Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2919

Search results for: oriental culture

2919 The Effects of Copper and Cadmium on Germination and Seedling Growth of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Seeds

Authors: Handan Ucun Özel, Halil Barış Özel

Abstract:

The toxic effects of copper and cadmium on seed germination, seedling, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was evaluated under laboratory conditions compared to control values. Copper and cadmium treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l affect seed germination and seedling growth of oriental beech as compared to control. Copper treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l concentrations produced significant (p < 0.01) effects on seed germination and seedling length of oriental beech while copper treatment at 150 mg/l significantly affected root growth and seedling dry biomass as compared to control. Similarly, cadmium treatments from 50 to 200 mg/l affected the seed germination, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech as compared to control. Cadmium treatments showed an adverse effect on seedlings of oriental beech as compared to copper, copper and cadmium treatments at 200mg/l exhibited the lowest percentage of tolerance in seedlings of oriental beech as compared to control.

Keywords: copper, cadmium, toxicity, oriental beech

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2918 Mariculture Trials of the Philippine Blue Sponge Xestospongia sp.

Authors: Clairecynth Yu, Geminne Manzano

Abstract:

The mariculture potential of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. was assessed through the pilot sponge culture in the open-sea at two different biogeographic regions in the Philippines. Thirty explants were randomly allocated for the Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro culture setup and the other nine were transported to Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan. Two different sponge culture methods of the sponge explants- the lantern and the wall method, were employed to assess the production of the Renieramycin M. Both methods have shown to be effective in growing the sponge explants and that the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results have shown that Renieramycin M is present on the sponges. The effect of partial harvesting in the growth and survival rates of the blue sponge in the Puerto Galera setup was also determined. Results showed that a higher growth rate was observed on the partially harvested explants on both culture methods as compared to the unharvested explants.

Keywords: chemical ecology, porifera, sponge, Xestospongia sp.

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2917 The Phenomenology in the Music of Debussy through Inspiration of Western and Oriental Culture

Authors: Yu-Shun Elisa Pong

Abstract:

Music aesthetics related to phenomenology is rarely discussed and still in the ascendant while multi-dimensional discourses of philosophy were emerged to be an important trend in the 20th century. In the present study, a basic theory of phenomenology from Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) is revealed and discussed followed by the introduction of intentionality concepts, eidetic reduction, horizon, world, and inter-subjectivity issues. Further, phenomenology of music and general art was brought to attention by the introduction of Roman Ingarden’s The Work of Music and the Problems of its Identity (1933) and Mikel Dufrenne’s The Phenomenology of Aesthetic Experience (1953). Finally, Debussy’s music will be analyzed and discussed from the perspective of phenomenology. Phenomenology is not so much a methodology or analytics rather than a common belief. That is, as much as possible to describe in detail the different human experience, relative to the object of purpose. Such idea has been practiced in various guises for centuries, only till the early 20th century Phenomenology was better refined through the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others. Debussy was born in an age when the Western society began to accept the multi-cultural baptism. With his unusual sensitivity to the oriental culture, Debussy has presented considerable inspiration, absorption, and echo in his music works. In fact, his relationship with nature is far from echoing the idea of Chinese ancient literati and nature. Although he is not the first composer to associate music with human and nature, the unique quality and impact of his works enable him to become a significant figure in music aesthetics. Debussy’s music tried to develop a quality analogous of nature, and more importantly, based on vivid life experience and artistic transformation to achieve the realm of pure art. Such idea that life experience comes before artwork, either clear or vague, simple or complex, was later presented abstractly in his late works is still an interesting subject worth further discussion. Debussy’s music has existed for more than or close to a century. It has received musicology researcher’s attention as much as other important works in the history of Western music. Among the pluralistic discussion about Debussy’s art and ideas, phenomenological aesthetics has enlightened new ideas and view angles to relook his great works and even gave some previous arguments legitimacy. Overall, this article provides a new insight of Debussy’s music from phenomenological exploration and it is believed phenomenology would be an important pathway in the research of the music aesthetics.

Keywords: Debussy's music, music esthetics, oriental culture, phenomenology

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2916 The State of Herb Medicine in Oriental Morocco: Cases of Debdou, Taourirt and Guerssif Districts

Authors: Himer Khalid, Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna, Elachouri Mostafa

Abstract:

It has been estimated by the World Health Organization that 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicine to meet their daily health requirements. In Morocco reliance on such medicine is partly owing to the high cost of conventional medicine and the inaccessibility of modern health care facilities. There was high agreement in the use of plants as medicine in Oriental Morocco. Our objective is to evaluate the informant’s knowledge on medicinal plants by the local population and to document the uses of medicinal plants by this community, for the treatment of different illnesses. Using an ethnopharmacological approach, we collected information concerning the traditional medicinal knowledge and the medicinal plants used, by interviewing successfully 458 informants living in oriental Morocco (from Debdou, Taourirt, Guersif a,d Laayoune districts). The data were analyzed by statistical methods (Component Analysis “CA”, Factorial Analysis “FA”) and other methods such as through Informant’s Consensus Factor (ICF) and Use Value (UV). Our results indicate that, more than 60% of the population in these regions relies on medicinal plants for the treatment of different ailments with predominance of women consumers. 135 plant species belonging to 61 families were documented. These plants were used by the population for the treatment of a group of illness (about 14 principal ailments). We conclude that, in oriental Morocco, till now, the population has some traditional knowledge commonly used as medical tradition. These wealthy heritage needs conservation and evaluation.

Keywords: Morocco, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge, wealthy heritage

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2915 Effect of Compost Application on Uptake and Allocation of Heavy Metals and Plant Nutrients and Quality of Oriental Tobacco Krumovgrad 90

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Venelina T. Popova, Radka V. Ivanova, Givko T. Ivanov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

Abstract:

A comparative research on the impact of compost on uptake and allocation of nutrients and heavy metals and quality of Oriental tobacco Krumovgrad 90 has been carried out. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the lead zinc smelter near the town of Kardzali, Bulgaria, after closing the lead production. The compost treatments had significant effects on the uptake and allocation of plant nutrients and heavy metals. The incorporation of compost leads to decrease in the amount of heavy metals present in the tobacco leaves, with Cd, Pb and Zn having values of 36%, 12% and 6%, respectively. Application of the compost leads to increased content of potassium, calcium and magnesium in the leaves of tobacco, and therefore, may favorably affect the burning properties of tobacco. The incorporation of compost in the soil has a negative impact on the quality and typicality of the oriental tobacco variety of Krumovgrad 90. The incorporation of compost leads to an increase in the size of the tobacco plant leaves, the leaves become darker in colour, less fleshy and undergo a change in form, becoming (much) broader in the second, third and fourth stalk position. This is accompanied by a decrease in the quality of the tobacco. The incorporation of compost also results in an increase in the mineral substances (pure ash), total nicotine and nitrogen, and a reduction in the amount of reducing sugars, which causes the quality of the tobacco leaves to deteriorate (particularly in the third and fourth harvests).

Keywords: chemical composition, compost, heavy metals, oriental tobacco, quality

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2914 Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Two Commercially Important Fish Species, Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei

Authors: Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Ali Hajinajaf, Farzad Fahim, Behdokht Hajinajaf, Farhad Fahim

Abstract:

In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, the fishing grounds north of Hormoz Strait (Persian Gulf) near the Iranian coastline. The two flat fishes were oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and deep flounder (Psettodes erumei). Using the ROPME method (MOOPAM) for chemical digestion, Cd concentration was measured with a nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average concentration of Cd in the edible muscle tissue of deep flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 0.15±.06 µg g-1. It was 0.1±.05 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for oriental sole were 0.2±0.13 and 0.13±0.11 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Cd in the liver tissue of deep flounder in Bandar-Abbas was 0.22±.05 µg g-1 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 0.2±0.04 µg.g-1. The values for oriental sole were 0.31±0.09 and 0.24±0.13 µg g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: trace metal, Euryglossa orientalis, Psettodes erumei, Persian Gulf

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2913 Understanding the Multilingualism of the Mauritian Multilingual Primary School Learner and Translanguaging: A Linguistic Ethnographic Study

Authors: Yesha Devi Mahadeo-Doorgakant

Abstract:

The Mauritian landscape is well-known for its multilingualism with the daily interaction of the number of languages that are used in the island; namely Kreol Morisien, the European languages (English and French) and the Oriental/Asian languages (Hindi, Arabic/Urdu, Tamil, Telegu, Marathi, Mandarin, etc.). However, within Mauritius’ multilingual educational system, English is the official medium of instruction while French is taught as compulsory subject till upper secondary and oriental languages are offered as optional languages at primary level. Usually, Mauritians choose one oriental language based on their ethnic/religious identity, when they start their primary schooling as an additional language to learn. In January 2012, Kreol Morisien, which is the considered the language of daily interaction of the majority of Mauritians, was introduced as an optional subject at primary level, taught at the same time as the oriental languages. The introduction of Kreol Morisien has spurred linguistic debates about the issue of multilingualism within the curriculum. Taking this into account, researchers have started pondering on the multilingual educational system of the country and questioning whether the current language curriculum caters for the complex everyday linguistic reality of the multilingual Mauritian learner, given most learners are embedded within an environment where the different languages interact with each other daily. This paper, therefore, proposes translanguaging as being a more befitting theoretical lens through which the multilingualism and the linguistic repertoire of Mauritian learners’ can best be understood.

Keywords: multilingualism, translanguaging, multilingual learner, linguistic ethnography

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2912 An Analysis on the Hidden Transcripts and Power: A Cultural Study on Confliction between Mother and Daughter-in-Law in Contemporary Chinese Television Dramas

Authors: Xiaohui Pan

Abstract:

As the most influential media for the dissemination of Chinese culture, films and television dramas have played cognitive orientation in guiding young audience to understand its cultural value. Taking a retrospective overview of the Chinese domestic film and television dramas in the last decade, it is tangible to notice that Westernization has become irresistible force in the presentation of Chinese youth culture, such as the rise of sensibility, publicity of subjectivity, and the resistance to mainstream discourse. However, the process of deconstruction and transition of these film and television works on Western youth culture brought about more comprehensive conflicts and integration rather than providing a panoramic interpretation to young Chinese. Issues of tradition and modernization, oriental and Western, and serious thinking and the spirit of entertainment overwhelmed those Chinese works. This study attempts to examine the mechanism of young Chinese’s resistance, compromise and re-construction in their marriages during the dynamic cultural intergration between traditional Chinese culture and Western culture. To investigate such a mechanism, this study analyzed four Chinese television dramas themed on family ethics to reveal the conflictions between two generations, mother-in-law and daughter-in-law, aiming to identify their strategies of their struggles. Incorporating the theory of Scott's weapons of the weak, this study examines the dynamic model of the struggles content analysis on their hidden language and the power. The finding shows that young Chinese identified their self-awakening during the resistance. The study also finds out that the external factors might have the functions of switching the power from the strong end to the weak end. The finding of this study can provide useful insights for researchers in this area and for those in the process of exploring cultural integration issues.

Keywords: intergration, integration, resistance, youth culture

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2911 Cultural Studies: The Effect of Western Culture on Muslim Lifestyle

Authors: Farah Wahida Binti Mohamad Said

Abstract:

Islamic culture is the way of life a Muslim is defined by the Qur’an and Sunnah. On the other hand, Western culture is fashioned by a host of people; Capitalists, atheists, people who believe in same-gender marriages and others of a similar nature. The main issue that faced by the Muslim in Malaysia is the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This is because of the influence from western culture that dominates mind of the Muslim and also impressed on their lifestyle. Practically, majority all things have connected with western culture. However, the main objective for this project is to develop the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This project also focuses on a few aspects that relate with cultural of Muslim and western culture nowadays. This paper will include a few method .The methods for this project are a video, interview etc. Another methodology we will put on next paper for more detail information. As a result, this research found that western cultural will be effect on Muslim lifestyle.

Keywords: effect of western culture, Muslim lifestyle, western culture, western and Muslim culture

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2910 Oriental Tradition, Taoism:A Critical Option for Peace Building Initiative in the Contemporary Society

Authors: Kingsley Okoro Nwannennaya

Abstract:

The 21st century seems to have been eclipsed by social conflict, giving vent to a mentality construct that accepts conflict as inextricable part of the social system. This is justified by the escalation of conflict in all the zones of the world. We therefore, query whether a peaceful society is a mere illusion? It is in an attempt to give lucid answer to this question that the researcher began critical investigations on various peace building and conflict management models. Here the researcher discovered that these models as good as they may be have not addressed the root of conflicts which revolves on the social structure in place in any society. Hence the current social structure is organized around class system, which gave birth to competition, greed, selfishness, power struggle etc. and also promotes mono-culture based on Euro-American traditions. This placed some cultures on a disadvantageous position, with conflict as its outgrowth. However, the researcher being interested to finding a peace building and conflict management model that will address this gap discovered that Taoism has the seed that can offer the world the desired peace. This tradition anchors on the principles of Tao, Yin-yang and Wu-wei. Basic to the trio concepts are the idea of Pluralism, non-interference, non-action and flowing with the order of nature. This paper, having adopted, historical and sociological methods of investigations opines that if Taoist tradition shall be adopted as a peace building model, the desired peace of our dream shall soon become a reality.

Keywords: critical option, oriental traditions, peace initiative, taoism

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2909 Examining the Role of Corporate Culture in Driving Firm Performance

Authors: Lovorka Galetić, Ivana Načinović Braje, Nevenka Čavlek

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between corporate culture and firm performance. Extensive theoretical and empirical evidence on this issue is provided. A quantitative methodology was used to explore relationship between corporate culture and performance among large Croatian companies. Corporate culture was explored by using Denison framework. The research revealed a positive, statistically significant relationship between mission and performance. Other dimensions of corporate culture (involvement, consistency and adaptability) show only partial relationship with performance.

Keywords: corporate culture, Croatia, Denison culture model, performance

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2908 Culture Sensitization: Understanding German Culture by Learning German

Authors: Lakshmi Shenoy

Abstract:

In today’s era of Globalization, arises the need that students and professionals relocate temporarily or permanently to another country in order to pursue their respective academic and career goals. This involves not only learning the local language of the country but also integrating oneself into the native culture. This paper explains the method of understanding a nation’s culture through the study of its language. The method uses language not as a series of rules that connect words together but as a social practice in which one can actively participate. It emphasizes on how culture provides an environment in which languages can flourish and how culture dictates the interpretation of the language especially in case of German. This paper introduces language and culture as inseparable entities, as two sides of the same coin.

Keywords: language and culture, sociolinguistics, Ronald Wardhaugh, German

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2907 Creative Experience and Revisit Intention of Handmade Oriental Parasol Umbrella in Kaohsiung

Authors: Yi-Ju Lee

Abstract:

This study identified the hypothesised relationship between creative experience, and revisit intention of handmade oriental parasol umbrella in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was administered in Meinong town, Kaohsiung. The components of creative experience were found as “sense of achievement”, “unique learning” and “interaction with instructors” in creative tourism. The result also revealed significant positive relationships between creative experience and revisit intention in handmade activities. This paper provides additional suggestions for enhancing revisit intention and guidance regarding creative tourism.

Keywords: creative tourism, sense of achievement, unique learning, interaction with instructors, folk art

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2906 Identifying Organizational Culture to Implement Knowledge Management: Case Study of BKN, Indonesia

Authors: Maria Margaretha, Elin Cahyaningsih, Dana Indra Sensuse Lukman

Abstract:

One of key success an organization can be seen from its culture. Employee, environment, and so on are factors for organization to achieve goals and build a competitive advantage. Type of organizational culture can be a guide to implementing Knowledge Management (KM) in organization especially in BKN. Culture will determine behavior of employees or environment to support KM. This paper describes the process to decide which culture does organization belong and suggestion and creating strategic moves in the future to implement KM. OCAI (Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument) and its framework (Competing Value Framework) were used to decide the type of organizational culture. To implement KM in organization, clan is an appropriate culture, because clan culture represent cultural values and leader type to implement a successful KM. Result of the measurement will be references for BKN to improve organization culture to achieve its goals and organization effectiveness.

Keywords: organizational culture, government, knowledge management, OCAI

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2905 Enhancing English Language Learning through Learners Cultural Background

Authors: A. Attahiru, Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, Fatima Bint

Abstract:

Language and culture are two concepts which are closely related that one affects the other. This paper attempts to examine the definition of language and culture by discussing the relationship between them. The paper further presents some instructional strategies for the teaching of language and culture as well as the influence of culture on language. It also looks at its implication to language education and finally some recommendation and conclusion were drawn.

Keywords: culture, language, relationship, strategies, teaching

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2904 Changes in Consumption Pattern of Western Consumers and Its Effect to the Ottoman Oriental Carpet-Making Industry

Authors: Emine Zeytinli

Abstract:

Ottoman carpets were depicted in Renaissance painting while they were exported commercially. The carpets were highly demanded and used by the middle and upper classes of Western European countries. The motifs, designs, patterns, and ornamentation of these carpets were decorative objects of luxury for Western European residences as well as paintings. Oriental carpets found their way into European market already from the medieval times to the present century. They were considered as luxury items first, however, demanded by middle classes in Europe and North America within the nineteenth century. This century brought unprecedented changes in production and consumption in the world. Expanding industries created quick urbanization, changed the city life and new types of goods dominated the entire century. Increases in income allowed Europeans to spend on luxury items, consumers taste changed in number of ways including furniture and decoration. Use of a carpet in the orient lifestyle often considered as an art object with Western aesthetic sensibility. A carpet with an oriental character, an essential part of home decoration, was highly appreciated for floor, table covering and wall hanging. Turkish carpets with distinctive classical style, patterns, and colours were changed for the tastes of European consumers. This paper attempts to analyse how the taste and preferences of European and American consumers increased their buying of oriental objects namely carpets. The production of local hand woven carpet industry developed, carpet factories were set up and special weaving schools were opened in some major waving centres, and carpet weaving became one of the main manufacturing and export commodity of the empire. All of these attempts increased the reputation and market share in international market. The industry flourished, commercially operated carpet looms, sales revenues and export increased unprecedentedly. British and Ottoman archival documents, parliamentary papers and travel notes were used to analysed above mention effect on how the foreign demand changed designs of carpets and the business itself, how the production in households moved to the commercial premises and a flourished the industry.

Keywords: consumption patterns, carpet weaving, ottoman oriental carpets, commercialisation

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2903 Mercury Detection in Two Fishes from the Persian Gulf

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Mehdi Kazaie, Sajedeh Neisi

Abstract:

In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in the north of Persian Gulf near the Iranian coastal lines. The two flatfishes were Yellofin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and Longtail tuna (Thannus tonggol). We analyzed total Hg concentration of liver and muscle tissues by Mercury Analyzer (model LECO AMA 254). The average concentration of total Hg in edible Muscle tissue of deep-Flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 18.92 and it was 10.19 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for Oriental sole were 8.47 and 0.08 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Hg in liver tissue of deep-Flounder, in Bandar-Abbas was 25.49 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 12.52 µg.g-1.the values for Oriental sole were 11.88 and 3.2 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: mercury, Acanthopagrus latus, Thannus tonggol, Persian Gulf

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2902 Contradictions of Contemporary Culture and Civilization, Processes of Tradition and Innovation

Authors: G. K. Abdigalieva, Z. N. Ismagambetova, T. H. Gabitov, K. A. Biazdikova, A. A. Mukhanbet , B. E. Moldagaliyev, Saira Shamahay

Abstract:

In the article was shown attitude to contemporary traditional culture and cultural heritage preservation issues and features of further development of a culture. Concerning innovation, appeal to cultural heritage, ability of reception of a culture and cultural diffusion in the process of globalization, it is offered further positive development of Kazakhstan’s based human experience and achieved with time. System of traditions is considered as a phenomenon which describes unity, harmony and stability of social body. Contradictions of contemporary culture and civilization, processes of tradition and innovation, cultural changes, and creativities are considered as second side of a society development. Innovation is analyzed as a method of renewal of a culture, tradition and innovation are considered as universal feature of any culture.

Keywords: culture, civilization, innovation, tradition, reality, customs, social relations, morality, values

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2901 The Relationship among Personality, Culture Personality and Ideal Tourist/Business Destinations

Authors: Tamás Gyulavári, Erzsébet Malota

Abstract:

The main purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of congruence between the perceived self and perceived culture personality on the evaluation of the examined countries as ideal business/tourist destinations. A measure of Culture Personality (CP) has been developed and implemented to assess the perception of French and Turkish culture. Results show that very similar personality structure of both cultures can be extracted along the dimensions of Competence, Interpersonal approach, Aura, Life approach and Rectitude. Regarding the congruence theory, we found that instead of the effect of similarity between the perceived culture personality and actual self, the more positively culture personality is perceived relative to the perceived self, the more positive attitude the individual has toward the country as business and tourist destination.

Keywords: culture personality, ideal business/tourist destination, personality, scale development

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2900 Relationship between Quality Education and Organizational Culture at College Level in Punjab

Authors: Anam Noshaba, Mahr Muhammad Saeed Akhtar

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between quality education and organizational culture. The population of this study was all the teachers of Public Degree Colleges located in Punjab. A sample of 400 teachers was selected by using a simple random sampling technique. Quality Education Assessment Questionnaire (QEAQ) and Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) were used for data collection. Out of all, 90% of teachers responded. Findings showed that quality education and organizational culture are positively correlated. Results indicated that there is no difference in quality education and organizational culture by demographic variables of teachers. Future research is needed to study the viewpoint of other stakeholders of education regarding quality education and organizational culture.

Keywords: quality education, minimum quality standards, organizational culture, college level

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2899 The Role of Organizational Culture in Facilitating Employee Job Satisfaction in Emerald Group

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Muhammad Abdul Aziz, Ahmad Ghoneim

Abstract:

The importance of having a good organizational culture that supports employee job satisfaction has fascinated both the business and academic world because of a tantalizing promise: culture can be fundamental to the enhancement of financial performance. This promise has led to growing interest for both researchers and practitioners in attempting to understand the influence of organizational culture on employees’ satisfaction and organizational performance. Even though the relationship between organizational culture and employee job satisfaction have gained attention in the literature, the majority of studies have been conducted within manufacturing organizations and tend to oversee the impact of culture on employee job satisfaction in a service-based environment. Thus, the main driving force of this study was to explore the role of organizational culture types in facilitating employee job satisfaction at Emerald Publishing Group. Interviews qualitative data analysis indicated that Emerald’s culture dominated by adhocracy and clan culture values. In addition, the findings provided evidence, which demonstrated that group and adhocracy organizational culture types play key roles in facilitating employee job satisfaction in a service-based environment.

Keywords: employee satisfaction, organizational culture, performance, service based environment

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2898 On the Difference between Cultural and Religious Identities

Authors: Mputu Ngandu Simon

Abstract:

Culture and religion are two of the most significant markers of an individual or group's identity. Religion finds its expression in a given culture, and culture is the costume in which a religion is dressed. In other words, there is a crucial relationship between religion and culture which should not be ignored. On the one hand, religion influences the way in which a culture is consumed. A person's consumption of a certain cultural practice is influenced by his/her religious identity. On the other hand, cultural identity plays an important role in how a religion is practiced by its adherents. Some cultural practices become more credible when interpreted in religious terms just as religious doctrines and dogmas need cultural interpretation to be understood by a given people in a given context. This relationship goes so deep that sometimes the boundaries between culture and religion become blurred, and people end up mixing religion and culture. In some cases, the two are considered to be one and the same thing. However, despite this apparent sameness, religion and culture are two distinct aspects of identity, and they should always be considered as such. One results from knowledge, while the other has beliefs as its foundation. This essay explores the difference between cultural and religious identity by drawing from existing literature on this topic as a whole before applying that knowledge to two specific case studies: Christianity and Islam in some African and Asian countries.

Keywords: culture, religion, identity, knowledge, belief

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2897 Cultural Aspect Representation: An Analysis of EFL Textbook Grade 10 Years 2017 in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

Abstract:

The discourse of language and culture relation is an interesting issue to be researched. The debate is not about what comes first, language or culture, but it strongly argues that learning foreign language also means learning the culture of the language. The more interesting issue found once constructing an EFL textbook dealing with proportional representation among source culture, target culture and international culture. This study investigates cultural content representation in EFL textbook grade 10 year 2017 in Indonesia. Cortazzi and Jin’s theoretical framework is employed to analyse the reading texts, conversations, and images. The finding shows that national character as the main agenda of Indonesian government is revealed in this textbook since the textbook more frequently highlights the source culture (Indonesian culture) compared to target and international culture. This is aligned with the aim of Indonesian government to strengthen the national identity and promoting local culture awareness through education. To conclude, the study is expected to be significant in providing the idea for government to consider cultural balances representation in constructing textbook. Furthermore, teachers and students should be aware of cultural content revealed in the EFL textbook and be able to enhance intercultural communication not only in the classroom but also in a wider society.

Keywords: EFL textbook, intercultural communication, local culture, target culture, international culture

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2896 Corporate Culture and Subcultures: Corporate Culture Analysis in a Company without a Public Relations Department

Authors: Sibel Kurt

Abstract:

In this study, with the use of Goffee and Jones’s corporate culture classification and the scale of this classification, there aimed to analyze a company’s corporate culture which does not have a public relations or communication department. First of all, the type of corporate culture in the company had been determined. Then it questioned if there are subcultures which formed according to demographics or the department of work. In the survey questionnaire, there are 53 questions total. 6 of these questions are about demographics, and 47 of them are about corporate culture. 152 personnel of the company had answered the survey, and the data have been evaluated according to frequency, descriptive, and compare means tests. The type of corporate culture of the company was determined as the 'communal' from the typology of Goffee and Jones in the positive form. There are no subcultures in the company which bases on the demographics, but only one subculture has determined according to the department of work. As a result, the absence of public relations department, personnel’s low level of awareness about corporate culture, and the lack of information between management and employees has been revealed.

Keywords: corporate culture, subculture, public relations, organizational communication

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2895 Cytochrome B Marker Reveals Three Distinct Genetic Lineages of the Oriental Latrine Fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia

Authors: Rajagopal Kavitha, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, Mohd Yusof Farida Zuraina, Mohd Salleh Ahmad Firdaus, Navaratnam Shanti, Abdul Haiyee Zaibunnisa

Abstract:

This study investigated the hidden genetic lineages in the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) across four states (i.e., Johore, Pahang, Perak and Selangor) and a federal territory (i.e., Kuala Lumpur) in Malaysia using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) genetic marker. The Cyt b phylogenetic tree and haplotype network revealed three distinct genetic lineages of Ch. megacephala. Lineage A, the basal clade was restricted to flies that originated from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, while Lineages B and C, comprised of flies from all studied populations. An overlap of the three genetically divergent groups of Ch. megacephala was observed. However, the flies from both Kuala Lumpur and Selangor populations consisted of three different lineages, indicating that they are genetically diverse compared to those from Pahang, Perak and Johore.

Keywords: forensic entomology, calliphoridae, mitochondrial DNA, cryptic lineage

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2894 Effectuating Theology of Culture: The Only Weapon to Confront 21st Century Global Godless Culture

Authors: Hram Bik

Abstract:

This is an analytical paper on how to apply theology to the global godless culture. The paper will analyze and materialize theology of culture and come up with theo-cultural principles which will enable Christians to properly engage with today godless culture. If theology and daily life are in any way split apart, Christians will lose the authenticity essential to their calling. Living out godliness in the ungodly culture requires materializing theology into daily life. To do that has become an unbeatable challenge for Christians in 21st century with the overtaking in of global godless culture enforced by Information Technology resulting in rapid and chaotic change of global lifestyles wherein Christianity stands in danger of being swallowed up. Staying away from the culture will rob Christianity of its mission to witness and staying with and like it will rob Christianity of its effectiveness. Thus the question is how should today Christians apply theology to the culture wherein what are said to be sins in the Bible no longer look like sins? Should we forge an all-out war against it or should distance ourselves away from it? The extreme response to it could fruit Christian Jihadism on the right and the apathetic response would let it booming with no one attempting to stop it on the left. This paper calls for global Christians to essentially make theology a part of their daily lives to form a united global force to influence the godless global culture by influencing our own family and community.

Keywords: Christians, global culture, godliness, theology

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2893 Reproduction of New Media Art Village around NTUT: Heterotopia of Visual Culture Art Education

Authors: Yu Cheng-Yu

Abstract:

‘Heterotopia’, ‘Visual Cultural Art Education’ and ‘New Media’ of these three subjects seemingly are irrelevant. In fact, there are synchronicity and intertextuality inside. In addition to visual culture, art education inspires students the ability to reflect on popular culture image through visual culture teaching strategies in school. We should get involved in the community to construct the learning environment that conveys visual culture art. This thesis attempts to probe the heterogeneity of space and value from Michel Foucault and to research sustainable development strategy in ‘New Media Art Village’ heterogeneity from Jean Baudrillard, Marshall McLuhan's media culture theory and social construction ideology. It is possible to find a new media group that can convey ‘Visual Culture Art Education’ around the National Taipei University of Technology in this commercial district that combines intelligent technology, fashion, media, entertainment, art education, and marketing network. Let the imagination and innovation of ‘New Media Art Village’ become ‘implementable’ and new media Heterotopia of inter-subjectivity with the engagement of big data and digital media. Visual culture art education will also bring aesthetics into the community by New Media Art Village.

Keywords: social construction, heterogeneity, new media, big data, visual culture art education

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2892 An Innovative Poly System Theory for the Go-Out of Chinese Culture

Authors: Jianhua Wang, Ying Zhou, Han Guo

Abstract:

Translation underwent culture turn for more than half a century, which brought translation and its studies beyond intra-texts. Different cultures in recent years have developed towards a translation turn, which made a great contribution to relocate national or local cultures being localized to become regional or global cultures. As China grows quickly economically integrating into the world, it becomes urgent to relate China’s story and disseminate the Chinese culture. Due to the weaknesses and drawbacks of different existing cultural translation theories for Chinese culture to go out, a new perspective on translation turn for the go-out of Chinese culture should be drawn to spread better and disseminate Chinese culture to other countries. Based on the existing cultural translation theories, the equivalence of ideology, style of the translator and agency of the support are proposed to draw a new perspective: an innovative poly-system theory for Chinese culture translation.

Keywords: cultural translation theory, Chinese culture, innovative poly system, global cultures

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2891 Nationalist Approach to the Music Culture in Early Republic Period in Turkey

Authors: Hilmi Yazici

Abstract:

Just after Ottoman period, new more homogenic republic was struggling to form a national identity and dealing with the cultural and historical background of the nation. This new republic had an aim of modernization and westernization which started in the late ottoman period. In this process, the culture was an important basis to form a new nation and it clearly put forward that the new citizens of the new national republic are to have a modern and national culture. The result of this aimed change was to find the Turkish culture suppressed among the common people of the Anatolia and to take the western modernization and breed this with national culture. So in this context, we can say that this approach separated the people from ottoman culture and its roots to empower the national identity. Repeatedly, it may be said that Turkish folkloric music was an important basis for the new revolution, on the other hand classical Turkish music was alienated with the idea that it didn’t belong to Turkish culture. So the aim of this study is to determine how these efforts to nationalize a new identity and culture was successful and conscious intervention to folkloric Turkish music became efficient.

Keywords: opera, nationalism in music, Turkish music

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2890 Creative Culture to Innovative Culture: Transformal Operation

Authors: Peer M. Sathikh

Abstract:

Creativity and innovation have become an important phenomenon today, whose potential is being realized through the success of Apple, Google/Android, Nike, Virgin, Dyson and other multinationals that are a household name today. Creativity and Innovation are, many times, used interchangeably, causing confusion as to what each represents and are capable of. Attempts to understand creativity and innovation clearly point to the difference, and at the same time, inter-dependency of one on the other. The assumption that having more creative personnel in a team will translate into innovation sooner or later seems generally counterproductive. What helps define the role of creativity and innovation in an organization and how can one build an innovative team? This paper points to the importance of understanding creative culture and innovation culture in order to bring about the desired innovation outcome and proposes a means to transform one to another as ideas move from mere ideas to useful innovation.

Keywords: creativity, innovation, creative culture, innovation culture, transformal operators

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