Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: painlevé paradox

71 Effect of Robot Configuration Parameters, Masses and Friction on Painlevé Paradox for a Sliding Two-Link (P-R) Robot

Authors: Hassan Mohammad Alkomy, Hesham Elkaranshawy, Ahmed Ibrahim Ashour, Khaled Tawfik Mohamed

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For a rigid body sliding on a rough surface, a range of uncertainty or non-uniqueness of solution could be found, which is termed: Painlevé paradox. Painlevé paradox is the reason of a wide range of bouncing motion, observed during sliding of robotic manipulators on rough surfaces. In this research work, the existence of the paradox zone during the sliding motion of a two-link (P-R) robotic manipulator with a unilateral constraint is investigated. Parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of friction, link-length ratio, total height and link-mass ratio on the paradox zone.

Keywords: dynamical system, friction, multibody system, painlevé paradox, robotic systems, sliding robots, unilateral constraint

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70 Paradox of Business Strategic toward Sustainable Business: A Case Study of Hijab Fashion in Bandung

Authors: Lisandy Arinta Suryana, Santi Novani, Utomo Sarjono

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Paradox of business strategic is associated with the contradictory practice. It becomes one of the critical way to survive and win in the dynamic competitive landscape – high level of uncertainty and rapid change in the business environment. Those characteristics are similar with the environment of hijab fashion business, especially in Indonesia. This paper aims to describe the success of paradoxical strategic based on historical data of hijab fashion business which have been validated by qualitative approach. This paper discusses two main aspects of paradoxical strategic such as paradox in human resource management, and logistic center management. Then, the detail effects from each practice are described in term of causal loop diagram. Moreover, the practice of paradoxical strategic depends on leadership that can make a brave and dynamic decision by capturing the main problems and opportunities in their business, and also build commitment to achieve a specific goal.

Keywords: paradox of business strategic, paradoxical strategic, causal loop diagram, sustainable business, hijab fashion business, business strategic

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69 Investigating Salience Theory’s Implications for Real-Life Decision Making: An Experimental Test for Whether the Allais Paradox Exists under Subjective Uncertainty

Authors: Christoph Ostermair

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We deal with the effect of correlation between prospects on human decision making under uncertainty as proposed by the comparatively new and promising model of “salience theory of choice under risk”. In this regard, we show that the theory entails the prediction that the inconsistency of choices, known as the Allais paradox, should not be an issue in the context of “real-life decision making”, which typically corresponds to situations of subjective uncertainty. The Allais paradox, probably the best-known anomaly regarding expected utility theory, would then essentially have no practical relevance. If, however, empiricism contradicts this prediction, salience theory might suffer a serious setback. Explanations of the model for variable human choice behavior are mostly the result of a particular mechanism that does not come to play under perfect correlation. Hence, if it turns out that correlation between prospects – as typically found in real-world applications – does not influence human decision making in the expected way, this might to a large extent cost the theory its explanatory power. The empirical literature regarding the Allais paradox under subjective uncertainty is so far rather moderate. Beyond that, the results are hard to maintain as an argument, as the presentation formats commonly employed, supposably have generated so-called event-splitting effects, thereby distorting subjects’ choice behavior. In our own incentivized experimental study, we control for such effects by means of two different choice settings. We find significant event-splitting effects in both settings, thereby supporting the suspicion that the so far existing empirical results related to Allais paradoxes under subjective uncertainty may not be able to answer the question at hand. Nevertheless, we find that the basic tendency behind the Allais paradox, which is a particular switch of the preference relation due to a modified common consequence, shared by two prospects, is still existent both under an event-splitting and a coalesced presentation format. Yet, the modal choice pattern is in line with the prediction of salience theory. As a consequence, the effect of correlation, as proposed by the model, might - if anything - only weaken the systematic choice pattern behind the Allais paradox.

Keywords: Allais paradox, common consequence effect, models of decision making under risk and uncertainty, salience theory

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68 Users’ Information Disclosure Determinants in Social Networking Sites: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Wajdan Al Malwi, Karen Renaud, Lewis Mackenzie

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The privacy paradox describes a phenomenon whereby there is no connection between stated privacy concerns and privacy behaviours. We need to understand the underlying reasons for this paradox if we are to help users to preserve their privacy more effectively. In particular, the Social Networking System (SNS) domain offers a rich area of investigation due to the risks of unwise information disclosure decisions. Our study thus aims to untangle the complicated nature and underlying mechanisms of online privacy-related decisions in SNSs. In this paper, we report on the findings of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) that revealed a number of factors that are likely to influence online privacy decisions. Our deductive analysis approach was informed by Communicative Privacy Management (CPM) theory. We uncovered a lack of clarity around privacy attitudes and their link to behaviours, which makes it challenging to design privacy-protecting SNS platforms and to craft legislation to ensure that users’ privacy is preserved.

Keywords: privacy paradox, self-disclosure, privacy attitude, privacy behavior, social networking sites

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67 A History of Knowledge Management: A Chronological Account from the 1970s to 2017

Authors: Alexslis N. Maindze

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Knowledge management (KM) has become an imperative to modern business growth, competitive edge, and sustainability. Though there has been extensive research in the field, this literature overview showcases massive gaps that exist on the coverage of the field’s rich and fascinating history. Particularly, accounts of the history of KM are inconsistent and fragmentary in breadth and depth. This paper presents new insights into the history of KM from the early 70s when the actual coinage ‘knowledge management’ entered the literature. It reveals how knowledge over the years was shrouded in secrecy and subsumed by technology. It makes a clear distinction between the histories of the debate around knowledge and that of KM. The paper also finds a history of KM filled with skepticisms and engulfed by an ‘intellectual paradox’.

Keywords: knowledge management history, secrecy, skepticism, intellectual paradox

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66 Solving One of the Variants of Necktie Paradox for Business Proposals

Authors: Natarajan Vijayarangan, Viswanath Kumar Ganesan, G. Kumudhavalli

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This abstract figures out an uncertainty problem pertaining to evaluating business proposals or concept notes in an organisation. Let us consider business proposal evaluation process (BPEP) for execution of corporate research cum business projects in the organisation. Assume that two concept notes X and Y of BPEP are approved: one of them is a full-fledged type (100% financial approval given by the organisation) - X and other one is a conditional type (a partial financial approval given by the organisation) - Y. Then a penalty criteria has been introduced during the process. At the end of annual appraisal, if both of them complete as per the goals and objectives committed or figured out at the time of concept note submission, then both will get an incentive of $N from the organisation. If one of them doesn't fulfill the goals and objectives at the year-end appraisal, then d% reduction or cut will be levied on the project budget for the next year. If X fulfills the goals and objectives and Y doesn't , then X gets a gain of d% on Y's previous year budget and Y gets a loss of d% from the previous year budget for the next year. And vice-versa. Further, an incentive of $N will be given to those who gains. This process is a part of Necktie paradox and inherits an uncertainty principle on X or Y getting more than $N even if X or Y performs well.Solving the above problem and generalizing on finitely many concept notes will be a challenging task.

Keywords: concept notes, necktie paradox, annual appraisal, project budget and gain or loss

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65 Temporal Axis in Japanese: The Paradox of a Metaphorical Orientation in Time

Authors: Tomoko Usui

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In the field of linguistics, it has been said that concepts associated with space and motion systematically contribute structure to the temporal concept. This is the conceptual metaphor theory. conceptual metaphors typically employ a more abstract concept (time) as their target and a more concrete or physical concept as their source (space). This paper will examine two major temporal conceptual metaphors: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor and Time-RP Metaphor. Moving time generally receives a front-back orientation, however, Japanese shows a different orientation given to time. By means of Ego perspective, this paper will illustrate the paradox of a metaphorical orientation in time.

Keywords: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor, Japanese saki, temporal metaphors, Time RP Metaphor

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64 Optimization of the Measure of Compromise as a Version of Sorites Paradox

Authors: Aleksandar Hatzivelkos

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The term ”compromise” is mostly used casually within the social choice theory. It is usually used as a mere result of the social choice function, and this omits its deeper meaning and ramifications. This paper is based on a mathematical model for the description of a compromise as a version of the Sorites paradox. It introduces a formal definition of d-measure of divergence from a compromise and models a notion of compromise that is often used only colloquially. Such a model for vagueness phenomenon, which lies at the core of the notion of compromise enables the introduction of new mathematical structures. In order to maximize compromise, different methods can be used. In this paper, we explore properties of a social welfare function TdM (from Total d-Measure), which is defined as a function which minimizes the total sum of d-measures of divergence over all possible linear orderings. We prove that TdM satisfy strict Pareto principle and behaves well asymptotically. Furthermore, we show that for certain domain restrictions, TdM satisfy positive responsiveness and IIIA (intense independence of irrelevant alternatives) thus being equivalent to Borda count on such domain restriction. This result gives new opportunities in social choice, especially when there is an emphasis on compromise in the decision-making process.

Keywords: borda count, compromise, measure of divergence, minimization

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63 Privacy Paradox and the Internet of Medical Things

Authors: Isabell Koinig, Sandra Diehl

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In recent years, the health-care context has not been left unaffected by technological developments. In recent years, the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)has not only led to a collaboration between disease management and advanced care coordination but also to more personalized health care and patient empowerment. With more than 40 % of all health technology being IoMT-related by 2020, questions regarding privacy become more prevalent, even more so during COVID-19when apps allowing for an intensive tracking of people’s whereabouts and their personal contacts cause privacy advocates to protest and revolt. There is a widespread tendency that even though users may express concerns and fears about their privacy, they behave in a manner that appears to contradict their statements by disclosing personal data. In literature, this phenomenon is discussed as a privacy paradox. While there are some studies investigating the privacy paradox in general, there is only scarce research related to the privacy paradox in the health sector and, to the authors’ knowledge, no empirical study investigating young people’s attitudes toward data security when using wearables and health apps. The empirical study presented in this paper tries to reduce this research gap by focusing on the area of digital and mobile health. It sets out to investigate the degree of importance individuals attribute to protecting their privacy and individual privacy protection strategies. Moreover, the question to which degree individuals between the ages of 20 and 30 years are willing to grant commercial parties access to their private data to use digital health services and apps are put to the test. To answer this research question, results from 6 focus groups with 40 participants will be presented. The focus was put on this age segment that has grown up in a digitally immersed environment. Moreover, it is particularly the young generation who is not only interested in health and fitness but also already uses health-supporting apps or gadgets. Approximately one-third of the study participants were students. Subjects were recruited in August and September 2019 by two trained researchers via email and were offered an incentive for their participation. Overall, results indicate that the young generation is well informed about the growing data collection and is quite critical of it; moreover, they possess knowledge of the potential side effects associated with this data collection. Most respondents indicated to cautiously handle their data and consider privacy as highly relevant, utilizing a number of protective strategies to ensure the confidentiality of their information. Their willingness to share information in exchange for services was only moderately pronounced, particularly in the health context, since health data was seen as valuable and sensitive. The majority of respondents indicated to rather miss out on using digital and mobile health offerings in order to maintain their privacy. While this behavior might be an unintended consequence, it is an important piece of information for app developers and medical providers, who have to find a way to find a user base for their products against the background of rising user privacy concerns.

Keywords: digital health, privacy, privacy paradox, IoMT

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62 The Beat of 'Desolation Row', 50 Years on

Authors: May Ziade

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Postgraduate studies in English language and literature at the University of Sydney provided opportunity for research into one of the most significant singer/songwriters of our time, Bob Dylan, and his masterpiece from the mid-1960s, ‘Desolation Row’. With a title alluding to Jack Kerouac’s Desolation Angels as well as John Steinbeck’s Cannery Row, ‘Desolation Row’ is Bob Dylan’s magnum opus. Recorded on August 4 1965, it takes pride of place as the last track on the revolutionary 1965 album of rock poetics, Highway 61 Revisited. From its inception, its epic proportions (ten long verses) and rich and baffling imagery got our attention - it amused, fascinated and beguiled. The song’s surreal and dreamlike landscape and its cast of characters, drawn from history, fiction, mythology, theology, and popular culture, lured us in and begged interpretation. What were they doing there? Where is Desolation Row? Do they want to escape from or go to ‘Desolation Row’? What was Dylan writing about and what were his influences? Through literary analysis and historical research, this paper will examine the song’s lyrics, the mid-60s context and Dylan’s vast influences to make sense, offer explanations and make connections. In particular, research findings place the Beat poets and oeuvre as a significant literary influence but it is a rich, multilayered text that straddles traditions and emerges as a paradox – a paradox that has endured and endeared itself to many. As it turns 50 this year, what better way to acknowledge this momentous occasion than at an international English language conference.

Keywords: analysis, Bob Dylan, beat context, desolation row

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61 Social Networks in Business: The Complex Concept of Wasta and the Impact of Islam on the Perception of This Practice

Authors: Sa'ad Ali

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This study explores wasta as an example of a social network and how it impacts business practice in the Arab Middle East, drawing links with social network impact in different regions of the world. In doing so, particular attention will be paid to the socio-economic and cultural influences on business practice. In exploring relationships in business, concepts such as social network analysis, social capital and group identity are used to explore the different forms of social networks and how they influence business decisions and practices in the regions and countries where they prevail. The use of social networks to achieve objectives is known as guanxi in China, wasta in the Arab Middle East and blat in ex-Soviet countries. Wasta can be defined as favouritism based on tribal and family affiliation and is a widespread practice that has a substantial impact on political, social and business interactions in the Arab Middle East. Within the business context, it is used in several ways, such as to secure a job or promotion or to cut through bureaucracy in government interactions. The little research available is fragmented, and most studies reveal a negative attitude towards its usage in business. Paradoxically, while wasta is widely practised, people from the Arab Middle East often deny its influence. Moreover, despite the regular exhibition of a negative opinion on the practice of wasta, it can also be a source of great pride. This paper addresses this paradox by conducting a positional literature review, exploring the current literature on wasta and identifying how the identified paradox can be explained. The findings highlight how wasta, to a large extent, has been treated as an umbrella concept, whilst it is a highly complex practice which has evolved from intermediary wasta to intercessory wasta and therefore from bonding social capital relationships to more bridging social capital relationships. In addition, the research found that Islam, as the predominant religion in the region and the main source of ethical guidance for the majority of people from the region, plays a substantial role in this paradox. Specifically, it is submitted that wasta can be viewed positively in Islam when it is practised to aid others without breaking Islamic ethical guidelines, whilst it can be viewed negatively when it is used in contradiction with the teachings of Islam. As such, the unique contribution to knowledge of this study is that it ties together the fragmented literature on wasta, highlighting and helping us understand its complexity. In addition, it sheds light on the role of Islam in wasta practices, aiding our understanding of the paradoxical nature of the practice.

Keywords: Islamic ethics, social capital, social networks, Wasta

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60 Free Will and Compatibilism in Decision Theory: A Solution to Newcomb’s Paradox

Authors: Sally Heyeon Hwang

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Within decision theory, there are normative principles that dictate how one should act in addition to empirical theories of actual behavior. As a normative guide to one’s actual behavior, evidential or causal decision-theoretic equations allow one to identify outcomes with maximal utility values. The choice that each person makes, however, will, of course, differ according to varying assignments of weight and probability values. Regarding these different choices, it remains a subject of considerable philosophical controversy whether individual subjects have the capacity to exercise free will with respect to the assignment of probabilities, or whether instead the assignment is in some way constrained. A version of this question is given a precise form in Richard Jeffrey’s assumption that free will is necessary for Newcomb’s paradox to count as a decision problem. This paper will argue, against Jeffrey, that decision theory does not require the assumption of libertarian freedom. One of the hallmarks of decision-making is its application across a wide variety of contexts; the implications of a background assumption of free will is similarly varied. One constant across the contexts of decision is that there are always at least two levels of choice for a given agent, depending on the degree of prior constraint. Within the context of Newcomb’s problem, when the predictor is attempting to guess the choice the agent will make, he or she is analyzing the determined aspects of the agent such as past characteristics, experiences, and knowledge. On the other hand, as David Lewis’ backtracking argument concerning the relationship between past and present events brings to light, there are similarly varied ways in which the past can actually be dependent on the present. One implication of this argument is that even in deterministic settings, an agent can have more free will than it may seem. This paper will thus argue against the view that a stable background assumption of free will or determinism in decision theory is necessary, arguing instead for a compatibilist decision theory yielding a novel treatment of Newcomb’s problem.

Keywords: decision theory, compatibilism, free will, Newcomb’s problem

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59 The Role of Virtual Reality in Mediating the Vulnerability of Distant Suffering: Distance, Agency, and the Hierarchies of Human Life

Authors: Z. Xu

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Immersive virtual reality (VR) has gained momentum in humanitarian communication due to its utopian promises of co-presence, immediacy, and transcendence. These potential benefits have led the United Nations (UN) to tirelessly produce and distribute VR series to evoke global empathy and encourage policymakers, philanthropic business tycoons and citizens around the world to actually do something (i.e. give a donation). However, it is unclear whether or not VR can cultivate cosmopolitans with a sense of social responsibility towards the geographically, socially/culturally and morally mediated misfortune of faraway others. Drawing upon existing works on the mediation of distant suffering, this article constructs an analytical framework to articulate the issue. Applying this framework on a case study of five of the UN’s VR pieces, the article identifies three paradoxes that exist between cyber-utopian and cyber-dystopian narratives. In the “paradox of distance”, VR relies on the notions of “presence” and “storyliving” to implicitly link audiences spatially and temporally to distant suffering, creating global connectivity and reducing perceived distances between audiences and others; yet it also enables audiences to fully occupy the point of view of distant sufferers (creating too close/absolute proximity), which may cause them to feel naive self-righteousness or narcissism with their pleasures and desire, thereby destroying the “proper distance”. In the “paradox of agency”, VR simulates a superficially “real” encounter for visual intimacy, thereby establishing an “audiences–beneficiary” relationship in humanitarian communication; yet in this case the mediated hyperreality is not an authentic reality, and its simulation does not fill the gap between reality and the virtual world. In the “paradox of the hierarchies of human life”, VR enables an audience to experience virtually fundamental “freedom”, epitomizing an attitude of cultural relativism that informs a great deal of contemporary multiculturalism, providing vast possibilities for a more egalitarian representation of distant sufferers; yet it also takes the spectator’s personally empathic feelings as the focus of intervention, rather than structural inequality and political exclusion (an economic and political power relations of viewing). Thus, the audience can potentially remain trapped within the minefield of hegemonic humanitarianism. This study is significant in two respects. First, it advances the turn of digitalization in studies of media and morality in the polymedia milieu; it is motivated by the necessary call for a move beyond traditional technological environments to arrive at a more novel understanding of the asymmetry of power between the safety of spectators and the vulnerability of mediated sufferers. Second, it not only reminds humanitarian journalists and NGOs that they should not rely entirely on the richer news experience or powerful response-ability enabled by VR to gain a “moral bond” with distant sufferers, but also argues that when fully-fledged VR technology is developed, it can serve as a kind of alchemy and should not be underestimated merely as a “bugaboo” of an alarmist philosophical and fictional dystopia.

Keywords: audience, cosmopolitan, distant suffering, virtual reality, humanitarian communication

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58 The Regionalism Paradox in the Fight against Human Trafficking: Indonesia and the Limits of Regional Cooperation in ASEAN

Authors: Nur Iman Subono, Meidi Kosandi

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This paper examines the role of regional cooperation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the fight against human trafficking for Indonesia. Many among scholars suggest that regional cooperation is necessary for combating human trafficking for its transnational and organized character as a crime against humanity. ASEAN members have been collectively active in responding transnational security issues with series of talks and collaboration agreement since early 2000s. Lately in 2015, ASEAN agreed on ASEAN Convention against Trafficking in Persons, particularly Women and Children (ACTIP) that requires each member to collaborate in information sharing and providing effective safeguard and protection of victims. Yet, the frequency of human trafficking crime occurrence remains high and tend to increase in Indonesian in 2017-2018. The objective of this paper is to examine the effectiveness and success of ACTIP implementation in the fight against human trafficking in Indonesia. Based on two years of research (2017-2018) in three provinces with the largest number of victims in Indonesia, this paper shows the tendency of persisting crime despite the implementation of regional and national anti-trafficking policies. The research was conducted by archive study, literature study, discourse analysis, and depth interviews with local government officials, police, prosecutors, victims, and traffickers. This paper argues that the relative success of ASEAN in establishing convention at the high-level meetings has not been followed with the success in its implementation in the society. Three main factors have contributed to the ineffectiveness of the agreements, i.e. (1) ASEAN institutional arrangement as a collection of sovereign states instead of supranational organization with binding authority; (2) the lack of commitment of ASEAN sovereign member-states to the agreements; and (3) the complexity and variety of the nature of the crime in each member-state. In effect, these factors have contributed to generating the regionalism paradox in ASEAN where states tend to revert to national policies instead of seeking regional collective solution.

Keywords: human trafficking, transnational security, regionalism, anti trafficking policy

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57 The Shared Breath Project: Inhabiting Each Other’s Words and Being

Authors: Beverly Redman

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With the Theatre Season of 2020-2021 cancelled due to COVID-19 at Purdue University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA, faculty directors found themselves scrambling to create theatre production opportunities for their students in the Department of Theatre. Redman, Chair of the Department, found her community to be suffering from anxieties brought on by a confluence of issues: the global-scale Covid-19 Pandemic, the United States’ Black Lives Matter protests erupting in cities all across the country and the coming Presidential election, arguably the most important and most contentious in the country’s history. Redman wanted to give her students the opportunity to speak not only on these issues but also to be able to record who they were at this time in their personal lives, as well as in this broad socio-political context. She also wanted to invite them into an experience of feeling empathy, too, at a time when empathy in this world seems to be sorely lacking. Returning to a mode of Devising Theatre she had used with community groups in the past, in which storytelling and re-enactment of participants’ life events combined with oral history documentation practices, Redman planned The Shared Breath Project. The process involved three months of workshops, in which participants alternated between theatre exercises and oral history collection and documentation activities as a way of generating original material for a theatre production. The goal of the first half of the project was for each participant to produce a solo piece in the form of a monologue after many generations of potential material born out of gammes, improvisations, interviews and the like. Along the way, many film and audio clips recorded the process of each person’s written documentation—documentation prepared by the subject him or herself but also by others in the group assigned to listen, watch and record. Then, in the second half of the project—and only once each participant had taken their own contributions from raw improvisatory self-presentations and through the stages of composition and performative polish, participants then exchanged their pieces. The second half of the project involved taking on each other’s words, mannerisms, gestures, melodic and rhythmic speech patterns and inhabiting them through the rehearsal process as their own, thus the title, The Shared Breath Project. Here, in stage two the acting challenges evolved to be those of capturing the other and becoming the other through accurate mimicry that embraces Denis Diderot’s concept of the Paradox of Acting, in that the actor is both seeming and being simultaneous. This paper shares the carefully documented process of making the live-streamed theatre production that resulted from these workshops, writing processes and rehearsals, and forming, The Shared Breath Project, which ultimately took the students’ Realist, life-based pieces and edited them into a single unified theatre production. The paper also utilizes research on the Paradox of Acting, putting a Post-Structuralist spin on Diderot’s theory. Here, the paper suggests the limitations of inhabiting the other by allowing that the other is always already a thing impenetrable but nevertheless worthy of unceasing empathetic, striving and delving in an epoch in which slow, careful attention to our fellows is in short supply.

Keywords: otherness, paradox of acting, oral history theatre, devised theatre, political theatre, community-based theatre, peoples’ theatre

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56 The Paradox of Design Aesthetics and the Sustainable Design

Authors: Asena Demirci, Gozen Guner Aktaş, Nur Ayalp

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Nature provides a living space for humans, also in contrast it is destroyed by humans for their personal needs and ambitions. For decreasing these damages against nature, solutions are started to generate and to develop. Moreover, precautions are implemented. After 1960s, especially when the ozone layer got harmed and got thinner by toxic substances coming from man made structures, environmental problems which effected human’s activities of daily living. Thus, this subject about environmental solutions and precautions is becoming a priority issue for scientists. Most of the environmental problems are caused by buildings and factories which are built without any concerns about protecting nature. This situation creates awareness about environmental issues and also the terms like sustainability, Renewable energy show up in building, Construction and architecture sectors to provide environmental protection. In this perspective, the design disciplines also should be respectful to nature and the sustainability. Designs which involve the features like sustainability, renewability and being ecologic have specialties to be less detrimental to the environment rather than the designs which do not involve. Furthermore, these designs produce their own energy for consuming, So they do not use the natural resources. They do not contain harmful substances and they are made of recyclable materials. Thus, they are becoming environmentally friendly structures. There is a common concern among designers about the issue of sustainable design. They believe that the idea of sustainability inhibits the creativity. All works of design resemble each other from the point of aesthetics and technological matters. In addition, there is a concern about design ethics which aesthetic designs cannot be accepted as a priority. For these reasons, there are few designs included the features of being eco-friendly and well-designed and also had design concerns around the world. Despite the other design disciplines, The concept of sustainability is getting more important each day in interior architecture and interior design. As it is known that human being spends 90 % of his life in interior spaces, The importance of that concept in interior spaces is obvious. Aesthetic is another vital concern in interior space design also. Most of the time sustainable materials and sustainable interior design applications conflicts with personal aesthetic parameters. This study aims to discuss the great paradox between the design aesthetic and the sustainable design. Does the sustainable approach in interior design disturbs the design aesthetic? This is one of the most popular questions that have been discussed for a while. With this paper this question will be evaluated with a case study which analyzes the aesthetic perceptions and preferences of the users and designers in sustainable interior spaces.

Keywords: aesthetics, interior design, sustainable design, sustainability

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55 The Communicative Nature of Linguistic Interference in Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages

Authors: Kseniia Fedorova

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The article is devoted to interlinguistic homonymy and enantiosemy analysis. These phenomena belong to the process of linguistic interference, which leads to violation of the communicative utterances integrity and causes misunderstanding between foreign interlocutors - native speakers of different Slavic languages. More attention is paid to investigation of non-typical speech situations, which occurred spontaneously or created by somebody intentionally being based on described phenomenon mechanism. The classification of typical students' mistakes connected with the paradox of interference is being represented in the article. The survey contributes to speech act theory, contemporary linguodidactics, translation science and comparative lexicology of Slavonic languages.

Keywords: adherent enantiosemy, interference, interslavonic homonymy, speech act

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54 Improving Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Assessments

Authors: Nancy Wilson

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In utero, fetal drug exposure is prevalent amongst birthing facilities. Assessment tools for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are often cumbersome and ill-fitting, harboring immense subjectivity. This paradox often leads the clinical assessor to be hypervigilant when assessing the newborn for subtle symptoms of NAS, often mistaken for normal newborn behaviors. As a quality improvement initiative, this project led to a more adaptable NAS tool termed eat, sleep, console (ESC). This function-based NAS assessment scores the infant based on the ability to accomplish three basic newborn necessities- to sleep, to eat, and to be consoled. Literature supports that ESC methodology improves patient and family outcomes while providing more cost-effective care.

Keywords: neonatal abstinence syndrome, neonatal opioid withdrawal, maternal substance abuse, pregnancy, and addiction, Finnegan neonatal abstinence syndrome tool, eat, sleep, console

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53 Nutritional Status of Children in a Rural Food Environment, Haryana: A Paradox for the Policy Action

Authors: Neha Gupta, Sonika Verma, Seema Puri, Nikhil Tandon, Narendra K. Arora

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The concurrent increasing prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity among children with changing lifestyle and the rapid transitioning society has necessitated the need for a unifying/multi-level approach to understand the determinants of the problem. The present community-based cross-sectional research study was conducted to assess the associations between lifestyle behavior and food environment of the child at household, neighborhood, and school with the BMI of children (6-12 year old) (n=612) residing in three rural clusters of Palwal district, Haryana. The study used innovative and robust methods for assessing the lifestyle and various components of food environment in the study. The three rural clusters selected for the study were located at three different locations according to their access to highways in the SOMAARTH surveillance site. These clusters were significantly different from each other in terms of their socio-demographic and socio-economic profile, living conditions, environmental hygiene, health seeking behavior and retail density. Despite of being different, the quality of living conditions and environmental hygiene was poor across three clusters. The children had higher intakes of dietary energy and sugars; one-fifth share of the energy being derived from unhealthy foods, engagement in high levels of physical activity and significantly different food environment at home, neighborhood and school level. However, despite having a high energy intake, 22.5% of the recruited children were thin/severe thin, and 3% were overweight/obese as per their BMI-for-age categories. The analysis was done using multi-variate logistic regression at three-tier hierarchy including individual, household and community level. The factors significantly explained the variability in governing the risk of getting thin/severe thin among children in rural area (p-value: 0.0001; Adjusted R2: 0.156) included age (>10years) (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), the interaction between minority category and poor SES of the household (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.6-12.1), availability of sweets (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-0.99) and cereals (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0) in the household and poor street condition (proxy indicator of the hygiene and cleanliness in the neighborhood) (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.1). The homogeneity of other factors at neighborhood and school level food environment diluted the heterogeneity in the lifestyles and home environment of the recruited children and their households. However, it is evident that when various individual factors interplay at multiple levels amplifies the risk of undernutrition in a rural community. Conclusion: These rural areas in Haryana are undergoing developmental, economic and societal transition. In correspondence, no improvements in the nutritional status of children have happened. Easy access to the unhealthy foods has become a paradox.

Keywords: transition, food environment, lifestyle, undernutrition, overnutrition

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52 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of the Congolese Population from Basic Territorial Entities on Family Planning:a Forgotten issue. Case of Murara Sector(City of Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo)

Authors: Mwamba Mwamini Ruth

Abstract:

For many authors,the percentage of married or in union persons using family planning methods has increased significantly since the 1960s, despite this progress, important differences across régions are observer.These différences become even greater,to present a paradox,when studying the issue in smallest territorial entities in developing countries.In line with the above,the general objective of this research is to investigate into "knowledge , attitude and practice"of households from a basic territorial entity,here in"Murara Sector"(in the city of Goma, province of North Kivu,Democratic Republic of Congo,Africa)on family planning (as defined and provisioned by the four World Health Organization-WHO key texts on the matter)

Keywords: DRC, family planning methods, information technology, Murara

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51 Human Dignity as a Source and Limitation of Personal Autonomy

Authors: Jan Podkowik

Abstract:

The article discusses issues of mutual relationships of human dignity and personal autonomy. According to constitutions of many countries and international human rights law, human dignity is a fundamental and inviolable value. It is the source of all freedoms and rights, including personal autonomy. Human dignity, as an inherent, inalienable and non-gradable value comprising an attribute of all people, justifies freedom of action according to one's will and following one's vision of good life. On the other hand, human dignity imposes immanent restrictions to personal autonomy regarding decisions on commercialization of the one’s body, etc. It points to the paradox of dignity – the source of freedom and conditions (basic) of its limitations. The paper shows the theoretical concept of human dignity as an objective value among legal systems, determining the boundaries of legal protection of personal autonomy. It is not, therefore, the relevant perception of human dignity and freedom as opposite values. Reference point has been made the normative provisions of the Polish Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as well as judgments of constitutional courts.

Keywords: autonomy, constitution, human dignity, human rights

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50 Key Factors of Success and Deterrent of IT Projects, Case study: Islamic Azad University, Zahedan Branch

Authors: Mohammad Reza Abidi, Zahra Nourouz Pour, Mehdi Moudi

Abstract:

In this research, firstly critical success factors and deterrent factors in implementing projects and also the factors those cause information technology productivity (IT) paradox in Islamic Azad University, Zahedan branch examined. Research method of this paper is descriptive. In fact, the researcher by using survey, proposed useful solutions. In this research, subjects’ responders to questionnaires items were based on Likert scale. In the questionnaire, economic, technical, organizational and cultural factors in the university have been assessed in order to obtain the necessary validity. We used masters and technicians of IT department’s advices to realize reliability and consistency. For the reliability test we used Cronbach’s reliability test and validity has been obtained using SPSS software. Because of the research questions and objectives, t-student test is used for hypothesis testing. Finally we analyze the findings, we offer conclusions and suggestions.

Keywords: IT projects, Islamic Azad University, success factors, deterrent factors

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49 Mastering the Paradox: Five Unexpected Qualities of Innovation Leaders

Authors: Murtuza Ali Lakhani, Michelle Marquard

Abstract:

Given the paradoxical nature of innovation, we propose that leaders of innovation-centered organizations need certain specific qualities focused on developing higher-order structures, fostering self-organization, and nurturing constructive dissonance and conciliation. Keeping in view the prolific literature on leadership and innovation, we carry out a quantitative study with data collected over a five-year period involving 31 leaders and 209 observers (direct reports, peers, and managers) from across five companies based in the United States. Rather than accepting, as some scholars and practitioners do, that leadership is all-encompassing, we argue that it is specific to a given context, e.g., innovation. We find that leadership is the locus of innovation and that leaders able to effectively lead the innovation agenda demonstrate five specific behaviors and characteristics, namely stewardship, communication, empowerment, creativity, and vision. We demonstrate that the alignment (or misalignment) between a leader’s “self view” and “other view” is a tell-tale sign of whether (or not) the leader’s organization will succeed at innovation. We propose a scale, iLeadership, and test it psychometrically for assessment of leaders and organizational units charged with innovation.

Keywords: innovation, leadership, innovation leadership, knowledge creation

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48 Effect of Urbanization on Basic Environmental Components

Authors: Sehba Saleem

Abstract:

A country with a spread of only 2.4 percent of the total land surface area of the world, India is home to 17.5 percent of the world population. This fact is sufficient enough to delineate as well as simultaneously bringing to fore the paradox which exists between land and human population. It is evident that the relation which exists between both is an unequal one where the latter has the ability to multiply self, but the former remains constant. This unequal relation that exists has very significantly contributed to the depletion in the quality of land. This is because construction of every kind and nature has been forced on the land to assimilate the ever increasing population which has altered the not only the land but the environment which existed on the land. To get behind this alteration, it becomes imperative to delve into concepts like urbanization, ecology and their amalgam viz. urban ecology. The concept of urban ecology does not only involve study of buildings, flora, and fauna which exists in a given land space. It goes further into establishing a relation between construction on land and the consequent harm, which the same is causing to the environmental resources like air, water etc. This paper shall try cerebrating concepts of urbanization, ecology and urban ecology in the light of relation which exists between man and nature.

Keywords: asymmetrical growth, environment, urbanisation, urban space

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47 Mastering the Innovation Paradox: The Five Unexpected Qualities of Innovation Leaders

Authors: Murtuza Ali Lakhani, Michelle Marquard

Abstract:

Given the paradoxical nature of innovation, we propose that leaders of innovation-centered organizations need certain specific qualities focused on developing higher-order structures, fostering self-organization, and nurturing constructive dissonance and conciliation. Keeping in view the prolific literature on leadership and innovation, we carry out a quantitative study with data collected over a five-year period involving 31 leaders and 209 observers (direct reports, peers, and managers) from across five companies based in the United States. Rather than accepting, as some scholars and practitioners do, that leadership is all-encompassing, we argue that it is specific to a given context, e.g., innovation. We find that leadership is the locus of innovation and that leaders able to effectively lead the innovation agenda demonstrate five specific behaviors and characteristics, namely stewardship, communication, empowerment, creativity, and vision. We demonstrate that the alignment (or misalignment) between a leader’s “self view” and “other view” is a tell-tale sign of whether (or not) the leader’s organization will succeed at innovation. We propose a scale, iLeadership, and test it psychometrically for assessment of leaders and organizational units charged with innovation.

Keywords: leadership, innovation, knowledge creating organizations, leadership behavior, leadership assessment

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46 Towards Safety-Oriented System Design: Preventing Operator Errors by Scenario-Based Models

Authors: Avi Harel

Abstract:

Most accidents are commonly attributed in hindsight to human errors, yet most methodologies for safety focus on technical issues. According to the Black Swan theory, this paradox is due to insufficient data about the ways systems fail. The article presents a study of the sources of errors, and proposes a methodology for utility-oriented design, comprising methods for coping with each of the sources identified. Accident analysis indicates that errors typically result from difficulties of operating in exceptional conditions. Therefore, following STAMP, the focus should be on preventing exceptions. Exception analysis indicates that typically they involve an improper account of the operational scenario, due to deficiencies in the system integration. The methodology proposes a model, which is a formal definition of the system operation, as well as principles and guidelines for safety-oriented system integration. The article calls to develop and integrate tools for recording and analysis of the system activity during the operation, required to implement validate the model.

Keywords: accidents, complexity, errors, exceptions, interaction, modeling, resilience, risks

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45 Musical Education of Preschool Children: From the Average to the Gifted

Authors: Eudjen Cinc

Abstract:

The contemporary society, which is, whether we like it or not, oriented towards utilitarianism, pragmatics and professional flexibility, lives in a certain paradox. On the one hand, at least declaratively, the accent of modern society is on knowledge; knowledge is even considered to be a commodity, the popularity of education is increased as the only means of survival in the market-oriented world, while on the other hand modern society is moving towards simplification and decreasing the amount of information and areas which are considered necessary in the generally excepted concept of education. We cannot talk about the preschool teacher profession without mentioning work with gifted children. The preschool teacher knowing the characteristics of gifted children is of utmost importance because their early identification and professional guidance are of cardinal importance for the direction in which the children will develop. When we talk about musical ability, in the first phase, the role of preschool teachers in the identification and stimulation of gifted children naturally refers to monitoring children’s musical manifestation. The identification process and work with the gifted presupposes a good relationship with the family, synergy of these two important influences in the child’s education and upbringing.

Keywords: music education, gifted children, methodology, kindergarten

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44 A 'German Europe' Emerged from the Euro Crisis: A Study through the Portuguese Quality Press

Authors: Ana Luísa Mouro

Abstract:

When the financial crisis exploded in 2008 in the United States, unleashed by the collapse of Lehman Brothers, and contaminated the economies of the European periphery, Germany appeared as the anchor of the stability of all European institutions and countries in difficulty. The solutions provided by the German government have triggered a deep political debate about the key position Germany has conquered at the heart of Europe - a new “German question” has been created. Some say Germany has achieved by peaceful means what was not able to get through military conquest - the domination of Europe – and many fear Germany’s economic power. This debate about the new role of Germany in Europe has received special attention in the European media and Portugal has not been the exception. The present study has been based on the survey, selection and critical analysis of news reporting, opinion articles, interviews and editorials, published in the weekly Expresso and in the daily Público, between 2008 and 2015 (year of the 25th anniversary of Germany’s unification). The findings of this study will show the paradox of German power and its relevance for Europe’s future.

Keywords: Euro crises, German Europe, intercultural hermeneutics, Portuguese quality press

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43 Global Best Practice Paradox; the Failure of One Size Fits All Approach to Development a Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Iftikhar, Farah Khalid

Abstract:

Global best practices as ordained by international organizations comprise a broader top-down approach to development problems, without taking into account country-specific factors. The political economy of each country is extremely different and the failure of several attempts of international organizations to implement global best practice models in developing countries each with its unique set of variables, goes on to show that this is not the most efficient solution to development problems. This paper is a humble attempt at shedding light on some specific examples of failures of the global best practices. Pakistan has its unique set of problems and unless those are added to the broader equation of development, country-specific reform and growth will continue to pose a challenge to reform programs initiated by international organizations. The three case studies presented in this paper are just a few prominent examples of failure of the global best practice, top-down, universalistic approach to development as ordained by international organizations. Development and reform can only be achieved if local dynamics are given their due importance. The modus operandi of international organizations needs to be tailored according to each country’s unique politico-economic environment.

Keywords: best practice, development, context

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42 Assessing the Effects of Community Informatics on Livelihoods Sustainability in Nigeria: a Model for Rural Communities

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

Abstract:

Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. This thus raises a very important question as to how can there be so much poverty in Nigeria with all its natural endowments. This study focused comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics , model, rural community, livelihoods sustainability, Nigeria

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