: natural language processing, word to vector, text similarity, text mining

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614 Math Word Problems: Context and Achievement

Authors: Irena Smetackova

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The important part of school mathematics are word problems which represent the connection between school knowledge and life reality. To find the reasons why students consider word problems to be difficult, it is necessary to take into consideration the motivational settings, besides mathematical knowledge and reading skills. Our goal is to identify whether the familiar or unfamiliar context of math word problem influences solving success rate and if so, whether the reasons are motivational or cognitive. For this purpose, we conducted three steps study in group of fifty pupils 9-10 years old. In the first step, we asked pupils to create ‘the best’ word problems for entered numerical formula. The set of 19 word problems with different contexts were selected. In the second step, pupils were asked to evaluate (without solving) how they like each item and how easy it is for them. The 6 word problems with low preference and low estimated success rate were selected and combined with other 6 problems with high preference and success rate. In the third step, the same pupils were asked to solve the word problems. The analysis showed that pupils attitudes and solving toward word problems varied by the context. The strong gender patterns both in preferred contexts and in estimated success rates were identified however the real success rate did not differ so strongly. The success gap between word problems with and without preferred contexts were stronger than the gap between problems with and without real experience with the context. The hypothesis that motivational factors are more important than cognitive factors was confirmed.

Keywords: mathematics, context of reality, motivation, cognition, word problems

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613 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman

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Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

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612 Expressivity of Word-Formation in English and Russian Advertising Lexicon

Authors: Voronina Ekaterina Borisovna

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The problem of expressivity of advertising lexicon is studied in the article. The comparison of English and Russian advertising lexicons is done. The objects of the analysis were English and Russian advertising texts, both printed advertising texts and texts extracted from the commercials. Some conclusions concerning the expressivity of advertising lexicon were made. Expressivity can be included in the semantic structure of words or created by word-formation means. Expressivity caused by morphological derivatives includes such facilities as derivational affixes, models and types of word formation.

Keywords: advertising lexicon, expressivity, word-formation means, linguistics

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611 Accounting as Addressed in the Qur’aan

Authors: Shahriar M. Saadullah, Abdul-Quddoos Abdul-Basith, Zaki K. Abushawish

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As a part of academic research in Islamic Accounting it is important to know how the word Accounting is discussed in the Qur’aan. This paper identifies and analyzes the word Accounting in the Qur’aan, which is significant to know and understand. The paper uses a methodology of identifying the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) in the Qur’aan with the help of Islam 360 software and analyzes the use of the relevant words derived from the root word. Then the paper attempts to connect the findings to the contemporary Accounting issues. The paper finds that the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) appears in the Qur’aan 109 times but it is only used in the sense Account, Accountable, or Accounting 45 times. These words appear in 44 different verses in the Qur’aan, appearing twice in one of the verses. The paper divides these verses into 8 different themes namely, Day of Accounting, without any Accounting, Accounting of Time, Self-Accounting, Swift in Accounting, Accounting is only with God, Awareness and the Good Accounting, and Heedlessness and the Bad Accounting. The way the words Account, Accounting, and Accountable is discussed in the Qur’aan links to the contemporary accounting issues including Ethics, Agency Theory, and Internal Control. The links discovered in the paper clearly shows the timeless nature of the message of the Qur’aan.

Keywords: accounting, contemporary accounting issues, Qur'aan, root word of accounting hasaba

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610 Pudhaiyal: A Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game for Tamil Words

Authors: Aarthy Anandan, Anitha Narasimhan, Madhan Karky

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Word-based games are popular in helping people to improve their vocabulary skills. Games like ‘word search’ and crosswords provide a smart way of increasing vocabulary skills. Word search games are fun to play, but also educational which actually helps to learn a language. Finding the words from word search puzzle helps the player to remember words in an easier way, and it also helps to learn the spellings of words. In this paper, we present a tile distribution algorithm for a Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game 'Pudhaiyal’ for Tamil words, which describes how words can be distributed horizontally, vertically or diagonally in a 10 x 10 grid. Along with the tile distribution algorithm, we also present an algorithm for the scoring model of the game. The proposed game has been tested with 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Pudhaiyal, Tamil word game, word search, scoring, maze, algorithm

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609 The Role of Reading Self-Efficacy and Perception of Difficulty in English Reading among Chinese ESL Learners

Authors: Kevin Chan, Kevin K. H. Chung, Patcy P. S. Yeung, H. L. Ip, Bill T. C. Chung, Karen M. K. Chung

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Purpose: Recent evidence shows that reading self-efficacy and students perceived difficulty in reading are significantly associated with word reading and reading fluency. However, little is known about these relationships among students learning to read English as a second language, particularly in Chinese students. This study examined the contributions of reading self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, and cognitive-linguistic skills to performance on English word reading and reading fluency in Chinese students. Method: A sample of 122 second-and third-grade students in Hong Kong, China, participated in this study. Students completed the measures of reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading. They were assessed on their English cognitive-linguistic and reading skills: rapid automatized naming, nonword reading, phonological awareness, word reading, and one-minute word reading. Results: Results of path analysis indicated that when students’ grades were controlled, reading self-efficacy was a significant correlate of word reading and reading fluency, whereas perception of difficulty in reading negatively predicted word reading. Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of taking students’ reading self-efficacy and perception of difficulty in reading and their cognitive-linguistic skills into consideration when designing reading intervention and instructions for students learning English as a second language.

Keywords: self-efficacy, perception of difficulty in reading, english as a second language, word reading

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608 Speech Recognition Performance by Adults: A Proposal for a Battery for Marathi

Authors: S. B. Rathna Kumar, Pranjali A Ujwane, Panchanan Mohanty

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The present study aimed to develop a battery for assessing speech recognition performance by adults in Marathi. A total of four word lists were developed by considering word frequency, word familiarity, words in common use, and phonemic balance. Each word list consists of 25 words (15 monosyllabic words in CVC structure and 10 monosyllabic words in CVCV structure). Equivalence analysis and performance-intensity function testing was carried using the four word lists on a total of 150 native speakers of Marathi belonging to different regions of Maharashtra (Vidarbha, Marathwada, Khandesh and Northern Maharashtra, Pune, and Konkan). The subjects were further equally divided into five groups based on above mentioned regions. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the speech recognition performance between groups for each word list and between word lists for each group. Hence, the four word lists developed were equally difficult for all the groups and can be used interchangeably. The performance-intensity (PI) function curve showed semi-linear function, and the groups’ mean slope of the linear portions of the curve indicated an average linear slope of 4.64%, 4.73%, 4.68%, and 4.85% increase in word recognition score per dB for list 1, list 2, list 3 and list 4 respectively. Although, there is no data available on speech recognition tests for adults in Marathi, most of the findings of the study are in line with the findings of research reports on other languages. The four word lists, thus developed, were found to have sufficient reliability and validity in assessing speech recognition performance by adults in Marathi.

Keywords: speech recognition performance, phonemic balance, equivalence analysis, performance-intensity function testing, reliability, validity

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607 Sentence Structure for Free Word Order Languages in Context with Anaphora Resolution: A Case Study of Hindi

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Kamlesh Dutta

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Many languages have fixed sentence structure and others are free word order. The accuracy of anaphora resolution of syntax based algorithm depends on structure of the sentence. So, it is important to analyze the structure of any language before implementing these algorithms. In this study, we analyzed the sentence structure exploiting the case marker in Hindi as well as some special tag for subject and object. We also investigated the word order for Hindi. Word order typology refers to the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language. We analyzed 165 news items of Ranchi Express from EMILEE corpus of plain text. It consisted of 1745 sentences. Eight file of dialogue based from the same corpus has been analyzed which will have 1521 sentences. The percentages of subject object verb structure (SOV) and object subject verb (OSV) are 66.90 and 33.10, respectively.

Keywords: anaphora resolution, free word order languages, SOV, OSV

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606 Effects of Word Formation Dissimilarities on Youruba Learners of English

Authors: Pelumi Olowofoyeku

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English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. For instance, in Nigeria, English language is been taught and learned as a second language; therefore second learners of English in Nigeria have certain problems they contend with. Because of the dissimilarities in word formation patterns of English and Yoruba languages, Yoruba learners of English mostly found in the south west of Nigeria, and some parts of Kwara, Kogi, and Edo states of Nigeria have problems with word formation patterns in English. The objectives of this paper therefore, are: to identify the levels of word formation dissimilarities in English and Yoruba languages and to examine the effects of these dissimilarities on the Yoruba learners of English. The data for this paper were graded words purposely selected and presented to selected students of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Oto-Ijanikin, Lagos, who are Yoruba learners of English. These respondents were randomly selected to form words which are purposively selected to test the effects of word formation dissimilarities between Yoruba (the respondent’s first language) and English language on the respondents. The dissimilarities are examined using contrastive analysis tools. This paper reveals that there are differences in the word formation patterns of Yoruba and English languages. The writer believes that there is need for language teachers to undertake comparative studies of the two languages involved for methodological reasons. The author then suggests that teachers should identify the problem areas and systematically teach their students. The paper concludes that although English and Yoruba word formation patterns differ very significantly in many respects, there exist language universals in all languages which language educators should take advantage of in teaching.

Keywords: word formation patterns, graded words, ESL, Yoruba learners

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605 Transcription Skills and Written Composition in Chinese

Authors: Pui-sze Yeung, Connie Suk-han Ho, David Wai-ock Chan, Kevin Kien-hoa Chung

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Background: Recent findings have shown that transcription skills play a unique and significant role in Chinese word reading and spelling (i.e. word dictation), and written composition development. The interrelationships among component skills of transcription, word reading, word spelling, and written composition in Chinese have rarely been examined in the literature. Is the contribution of component skills of transcription to Chinese written composition mediated by word level skills (i.e., word reading and spelling)? Methods: The participants in the study were 249 Chinese children in Grade 1, Grade 3, and Grade 5 in Hong Kong. They were administered measures of general reasoning ability, orthographic knowledge, stroke sequence knowledge, word spelling, handwriting fluency, word reading, and Chinese narrative writing. Orthographic knowledge- orthographic knowledge was assessed by a task modeled after the lexical decision subtest of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD). Stroke sequence knowledge: The participants’ performance in producing legitimate stroke sequences was measured by a stroke sequence knowledge task. Handwriting fluency- Handwriting fluency was assessed by a task modeled after the Chinese Handwriting Speed Test. Word spelling: The stimuli of the word spelling task consist of fourteen two-character Chinese words. Word reading: The stimuli of the word reading task consist of 120 two-character Chinese words. Written composition: A narrative writing task was used to assess the participants’ text writing skills. Results: Analysis of covariance results showed that there were significant between-grade differences in the performance of word reading, word spelling, handwriting fluency, and written composition. Preliminary hierarchical multiple regression analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency were unique predictors of Chinese written composition even after controlling for age, IQ, and word reading. The interaction effects between grade and each of these three skills (orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency) were not significant. Path analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge contributed to written composition both directly and indirectly through word spelling, while handwriting fluency contributed to written composition directly and indirectly through both word reading and spelling. Stroke sequence knowledge only contributed to written composition indirectly through word spelling. Conclusions: Preliminary hierarchical regression results were consistent with previous findings about the significant role of transcription skills in Chinese word reading, spelling and written composition development. The fact that orthographic knowledge contributed both directly and indirectly to written composition through word reading and spelling may reflect the impact of the script-sound-meaning convergence of Chinese characters on the composing process. The significant contribution of word spelling and handwriting fluency to Chinese written composition across elementary grades highlighted the difficulty in attaining automaticity of transcription skills in Chinese, which limits the working memory resources available for other composing processes.

Keywords: orthographic knowledge, transcription skills, word reading, writing

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604 The Greek Root Word ‘Kos’ and the Trade of Ancient Greek with Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: D. Pugazhendhi

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The ancient Greeks were forerunners in many fields than other societies. So, the Greeks were well connected with all the countries which were well developed during that time through trade route. In this connection, trading of goods from the ancient Greece to Tamil Nadu which is presently in India, though they are geographically far away, played an important role. In that way, the word and the goods related with kos and kare got exchanged between these two societies. So, it is necessary to compare the phonology and the morphological occurrences of these words that are found common both in the ancient Greek and Tamil literatures of the contemporary period. The results show that there were many words derived from the root kos with the basic meaning of ‘arrange’ in the ancient Greek language, but this is not the case in the usage of the word kare. In the ancient Tamil literature, the word ‘kos’ does not have any root and also had rare occurrences. But it was just the opposite in the case of the word ‘kare’. One of all the meanings of the word, which was derived from the root ‘kos’ in ancient Greek literature, is related with costly ornaments. This meaning seems to have close resemblance with the usage of word ‘kos’ in ancient Tamil literature. Also, the meaning of the word ‘kare’ in ancient Tamil literature is related with spices whereas, in the ancient Greek literature, its meaning is related to that of the cooking of meat using spices. Hence, the similarity seen in the meanings of these words ‘kos’ and ‘kare’ in both these languages provides lead for further study. More than that, the ancient literary resources which are available in both these languages ensure the export and import of gold and spices from the ancient Greek land to Tamil land.

Keywords: arrange, kare, Kos, ornament, Tamil

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603 A Comparative Study on the Positive and Negative of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on the SERVQUAL Scale-Take A Certain Armed Forces General Hospital in Taiwan As An Example

Authors: Po-Chun Lee, Li-Lin Liang, Ching-Yuan Huang

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Purpose: Research on electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM)& online review has been widely used in service industry management research in recent years. The SERVQUAL scale is the most commonly used method to measure service quality. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to combine electronic word of mouth & online review with the SERVQUAL scale. To explore the comparative study of positive and negative electronic word-of-mouth reviews of a certain armed force general hospital in Taiwan. Data sources: This research obtained online word-of-mouth comment data on google maps from a military hospital in Taiwan in the past ten years through Internet data mining technology. Research methods: This study uses the semantic content analysis method to classify word-of-mouth reviews according to the revised PZB SERVQUAL scale. Then carry out statistical analysis. Results of data synthesis: The results of this study disclosed that the negative reviews of this military hospital in Taiwan have been increasing year by year. Under the COVID-19 epidemic, positive word-of-mouth has a downward trend. Among the five determiners of SERVQUAL of PZB, positive word-of-mouth reviews performed best in “Assurance,” with a positive review rate of 58.89%, Followed by 43.33% of “Responsiveness.” In negative word-of-mouth reviews, “Assurance” performed the worst, with a positive rate of 70.99%, followed by responsive 29.01%. Conclusions: The important conclusions of this study disclosed that the total number of electronic word-of-mouth reviews of the military hospital has revealed positive growth in recent years, and the positive word-of-mouth growth has revealed negative growth after the epidemic of COVID-19, while the negative word-of-mouth has grown substantially. Regardless of the positive and negative comments, what patients care most about is “Assurance” of the professional attitude and skills of the medical staff, which needs to be strengthened most urgently. In addition, good “Reliability” will help build positive word-of-mouth. However, poor “Responsiveness” can easily lead to the spread of negative word-of-mouth. This study suggests that the hospital should focus on these few service-oriented quality management and audits.

Keywords: quality of medical service, electronic word-of-mouth, armed forces general hospital

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602 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali Al Shaari, Khalid M. El Fitori

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In the field of Quran Studies known as Ghareeb A Quran (the study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters). Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designed to look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms. There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works. For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM). DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters. In Differences Matrix, we used the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, differences matrix, ontology

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601 An Investigation of the Effects of Word Length on Amblyopic Eye Movement during Reading

Authors: Yahya Maeni

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It is well established that amblyopic patients have a reduced reading performance and oculomotor deficits. Word length has a significant impact on reading performance and eye movement behaviour during reading. As there no previous attempts to assess whether amblyopic eyes would be affected by word length while reading. This study aims to assess the effect of word length on amblyopic eye movement behaviour during reading including fixation duration, number of fixation and gaze duration. 21 adults with amblyopia and 21 age-matched controls participated in the study (age ± SD) (23.80 ± 4.66) for amblyopes and (24.20 ± 3.58) for Controls. Eye movement was recorded during reading binocularly using Eyelink 1000. Study was designed as 2 x 2 (amblyopia vs. control) x 2 lengths (4 letters, and 8 letters). Compared to controls, the amblyopic participants report significant longer duration of fixation, higher number of fixation and longer gaze duration for short words with far higher significant difference for long words. It could be concluded that eye movement in amblyopia during reading might be accounted for by the length of a word within a text and this could possible explanation of reduced reading performance among amblyopes. By understanding the effect of word length on amblyopia will shed light on reading deficits in amblyopia and help to determine the reading needs of amplyopes in educational and clinical settings.

Keywords: amblyopia, eye movement, reading, fixation

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600 BiLex-Kids: A Bilingual Word Database for Children 5-13 Years Old

Authors: Aris R. Terzopoulos, Georgia Z. Niolaki, Lynne G. Duncan, Mark A. J. Wilson, Antonios Kyparissiadis, Jackie Masterson

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As word databases for bilingual children are not available, researchers, educators and textbook writers must rely on monolingual databases. The aim of this study is thus to develop a bilingual word database, BiLex-kids, an online open access developmental word database for 5-13 year old bilingual children who learn Greek as a second language and have English as their dominant one. BiLex-kids is compiled from 120 Greek textbooks used in Greek-English bilingual education in the UK, USA and Australia, and provides word translations in the two languages, pronunciations in Greek, and psycholinguistic variables (e.g. Zipf, Frequency per million, Dispersion, Contextual Diversity, Neighbourhood size). After clearing the textbooks of non-relevant items (e.g. punctuation), algorithms were applied to extract the psycholinguistic indices for all words. As well as one total lexicon, the database produces values for all ages (one lexicon for each age) and for three age bands (one lexicon per age band: 5-8, 9-11, 12-13 years). BiLex-kids provides researchers with accurate figures for a wide range of psycholinguistic variables, making it a useful and reliable research tool for selecting stimuli to examine lexical processing among bilingual children. In addition, it offers children the opportunity to study word spelling, learn translations and listen to pronunciations in their second language. It further benefits educators in selecting age-appropriate words for teaching reading and spelling, while special educational needs teachers will have a resource to control the content of word lists when designing interventions for bilinguals with literacy difficulties.

Keywords: bilingual children, psycholinguistics, vocabulary development, word databases

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599 Intensifier as Changed from the Impolite Word in Thai

Authors: Methawee Yuttapongtada

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Intensifier is the linguistic term and device that is generally found in different languages in order to enhance and give additional quantity, quality or emotion to the words of each language. In fact, each language in the world has both of the similar and dissimilar intensifying device. More specially, the wide variety of intensifying device is used for Thai language and one of those is usage of the impolite word or the word that used to mean something negative as intensifier. The data collection in this study was done throughout the spoken language style by collecting from intensifiers regarded as impolite words because these words as employed in the other contexts will be held as the rude, swear words or the words with negative meaning. Then, backward study to the past was done in order to consider the historical change. Explanation of the original meaning and the contexts of words use from the past till the present time were done by use of both textual documents and dictionaries available in different periods. It was found that regarding the semantics and pragmatic aspects, subjectification also is the significant motivation that changed the impolite words to intensifiers. At last, it can explain pathway of the semantic change of these very words undoubtedly. Moreover, it is found that use tendency in the impolite word or the word that used to mean something negative will more be increased and this phenomenon is commonly found in many languages in the world and results of this research may support to the belief that human language in the world is universal and the same still reflected that human has the fundamental thought as the same to each other basically.

Keywords: impolite word, intensifier, Thai, semantic change

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598 Brand Extension and Customer WOM: Evidence from the Sports Industry

Authors: Jim Shih-Chiao Chin, Yu Ting Yeh, Shui Lien Chen, Yi-Fen Tsai

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his study is taking Adidas Company as the object, explored the brand awareness directly or indirectly affects brand affect and word of mouth. First, explored the brand awareness on category fit and image fit, and examined the influence of category fit and image fit on extension attitude. This study then designates the effect of extension attitude on brand affect and word-of-mouth. The relationship of brand awareness on brand affect and word-of-mouth was also explored. The study participants are people who have purchased Adidas extension products. A total of 700 valid questionnaires were collected and statistical software AMOS 20.0 was used to examine the research hypotheses by using structural equation modeling (SEM). Finally, theoretical implications and research directions are provided for future studies.

Keywords: brand extension, brand awareness, product category fit, brand image fit, brand affect, word-of-mouth (WOM)

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597 Genomic Sequence Representation Learning: An Analysis of K-Mer Vector Embedding Dimensionality

Authors: James Jr. Mashiyane, Risuna Nkolele, Stephanie J. Müller, Gciniwe S. Dlamini, Rebone L. Meraba, Darlington S. Mapiye

Abstract:

When performing language tasks in natural language processing (NLP), the dimensionality of word embeddings is chosen either ad-hoc or is calculated by optimizing the Pairwise Inner Product (PIP) loss. The PIP loss is a metric that measures the dissimilarity between word embeddings, and it is obtained through matrix perturbation theory by utilizing the unitary invariance of word embeddings. Unlike in natural language, in genomics, especially in genome sequence processing, unlike in natural language processing, there is no notion of a “word,” but rather, there are sequence substrings of length k called k-mers. K-mers sizes matter, and they vary depending on the goal of the task at hand. The dimensionality of word embeddings in NLP has been studied using the matrix perturbation theory and the PIP loss. In this paper, the sufficiency and reliability of applying word-embedding algorithms to various genomic sequence datasets are investigated to understand the relationship between the k-mer size and their embedding dimension. This is completed by studying the scaling capability of three embedding algorithms, namely Latent Semantic analysis (LSA), Word2Vec, and Global Vectors (GloVe), with respect to the k-mer size. Utilising the PIP loss as a metric to train embeddings on different datasets, we also show that Word2Vec outperforms LSA and GloVe in accurate computing embeddings as both the k-mer size and vocabulary increase. Finally, the shortcomings of natural language processing embedding algorithms in performing genomic tasks are discussed.

Keywords: word embeddings, k-mer embedding, dimensionality reduction

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596 Substitutional Inference in Poetry: Word Choice Substitutions Craft Multiple Meanings by Inference

Authors: J. Marie Hicks

Abstract:

The art of the poetic conjoins meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm. Perhaps the reader might read this opening sentence as 'The art of the poetic combines meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm,' which holds a similar message, but is not quite the same. The reader understands that these factors are combined in this literary form, but to gain a sense of the conjoining of these factors, the reader is forced to consider that these aspects of poetry are not simply combined, but actually adjoin, abut, skirt, or touch in the poetic form. This alternative word choice is an example of substitutional inference. Poetry is, ostensibly, a literary form where language is used precisely or creatively to evoke specific images or emotions for the reader. Often, the reader can predict a coming rhyme or descriptive word choice in a poem, based on previous rhyming pattern or earlier imagery in the poem. However, there are instances when the poet uses an unexpected word choice to create multiple meanings and connections. In these cases, the reader is presented with an unusual phrase or image, requiring that they think about what that image is meant to suggest, and their mind also suggests the word they expected, creating a second, overlying image or meaning. This is what is meant by the term 'substitutional inference.' This is different than simply using a double entendre, a word or phrase that has two meanings, often one complementary and the other disparaging, or one that is innocuous and the other suggestive. In substitutional inference, the poet utilizes an unanticipated word that is either visually or phonetically similar to the expected word, provoking the reader to work to understand the poetic phrase as written, while unconsciously incorporating the meaning of the line as anticipated. In other words, by virtue of a word substitution, an inference of the logical word choice is imparted to the reader, while they are seeking to rationalize the word that was actually used. There is a substitutional inference of meaning created by the alternate word choice. For example, Louise Bogan, 4th Poet Laureate of the United States, used substitutional inference in the form of homonyms, malapropisms, and other unusual word choices in a number of her poems, lending depth and greater complexity, while actively engaging her readers intellectually with her poetry. Substitutional inference not only adds complexity to the potential interpretations of Bogan’s poetry, as well as the poetry of others, but provided a method for writers to infuse additional meanings into their work, thus expressing more information in a compact format. Additionally, this nuancing enriches the poetic experience for the reader, who can enjoy the poem superficially as written, or on a deeper level exploring gradations of meaning.

Keywords: poetic inference, poetic word play, substitutional inference, word substitution

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595 Chinese Fantasy Novel: New Word Teaching for Non-Native Learners

Authors: Bok Check Meng, Goh Ying Soon

Abstract:

Giving additional learning materials such as Chinese fantasy novel to non-native learners can be strenuous. Instructors have to understand the underpinning theories about cognitive theory for new word instruction. This paper discusses the underpinning theories. Relevant literature reviews are given. There are basically five major areas of cognitive related theories mentioned in this article. These include motivational learning theory, Affective theory of learning, Cognitive psychology theory, Vocabulary acquisition theory and Bloom’s cognitive levels theory. A theoretical framework has been constructed. Thus, this will give a hand in ensuring non-native learners might gain positive outcomes in the instruction process. Instructors who are interested in teaching new word from Chinese fantasy novel in specific to support additional learning might be able to get insights from this article.

Keywords: Chinese fantasy novel, new word teaching, non-native learners, cognitive theory, bloom

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594 Impact of Brand Image, Brand Personality and Brand Love on Word of Mouth: Pakistani Fashion Brands

Authors: Amna Asif, Rabia Naseem

Abstract:

In the domain of consumer-brand relationship, love for a fashion brand is a dominant idea. Brand executives incline to build more endearing brands, for example, Levi’s “Quality never goes out of style”. Though, the significance of this notion is not often debated in the literature of marketing. Moreover, the effect of brand image and personality on brand love has not been examined in any quantitative study in Pakistan. The current research aims to fill this study gap by evolving a causal framework integrating word-of-mouth, brand love, image, and personality to examine the relationships among them. Data was gathered through questionnaires survey, and it was filled by 409 university students. AMOS 20 was used to draw a path analysis and test the hypotheses. Results discovered that brand personality and brand image leads to brand love that ultimately impacts word-of-mouth. Results give thorough suggestions on which future research can be constructed.

Keywords: brand love, brand personality, brand image, fashion brands, word-of-mouth

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593 The Effect of Whole Word Method on Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) of 3 to 6 Years Old Children with Cochlear Implant Having Normal IQ

Authors: Elnaz Dabiri, Somayeh Hamidnezhad

Abstract:

Background and Objective: This study aims at investigating the effect of whole word method on Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) of 3 to 6 years old children with cochlear implants having normal IQ. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental and interventional study, 20 children with cochlear implants, aged between 3and 6 years, and normal IQ were selected from Tabriz cochlear implants center using convenience sampling. Afterward, they were randomly bifurcated. The first group was educated by whole-word reading method along with traditional methods and the second group by traditional methods. Both groups had three sessions of 45-minutes each, every week continuously for a period of 3 months. Pre-test and post-test language abilities of both groups were assessed using the TOLD test. Results: Both groups before training have the same age, IQ, and MLU, but after training the first group shows a considerable improvement in MLU in comparison with the second group. Conclusions: Reading training by the whole word method have more effect on MLU of children with cochlear implants in comparison of the traditional method.

Keywords: cochlear implants, reading training, traditional methods, language therapy, whole word method, Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)

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592 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based on Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory

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591 Porul: Option Generation and Selection and Scoring Algorithms for a Tamil Flash Card Game

Authors: Anitha Narasimhan, Aarthy Anandan, Madhan Karky, C. N. Subalalitha

Abstract:

Games can be the excellent tools for teaching a language. There are few e-learning games in Indian languages like word scrabble, cross word, quiz games etc., which were developed mainly for educational purposes. This paper proposes a Tamil word game called, “Porul”, which focuses on education as well as on players’ thinking and decision-making skills. Porul is a multiple choice based quiz game, in which the players attempt to answer questions correctly from the given multiple options that are generated using a unique algorithm called the Option Selection algorithm which explores the semantics of the question in various dimensions namely, synonym, rhyme and Universal Networking Language semantic category. This kind of semantic exploration of the question not only increases the complexity of the game but also makes it more interesting. The paper also proposes a Scoring Algorithm which allots a score based on the popularity score of the question word. The proposed game has been tested using 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Porul game, Tamil word game, option selection, flash card, scoring, algorithm

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590 Problems in English into Thai Translation Normally Found in Thai University Students

Authors: Anochao Phetcharat

Abstract:

This research aims to study problems of translation basic knowledge, particularly from English into Thai. The researcher used 38 2nd-year non-English speaking students of Suratthani Rajabhat University as samples. The samples were required to translate an A4-sized article from English into Thai assigned as a part of BEN0202 Translation for Business, a requirement subject for Business English Department, which was also taught by the researcher. After completion of the translation, numerous problems were found and the research grouped them into 4 major types. The normally occurred problems in English-Thai translation works are the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech, word-by-word translation employment, misspellings as well as the poor knowledge in English language structure. However, this research is currently under the process of data analysis and shall be completed by the beginning of August. The researcher, nevertheless, predicts that all the above-mentioned problems, will support the researcher’s hypothesizes, that are; 1) the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech causes the mistranslation problem; 2) employing word-by-word translation technique hugely results in the mistranslation problem; 3) misspellings yields the mistranslation problem; and 4) the poor knowledge in English language structure also brings about translation errors. The research also predicts that, of all the aforementioned problems, the following ones are found the most, respectively: the poor knowledge in English language structure, word-by-word translation employment, the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech, and misspellings.

Keywords: problem, student, Thai, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 364