Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: adherent enantiosemy

44 The Communicative Nature of Linguistic Interference in Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages

Authors: Kseniia Fedorova

Abstract:

The article is devoted to interlinguistic homonymy and enantiosemy analysis. These phenomena belong to the process of linguistic interference, which leads to violation of the communicative utterances integrity and causes misunderstanding between foreign interlocutors - native speakers of different Slavic languages. More attention is paid to investigation of non-typical speech situations, which occurred spontaneously or created by somebody intentionally being based on described phenomenon mechanism. The classification of typical students' mistakes connected with the paradox of interference is being represented in the article. The survey contributes to speech act theory, contemporary linguodidactics, translation science and comparative lexicology of Slavonic languages.

Keywords: adherent enantiosemy, interference, interslavonic homonymy, speech act

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43 Real-World Comparison of Adherence to and Persistence with Dulaglutide and Liraglutide in UAE e-Claims Database

Authors: Ibrahim Turfanda, Soniya Rai, Karan Vadher

Abstract:

Objectives— The study aims to compare real-world adherence to and persistence with dulaglutide and liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) initiating treatment in UAE. Methods— This was a retrospective, non-interventional study (observation period: 01 March 2017–31 August 2019) using the UAE Dubai e-Claims database. Included: adult patients initiating dulaglutide/liraglutide 01 September 2017–31 August 2018 (index period) with: ≥1 claim for T2D in the 6 months before index date (ID); ≥1 claim for dulaglutide/liraglutide during index period; and continuous medical enrolment for ≥6 months before and ≥12 months after ID. Key endpoints, assessed 3/6/12 months after ID: adherence to treatment (proportion of days covered [PDC; PDC ≥80% considered ‘adherent’], per-group mean±standard deviation [SD] PDC); and persistence (number of continuous therapy days from ID until discontinuation [i.e., >45 days gap] or end of observation period). Patients initiating dulaglutide/liraglutide were propensity score matched (1:1) based on baseline characteristics. Between-group comparison of adherence was analysed using the McNemar test (α=0.025). Persistence was analysed using Kaplan–Meier estimates with log-rank tests (α=0.025) for between-group comparisons. This study presents 12-month outcomes. Results— Following propensity score matching, 263 patients were included in each group. Mean±SD PDC for all patients at 12 months was significantly higher in the dulaglutide versus the liraglutide group (dulaglutide=0.48±0.30, liraglutide=0.39±0.28, p=0.0002). The proportion of adherent patients favored dulaglutide (dulaglutide=20.2%, liraglutide=12.9%, p=0.0302), as did the probability of being adherent to treatment (odds ratio [97.5% CI]: 1.70 [0.99, 2.91]; p=0.03). Proportion of persistent patients also favoured dulaglutide (dulaglutide=15.2%, liraglutide=9.1%, p=0.0528), as did the probability of discontinuing treatment 12 months after ID (p=0.027). Conclusions— Based on the UAE Dubai e-Claims database data, dulaglutide initiators exhibited significantly greater adherence in terms of mean PDC versus liraglutide initiators. The proportion of adherent patients and the probability of being adherent favored the dulaglutide group, as did treatment persistence.

Keywords: adherence, dulaglutide, effectiveness, liraglutide, persistence

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42 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen

Abstract:

Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, bleeding events, meta-analysis, novel oral anticoagulants

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41 Factors Associated with Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among HIV Infected Patients in Ukraine

Authors: Larissa Burruano, Sergey Grabovyj, Irina Nguen

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The study aimed to assess the level of adherence to anti retroviral therapy (ART) and to examine the relationship between adherence and risk behavior factor (drug use) among patients infected with HIV. The patients with newly diagnosed or established HIV infection under follow-up at the Sumskij Regional Centre for AIDS Prevention in Ukraine were eligible for this study. Medical records were used to measure the patient’s adherence to medication. Measurements were obtained at month 6 and at month 12 to calculate the number of medication omission during the past 30 days: (on a 2-point scale – once until three in a month – were considered adherent, three and more in a month – were considered non-adherent). Of the 50 study participants, 27 (54.0%) were men and 23 (46.0%) women. The mean age is 35.2 years (SD= 5.1). A majority of the patients (82.0%) is in the age group of 25-30 years. The main level of adherence was 74.0% and 66.0% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The main routes of HIV transmission were drug injection among men 12 (44.4%) and sexual contact among women 11 (47.8%). Univariate analyses indicated that patients who had lower level of education were more likely to have been non-adherent at month 6- (X2 =5.1, n=50, p < .05) and at month 12 (X2 = 4.34, n=50, p < .05). Multivariate tests showed that only age (OR= 1.163 [95% CI 0.98–1.370]) was significant independent predictor of treatment adherence, while gender, education, employment status were not predictive for the risk of developing non-compliance. There was not a significant interaction between non-adherence and intravenous drug use. Consistent with these findings, younger people were more likely to have missed a dose of their medication because they had a greater sense of invulnerability than older patients. The study indicates that the socio demographic characteristic should be taken into an account in the future research regarding adherence in the case of HIV infection. If the patient anti retroviral adherence can be improved by qualitatively better medical care in all regions of the Ukraine, behavioral changes in the population can to be expected in the long term.

Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, adherence, Ukraine, Eastern Europe

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40 Prevalence of Non-Adherence among Psychiatric Patients in Jordan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Tareq L. Mukattash, Karem H. Alzoubi, Ejlal Abu El-Rub, Anan S. Jarab, Sayyer I. Al-Azzam, Maher Khdour, Mohammed Shara, Yazid N. Alhamarneh

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Background: It has been estimated that up to 50% of any patient population is at least partially non-adherent to their prescribed treatment. Identifying barriers to adherence is required to develop effective interventions for psychiatric patients. Objective: To explore the prevalence and factors of non-adherence among psychiatric patients present at four psychiatric clinics. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A sample of psychiatric patients attending outpatient psychiatric clinics was enrolled between March and April 2011. Results: A total of 243 psychiatric patients took part in this study with the majority of patients (92.5%) being prescribed more than one psychiatric disorder. The majority (64.2%) of the patients was classified as non-adherent according to the Morisky adherence questionnaire and forgetfulness was the most prevalent reason for that. Conclusions: Non-adherence is a common and important issue among psychiatric patients. Polypharmacy, safety concerns and lack of insight towards the prescribed treatment were reported as the main reasons of non-adherence.

Keywords: medication adherence, psychiatric disorders, clinical pharmacy, polypharmacy

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39 Effects of Medication Reminder Innovation on Adherence and the Quality of Medicine

Authors: Suparpit von Bormann, Winai Sayorwan, Sirichai Channim, Sararat Rungruangkhanarak, Premchai Suksamran, Piyaporn Srisuk, Piyatida Phosri

Abstract:

The best medicine will not work if the patient does not take them. There are several methods developed to help patients to be adherent to medicine. However, non-adherent rate still high: 24% in physically ill and 42% in mentally ill patients. Moreover, patients might feel less confident when carrying medicine around. Normal medicine box has no alarm; whereas the one with alarm is not handy and might be left at home. Therefore, Medication Reminder (MR) was invented. MR is a medicine pocket that has an alarm clock to remind the patient when it is the time to take medicine. It also has a small light indicating the medicine the patient has to take. This pocket is attached within a purse or wallet because most people forget medicine but do not forget to take their money. This research was conducted to develop innovation assisting patients to take their medicine on time. Samples were 24 volunteers who went out to work every day. Uncoated tablets, coated tablets, and capsules were filled in three types of containers: MR, plastic bag with ziplock, and normal plastic box. Each volunteer carried three types of containers everywhere during day time. After three days, medicines were tested for physical quality (appearance, odor, color, hardness, and weight) in laboratory. Medication adherence and satisfaction questionnaires were completed by participants. The results showed that MR showed significant improvement in participants’ adherence than plastic bag with ziplock, and normal plastic box at p < .001 (x̄(SD) = 11.16(0.75), 7.83(0.98), 8.83(1.32), respectively). Based on the quality test, MR and normal plastic box significantly better protected medicine than plastic bag with zip lock at p < .001 (x̄(SD) = 4(0.00), 4(0.00), 2.5(0.54), respectively). Most participants were satisfied with the innovation in highest level (4.50 out of 5). MR has a potential to improve adherent rates of participants and therefore to be an innovation that helps reducing the cost of treatment due to non-adherence. MR also has a potential in commercial aspect due to its effects in preserving quality of medicine. MR can be integrated with local products such as silk purse that can increase income for local people.

Keywords: medication, reminder, adherence, satisfaction

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38 Effects of Different Fiber Orientations on the Shear Strength Performance of Composite Adhesive Joints

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu, Hasan Puskul

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A composite material with carbon fiber and polymer matrix has been used as adherent for manufacturing adhesive joints. In order to evaluate different fiber orientations on joint performance, the adherents with the 0°, ±15°, ±30°, ±45° fiber orientations were used in the single lap joint configuration. The joints with an overlap length of 25 mm were prepared according to the ASTM 1002 specifications and subjected to tensile loadings. The structural adhesive used was a two-part epoxy to be cured at 70°C for an hour. First, mechanical behaviors of the adherents were measured using three point bending test. In the test, considerations were given to stress to failure and elastic modulus. The results were compared with theoretical ones using rule of mixture. Then, the joints were manufactured in a specially prepared jig, after a proper surface preparation. Experimental results showed that the fiber orientations of the adherents affected the joint performance considerably; the joints with ±45° adherents experienced the worst shear strength, half of those with 0° adherents, and in general, there was a great relationship between the fiber orientations and failure mechanisms. Delamination problems were observed for many joints, which were thought to be due to peel effects at the ends of the overlap. It was proved that the surface preparation applied to the adherent surface was adequate. For further explanation of the results, a numerical work should be carried out using a possible non-linear analysis.

Keywords: composite materials, adhesive bonding, bonding strength, lap joint, tensile strength

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37 Design of Composite Joints from Carbon Fibre for Automotive Parts

Authors: G. Hemath Kumar, H. Mohit, K. Karthick

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One of the most important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of parts of aircraft structures which is manufactured from composite materials. In such applications and also for joining various composite parts together, they are fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The tensile strength of these joints was carried out using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). A parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent thickness, adhesive thickness and overlap length. The composition of the material is combination of epoxy resin and carbon fibre under the method of reinforcement. To utilize the full potential of composite materials as structural elements, the strength and stress distribution of these joints must be understood. The study of tensile strength in the members involved under various design conditions and various joints were took place.

Keywords: carbon fiber, FRP composite, MMC, automotive

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36 Oxidative Damage to Lipids, Proteins, and DNA during Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord into Biologically Active Hepatocytes

Authors: Abdolamir Allameh, Shahnaz Esmaeili, Mina Allameh, Safoura Khajeniazi

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Stem cells with therapeutic applications can be isolated from human placenta/umblical cord blood (UCB) as well as the cord tissue (UC). Stem cells in culture are vulnerable to oxidative stress, particularly when subjected to differentiation process. The aim of this study was to examine the chnages in the rate of oxidation that occurs to cellular macromolecules during hepatic differentiation of mononuclear cells (MSCs). In addition, the impact of the hepatic differentiation process of MSC on cellular and biological activity of the cells will be undertaken. For this purpose, first mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from human UCB which was obtained from a healthy full-term infant. The cells were cultured at a density of 3×10⁵ cells/cm² in DMEM- low-glucose culture media supplemented with 20% FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 μg/ml streptomycin and 100 U/ml penicillin. Cell cultures were then incubated at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO₂ incubator. After removing non-adherent cells by replacing culture medium, fibroblast-like adherent cells were resuspended in 0.25% trypsin-EDTA and plated in 25 cm² flasks (1×10⁴/ml). Characterization of the MSCs was routinely done by observing their morphology and growth curve. MSCs were subjected to a 2-step hepatocyte differentiation protocol in presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), dexamethazone (DEX) and oncostatin M (OSM). The hepatocyte-like cells derived from MSCs were checked every week for 3 weeks for changes in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and DNA oxidation i.e., 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) assay. During the 3-week differentiation process of MSCs to hepatocyte-like cells we found that expression liver-specific markers such as albumin, was associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. Whereas, undifferentiated MSCs has relatively low levels of lipid peroxidation products. There was a significant increase ( p < 0.05) in lipid peroxidation products in hepatocytes on days 7, 14, and 21 of differentiation. Likewise, the level of protein carbonyls in the cells was elevated during the differentiation. The level of protein carbonyls measured in hepatocyte-like cells obtained 3 weeks after differentiation induction was estimated to be ~6 fold higher compared to cells recovered on day 7 of differentiation. On the contrary, there was a small but significant decrease in DNA damage marker (8-OH-dG) in hepatocytes recovered 3 weeks after differentiation onset. The level of 8-OHdG which was in consistent with formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, this data suggest that despite the elevation in oxidation of lipid and protein molecules during hepatocyte development, the cells were normal in terms of DNA integrity, morphology, and biologically activity.

Keywords: adult stem cells, DNA integrity, free radicals, hepatic differentiation

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35 Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

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In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was isothermally and cyclically oxidized at 800oC for 40 hours in air, and its oxidation behavior was characterized in terms of its oxidation rate, scaling rate, and scale spallation tendency. The isothermal oxidation tests indicated that Ti-6Al-4V oxidized fast and almost linearly, forming thick oxide scales. However, the scales that formed during isothermal oxidation were adherent. The cyclic oxidation tests indicated that the scales that formed on Ti-6Al-4V were highly susceptible to spallation owing to the large growth stress arisen and the thermal stress imposed during thermal cyclings. The formed scales frequently delaminated into several pieces owing to the excessive stress aroused by the repetitive thermal shock. Particularly, excessive oxidation and heavy spallation occurred at the edge of Ti-6Al-4V during cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, isothermal, oxidation, spallation

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34 Thiourea Modified Cadmium Sulfide Film for Solar Cell Application

Authors: Rupali Mane

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Cadmium sulfide (Cds) thin films were chemically deposited at room temperature, from aqueous ammonia solution using CdCl₂ (Cadmium chloride) as a Cd²⁺ and CS(NH₂)₂ (Thiourea) as S² ion sources. ‘as-deposited’ films were uniform, well adherent to the glass substrate, secularly reflective and yellowish in color. The ‘as-deposited ’Cds layers grew with nano-crystalline in nature and exhibit cubic structure, with blue-shift in optical band gap. The films were annealed in air atmosphere for two hours at different temperatures and further characterized for compositional, structural, morphological and optical properties. The XRD and SEM studies clearly revealed the systematic changes in morphological and structural form of Cds films with an improvement in the crystal quality. The annealed films showed ‘red-shift’ in the optical spectra after thermal treatment. The Thiourea modified CdS film could be good to provide solar cell application.

Keywords: cadmium sulfide, thin films, nano-crystalline, XRD

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33 Utilization of Watermelon Rind Extract as Green Anti-Scalent for Cooling Water Systems

Authors: Elsayed G. Zaki, Nora A. Hamad, Hadeel G. El-Shorbagy

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The effect of watermelon rind extract as green inhibitors for the formation of calcium sulphate scale have been investigated using conductivity measurements concurrently with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopic examinations. Mineral scales were deposited from the brine solution by cathodic polarization of the steel surface. The results show up that the anti-scaling property of the extracts could be attributed to the presence of citrulline. In solution, citrulline retards calcium sulphate precipitation via formation of a complex with the calcium cations. Thin, smooth and non adherent film formed over the steel surface, under cathodic polarization, by the deposition of the calcium- citrulline complex. The stability of the aqueous extracts with time was also investigated.

Keywords: anti-scaling, scale inhibitor, green extracts, water treatment

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32 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Titanium Alloy Dental Implants Coated by Bio-ceramic Apatite Wollastonite (Aw) and Hydroxyapatite (Ha) by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Betsy S. Thomas, Manjeet Marpara, K. M. Bhat

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Introduction: After the initial enthusiasm and interest in hydroxyapatite products subsided due to dissolution of the coating and failure at the coating interface, this was a unique attempt to create a next generation of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The adhesion property of AW and HA coatings at various temperature by pulsed laser deposition was assessed on titanium plates. Moreover, AW/HA coated implants implanted in the femur of the rabbits was evaluated at various intervals. Results: Decohesion load was more for AW in scratch test and more bone formation around AW coated implants on histological evaluation. Discussion: AW coating by pulsed laser deposition was more adherent to the titanium surface and led to faster bone formation than HA. Conclusion: This experiment opined that AW coated by pulsed laser deposition seems to be a promising method in achieving bioactive coatings on titanium implants.

Keywords: surface coating, dental implants, osseo integration, biotechnology

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31 Correlation between Adherence to Islamic Principles of Success and Academic Achievement

Authors: Zuwaira Abubakar

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Islam is the Divine religion which guides Man ways of leading a prosperous life in this life and the hereafter. This study was conducted in order to investigate the possible relationship between adherence to Islamic principles of success and academic performance of university students. Accordingly, a questionnaire based on Islamized principles of success (referred to as 'Islamic character quotient inventory (ICQi)') was correlated with CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Averages) of 343 students of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. The empirical testing indicates that the total score on ICQi correlated positively and significantly with academic performance of the respondent. Students with either high or medium adherence have a significantly (P<0.01) higher CGPA than their counterparts with the low-adherence level. However, the result did not show a significant relationship between the CGPA of highly adherent individuals and that of those with medium adherence level. This may suggests that Islam is not for spiritual life only but also relevant and useful for our practical life.

Keywords: academic, Islam, principles, success

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30 Effect of Chemical Modifier on the Properties of Polypropylene (PP) / Coconut Fiber (CF) in Automotive Application

Authors: K. Shahril, A. Nizam, M. Sabri, A. Siti Rohana, H. Salmah

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Chemical modifier (Acrylic Acid) is used as filler treatment to improve mechanical properties and swelling behavior of polypropylene/coconut fiber (PP/CF) composites by creating more adherent bonding between CF filler and PP Matrix. Treated (with chemical modifier) and untreated (without chemical modifier) composites were prepared in the formulation of 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, and 40 wt%. The mechanical testing indicates that composite with 10 wt% of untreated composite has the optimum value of tensile strength, and the composite with chemical modifier shows the tensile strength was increased. By increasing of filler loading, elastic modulus was increased while the elongation at brake was decreased. Meanwhile, the swelling test discerned that the increase of filler loading increased the water absorption of composites and the presence of chemical modifier reduced the equilibrium water absorption percentage.

Keywords: coconut fiber, polypropylene, acid acrylic, ethanol, chemical modifier, composites

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29 Platform Development for Vero Cell Culture on Microcarriers Using Dissociation-Reassociation Method

Authors: Thanunthon Bowornsakulwong, Charukorn Charukarn, Franck Courtes, Panit Kitsubun, Lalintip Horcharoen

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Vero cell is a continuous cell line that is widely used for the production of viral vaccines. However, due to its adherent characteristic, scaling up strategy in large-scale production remains complicated and thus limited. Consequently, suspension-like Vero cell culture processes based on microcarriers have been introduced and employed while also providing increased surface area per volume unit. However, harvesting Vero cells from microcarriers is a huge challenge due to difficulties in cells detaching, lower recovery yield, time-consuming and dissociation agent carry-over. To overcome these problems, we developed a dissociation-association platform technology for detaching and re-attaching cells during subculturing from microcarriers to microcarriers, which will be conveniently applied to seed trains strategies in large scale bioreactors. Herein, Hillex-2 was used to culture Vero cells in serum-containing media using spinner flasks as a scale-down model. The overall confluency of cells on microcarriers was observed using inverted microscope, and the sample cells were daily detached in order to obtain the kinetics data. The metabolites consumption and by-products formation were determined by Nova Biomedical BioprofileFlex.

Keywords: dissociation-reassociation, microcarrier, scale up, Vero cell

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28 Time-Dependent Behavior of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Strengthened with Composite Plates Having Variable Fibers Spacing

Authors: Redha Yeghnem, Laid Boulefrakh, Sid Ahmed Meftah, Abdelouahed Tounsi, El Abbas Adda Bedia

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In this study, the time-dependent behavior of damaged reinforced concrete shear wall structures strengthened with composite plates having variable fibers spacing was investigated to analyze their seismic response. In the analytical formulation, the adherent and the adhesive layers are all modeled as shear walls, using the mixed finite element method (FEM). The anisotropic damage model is adopted to describe the damage extent of the RC shear walls. The phenomenon of creep and shrinkage of concrete has been determined by Eurocode 2. Large earthquakes recorded in Algeria (El-Asnam and Boumerdes) have been tested to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. Numerical results are obtained for non uniform distributions of carbon fibers in epoxy matrices. The effects of damage extent and the delay mechanism creep and shrinkage of concrete are highlighted. Prospects are being studied.

Keywords: RC shear wall structures, composite plates, creep and shrinkage, damaged reinforced concrete structures, finite element method

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27 An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Health and Safety Induction Practices in the Zambian Construction Industry

Authors: Josephine Mutwale-Ziko, Nonde Lushinga, Inonge Akakandelwa

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The study discusses the effectiveness of health and safety induction practices on construction sites against the background of the Zambian construction industry experience. The research design included the literature review of relevant literature. Questionnaires and interviews were administered to regulatory bodies, health, and safety personnel. Observation was also employed on construction sites to assess the health and safety practices being used. Health and safety in the construction industry are not something to be ignored or overlooked. The construction industry needs to take heed of the serious consequences of inadequate health and safety induction practices. The implications of inadequate health and safety induction procedures included among others threats to profitability, corporate social responsibility and increased turnover of the workforce leading to poor productivity. Adequate health and safety practices can improve the health and wellbeing of employees, reduce financial implications on firms and encourage productivity on construction sites. Despite this, accidents are still prevalent on construction sites in Zambia. The overall result of this research denotes that the implementation of health and safety induction practices is inadequate, as indicated by the negligent and non-adherent attitude to health and safety induction aspects on the sites by most stakeholders on construction sites. Therefore, health and safety induction practices are ineffective as preventive measures for reduction of accidents on construction sites in Zambia.

Keywords: accidents, health and safety, inadequate, induction

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26 Cd1−xMnxSe Thin Films Preparation by Cbd: Aspect on Optical and Electrical Properties

Authors: Jaiprakash Dargad

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CdMnSe dilute semiconductor or semimagnetic semiconductors have become the focus of intense research due to their interesting combination of magnetic and semiconducting properties, and are employed in a variety of devices including solar cells, gas sensors etc. A series of thin films of this material, Cd1−xMnxSe (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5), were therefore synthesized onto precleaned amorphous glass substrates using a solution growth technique. The sources of cadmium (Cd2+) and manganese (Mn2+) were aqueous solutions of cadmium sulphate and manganese sulphate, and selenium (Se2−) was extracted from a reflux of sodium selenosulphite. The different deposition parameters such as temperature, time of deposition, speed of mechanical churning, pH of the reaction mixture etc were optimized to yield good quality deposits. The as-grown samples were thin, relatively uniform, smooth and tightly adherent to the substrate support. The colour of the deposits changed from deep red-orange to yellowish-orange as the composition parameter, x, was varied from 0 to 0.5. The terminal layer thickness decreased with increasing value of, x. The optical energy gap decreased from 1.84 eV to 1.34 eV for the change of x from 0 to 0.5. The coefficient of optical absorption is of the order of 10-4 - 10-5 cm−1 and the type of transition (m = 0.5) is of the band-to-band direct type. The dc electrical conductivities were measured at room temperature and in the temperature range 300 K - 500 K. It was observed that the room temperature electrical conductivity increased with the composition parameter x up to 0.1, gradually decreasing thereafter. The thermo power measurements showed n-type conduction in these films.

Keywords: dilute semiconductor, reflux, CBD, thin film

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25 Comparing Pathogen Inhibition Effect of Different Preparations of Probiotic L. reuteri Strains

Authors: Tejinder Pal Singh, Ravinder Kumar Malik, Gurpreet Kaur

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Adhesion is key factor for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and the ability of probiotic strains to inhibit pathogens. Therefore, the adhesion ability is considered as a suitable biomarker for the selection of potential probiotic. In the present study, eight probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains were evaluated as viable, LiCl treated or heat-killed forms and compared with probiotic reference strains (L. reuteri ATCC55730). All strains investigated were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells. All probiotic L. reuteri strains tested were able to inhibit and displace (P < 0.05) the adhesion of Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella typhi NCDC113, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC53135 and Enterococcus faecalis NCDC115. The probiotic strain L. reuteri LR6 showed the strongest adhesion and pathogen inhibition ability among the eight L. reuteri strains tested. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting the involvement of various mechanisms. The adhesion and antagonistic potential of the probiotic strains were significantly decreased upon exposure to 5M LiCl, showing that surface molecules, proteinaceous in nature, are involved. The heat-killed forms of the probiotic L. reuteri strains also inhibited the attachment of selected pathogens to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that L. reuteri strains, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to Caco-2 cell line model and are highly antagonistic to selected pathogens in which surface molecules, proteinaceous molecules in particular, plays an important role.

Keywords: probiotics, Lactobacillus reuteri, adhesion, Caco-2 cells

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24 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto

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Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, adherence, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist, Jordan

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23 Analysis of the Detachment of Water Droplets from a Porous Fibrous Surface

Authors: Ibrahim Rassoul, E-K. Si Ahmed

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The growth, deformation, and detachment of fluid droplets adherent to solid substrates is a problem of fundamental interest with numerous practical applications. Specific interest in this proposal is the problem of a droplet on a fibrous, hydrophobic substrate subjected to body or external forces (gravity, convection). The past decade has seen tremendous advances in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. However, there remain many challenges to bring commercially viable stationary PEMFC products to the market. PEMFCs are increasingly emerging as a viable alternative clean power source for automobile and stationary applications. Before PEMFCs can be employed to power automobiles and homes, several key technical challenges must be properly addressed. One technical challenge is elucidating the mechanisms underlying water transport in and removal from PEMFCs. On the one hand, sufficient water is needed in the polymer electrolyte membrane or PEM to maintain sufficiently high proton conductivity. On the other hand, too much liquid water present in the cathode can cause 'flooding' (that is, pore space is filled with excessive liquid water) and hinder the transport of the oxygen reactant from the gas flow channel (GFC) to the three-phase reaction sites. The aim of this work is to investigate the stability of a liquid water droplet emerging form a GDL pore, to gain fundamental insight into the instability process leading to detachment. The approach will combine analytical and numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, water droplet, gas diffusion layer, contact angle, surface tension

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22 Rethinking Riba in an Agency Theoretic Framework: Islamic Banking and Finance beyond Sophistry

Authors: Muhammad Arsalan

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The efficiency of a financial intermediation system is assessed by its ability to achieve allocative efficiency, asset transformation, and the subsequent economic development. Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF) was conceived to serve as an alternate financial intermediation system adherent to the injunctions of Islam. A critical appraisal of the state of contemporary IBF reveals that it neither fulfills the aspirations of Islamic rhetoric nor is efficient in terms of asset transformation and economic development. This paper is an intuitive pursuit to explore the economic rationale of established principles of IBF, and the reasons of the persistent divergence of IBF being accused of ruses and sophistry. Disentangling the varying viewpoints, the underdevelopment of IBF has been attributed to misinterpretation of Riba, which has been explicated through a narrow fiqhi and legally deterministic approach. It presents a critical account of how incorrect conceptualization of the key injunction on Riba, steered flawed institutionalization of an Islamic Financial intermediation system. It also emphasizes on the wrong interpretation of the ontological and epistemological sources of Islamic Law (primarily Riba), that explains the perennial economic underdevelopment of the Muslim world. Deeming ‘a collaborative and dynamic Ijtihad’ as the elixir, this paper insists on the exigency of redefining Riba, i.e., a definition that incorporates the modern modes of economic cooperation and the contemporary financial intermediation ecosystem. Finally, Riba has been articulated in an agency theoretic framework to eschew expropriation of wealth, and assure protection of property rights, aimed at realizing the twin goals of a) Shari’ah adherence in true spirit, b) financial and economic development of the Muslim world.

Keywords: agency theory, financial intermediation, Islamic banking and finance, ijtihad, economic development, Riba, information asymmetry

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21 Survival and Retention of the Probiotic Properties of Bacillus sp. Strains under Marine Stress Starvation Conditions and Their Potential Use as a Probiotic for Aquaculture Objectives

Authors: Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Fdhila Kais, Faouzi Lamari, Zeineb Hmila, Fathi Kamoun, Maria Ángeles Esteban, Amina Bakhrouf

Abstract:

Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food-production sector. However, one of the most serious problems regarding the culture of marine fishes is the mortality associated with pathogenic bacteria that occurs in the critical phases of larval development. Conventional approaches, such as the use of antimicrobial drugs to control diseases, have had limited success in the prevention or cure of aquatic diseases. Promising alternatives to antibiotics are probiotics, which are food supplements consisting of live microorganisms that benefit the host organism. In the search for more effective and environmentally friendly treatments with probionts against pathogenic species in shrimp larval culture, the probiotic properties of Bacillus strains isolated from Artemia culture such as antibacterial activity, adhesion, pathogenicity, toxicity and the effect of marine stress on viability and survival were investigated, as well as the changes occurring in their properties. Analyses showed that these bacteria corresponded to the genus Bacillus sp. Antagonism and adherence assays revealed that these strains have an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria in vitro and in vivo conditions and are fairly adherent. Challenge tests performed with Artemia larvae provided evidence that the tested Bacillus strains were neither pathogenic nor toxic to the host. The tested strains maintained their viability and their probiotic properties during the period of study. The results suggest that the tested strains have suffered changes allowing them to survive in seawater in the absence of nutrients and outside their natural host, identifying them as potential probiotic candidates for Artemia culture.

Keywords: bacillus, probiotic, cell viability, stress response

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20 Democratising Rivers: Local River Conflicts in Rajasthan

Authors: Renu Sisodia

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This paper attempted to explore and explain the local level river water conflicts in the larger context of state - society relations. This study also covered causes of local level river water conflicts in the catchment area of Bandi and Arvari river of Rajasthan. The focus of the study was on the emergence of community driven, decentralised management of river water bodies and strategies used by local communities to protect and manage river water conflicts. The research is conducted through the process of designing a framework based on essential theoretical and practical findings supported by primary and secondary data. Two in depth case study is conducted to understand the phenomenon in depth. The first field site is Bandi River of Pali district, which is about the struggle between textile industries, community and the State government in which water pollution is said to be one of the driving force of the conflict. Finding shows that the state is supporting textile industries in Pali district have not been adherent to the environmental ethics. Present legal infrastructure and local institutions fail to resolve the serious problem of water pollution in Bandi River and its adverse impact on the local community as a result local community resistance against the local administration and the state government. The second case illustrates the plight of Arvari River in Alwar district. Tussle for the ownership of fisheries between local community, the private fish contractor and State government has been the main bone of contestation. To resolve this conflict local community formed conflict management mechanism named as Arvari Parliament. Arvari Parliament has its own principle and rules to resolve water conflicts related to ownership of the river and use of the river water. The research findings also highlight the co-existence between conventional and modern practices in resolving conflicts.

Keywords: water, water pollution, water conflicts, water scarcity, conflict resolution, local community

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19 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Adhesives via Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method

Authors: Murat Demir Aydin, Elanur Celebi

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Adhesively bonded joints are used as an alternative to traditional joining methods due to the important advantages they provide. The most important consideration in the use of adhesively bonded joints is that these joints have appropriate requirements for their use in terms of safety. In order to ensure control of this condition, damage analysis of the adhesively bonded joints should be performed by determining the mechanical properties of the adhesives. When the literature is investigated; it is generally seen that the mechanical properties of adhesives are determined by traditional measurement methods. In this study, to determine the mechanical properties of adhesives, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method, which can be an alternative to traditional measurement methods, has been used. The DIC method is a new optical measurement method which is used to determine the parameters of displacement and strain in an appropriate and correct way. In this study, tensile tests of Thick Adherent Shear Test (TAST) samples formed using DP410 liquid structural adhesive and steel materials and bulk tensile specimens formed using and DP410 liquid structural adhesive was performed. The displacement and strain values of the samples were determined by DIC method and the shear stress-strain curves of the adhesive for TAST specimens and the tensile strain curves of the bulk adhesive specimens were obtained. Various methods such as numerical methods are required as conventional measurement methods (strain gauge, mechanic extensometer, etc.) are not sufficient in determining the strain and displacement values of the very thin adhesive layer such as TAST samples. As a result, the DIC method removes these requirements and easily achieves displacement measurements with sufficient accuracy.

Keywords: structural adhesive, adhesively bonded joints, digital image correlation, thick adhered shear test (TAST)

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18 Remedying the Scourge of Poverty as a Social Problem: The Islamic Perspective

Authors: Maryam Umar Ladan, Arshad Munir

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Poverty has always been a constant feature of society throughout history. It has existed in the lives of people and it is a fact that although the majority of people lives in poverty, the remaining minority lives in luxury. While some countries called the first World countries lives in luxury, the third World countries lives in poverty. It remains an undesirable phenomenon affecting a vast number of people across the globe despite governmental, institutional and private organizations’ interventions with measures aimed at cushioning its adverse effects. Unequal distribution of societal resources, accumulated wealth in the hands of few, lack of access to education and employment, individual responsibility among others, were highlighted as factors associated with poverty. Poverty predisposes the poor individual to malnutrition and starvation, exposure to disease, thereby resulting to violence, crimes, and experiencing lifelong problems. Evidence show that about 50 percent of the world population lives on less than 2.50 dollar a day, 90 percent of whom are from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia including countries where Islam is the major if not one adherent religion. As a solution to poverty, Islam prescribes a system of annual Zakat (charity). The Islamic law prescribes that every person who has a saving that reaches a certain limit should give out 2.5 percent of the total annual earning (as in income, money, farm produce) to deserving and prescribed citizens. This is to, among others; reduce the level of inequality through distribution of wealth among the Muslim Ummah (community). Furthermore, Islam encourages the rich in several places in the Qur’an to spend their wealth on poor people other than the compulsory 2.5%. Therefore, it is inarguable that the Islamic system of distribution of resources (as zakat) is the best strategy to poverty eradication. Thus, strongly recommended for desired results in poverty eradication efforts. If every rich person gives Zakat sincerely, poverty will be eradicated in the world, and not a single person will die of want of food or material things.

Keywords: Islam, charity, poverty, zakat

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17 Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Examinations: Clinical Use and Technical Challenges

Authors: Janet Wing-Chong Wai, Alex Chiu-Wing Lee, Hailey Hoi-Ching Tsang, Jeffrey Chiu, Kwok-Wing Tang

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Background: Mammography has limited sensitivity and specificity though it is the primary imaging technique for detection of early breast cancer. Ultrasound imaging and contrast-enhanced MRI are useful adjunct tools to mammography. The advantage of breast MRI is high sensitivity for invasive breast cancer. Therefore, indications for and use of breast magnetic resonance imaging have increased over the past decade. Objectives: 1. Cases demonstration on different indications for breast MR imaging. 2. To review of the common artifacts and pitfalls in breast MR imaging. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including all patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI examination in our centre, performed from Jan 2011 to Dec 2017. The clinical data and radiological images were retrieved from the EPR (electronic patient record), RIS (Radiology Information System) and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). Results and Discussion: Cases including (1) Screening of the contralateral breast in patient with a new breast malignancy (2) Breast augmentation with free injection of unknown foreign materials (3) Finding of axillary adenopathy with an unknown site of primary malignancy (4) Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy: before, during, and after chemotherapy to evaluate treatment response and extent of residual disease prior to operation. Relevant images will be included and illustrated in the presentation. As with other types of MR imaging, there are different artifacts and pitfalls that can potentially limit interpretation of the images. Because of the coils and software specific to breast MR imaging, there are some other technical considerations that are unique to MR imaging of breast regions. Case demonstration images will be available in presentation. Conclusion: Breast MR imaging is a highly sensitive and reasonably specific method for the detection of breast cancer. Adherent to appropriate clinical indications and technical optimization are crucial for achieving satisfactory images for interpretation.

Keywords: MRI, breast, clinical, cancer

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16 D-Epi App: Mobile Application to Control Sodium Valproat Administration in Children with Idiopatic Epilepsy in Indonesia

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini

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There are 325,000 children younger than age 15 in the U.S. have epilepsy. In Indonesia, 40% of 3,5 millions cases of epilepsy happens in children. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and which has no identifiable cause. One of the most commonly used medications in the treatment of this childhood epilepsy is sodium valproate. Administration of sodium valproat in children has a problem to fail. Nearly 60% of pediatric patients known were mildly, moderately, or severely non-adherent with therapy during the first six months of treatment. Many parents or caregiver took far less medication than prescribed, and the treatment-adherence pattern for the majority of patients was established during the first month of treatment. 42% of the patients were almost always given their medications as prescribed but 13% had very poor adherence even in the early weeks and months of treatment. About 7% of patients initially gave the medication correctly 90% of the time, but adherence dropped to around 20% within six months of starting treatment. Over the six months of observation, the total missing of administration is about four out of 14 doses in any given week. This fail can cause the epilepsy to relapse. Whereas, current reported epilepsy disorder were significantly more likely than those never diagnosed to experience depression (8% vs 2%), anxiety (17% vs 3%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (23% vs 6%), developmental delay (51% vs 3%), autism/autism spectrum disorder (16% vs 1%), and headaches (14% vs 5%) (all P< 0.05). They had a greater risk of limitation in the ability to do things (relative risk: 9.22; 95% CI: 7.56–11.24), repeating a school grade (relative risk: 2.59; CI: 1.52–4.40), and potentially having unmet medical and mental health needs. In the other side, technology can help to make our life easier. One of the technology, that we can use is a mobile application. A mobile app is a software program we can download and access directly using our phone. Indonesians are highly mobile centric. They use, on average, 6.7 applications over a 30 day period. This paper is aimed to describe an application that could help to control a sodium valproat administration in children; we call it as D-Epi app. D-Epi app is a downloadable application that can help parents or caregiver alert by a timer-related application to warn whether it is the time to administer the sodium valproat. It works not only as a standard alarm, but also inform important information about the drug and emergency stuffs to do to children with epilepsy. This application could help parents and caregiver to take care a child with epilepsy in Indonesia.

Keywords: application, children, D-Epi, epilepsy

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15 Experimental Investigation of the Out-of-Plane Dynamic Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints at High Strain Rates

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Ben Yahia

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In this investigation, an experimental technique in which the dynamic response, damage kinetic and heat dissipation are measured simultaneously during high strain rates on adhesively bonded joints materials. The material used in this study is widely used in the design of structures for military applications. It was composed of a 45° Bi-axial fiber-glass mat of 0.286 mm thickness in a Polyester resin matrix. In adhesive bonding, a NORPOL Polyvinylester of 1 mm thickness was used to assemble the composite substrate. The experimental setup consists of a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), a high-speed infrared camera and a high-speed Fastcam rapid camera. For the dynamic compression tests, 13 mm x 13 mm x 9 mm samples for out-of-plane tests were considered from 372 to 1030 s-1. Specimen surface is controlled and monitored in situ and in real time using the high-speed camera which acquires the damage progressive in specimens and with the infrared camera which provides thermal images in time sequence. Preliminary compressive stress-strain vs. strain rates data obtained show that the dynamic material strength increases with increasing strain rates. Damage investigations have revealed that the failure mainly occurred in the adhesive/adherent interface because of the brittle nature of the polymeric adhesive. Results have shown the dependency of the dynamic parameters on strain rates. Significant temperature rise was observed in dynamic compression tests. Experimental results show that the temperature change depending on the strain rate and the damage mode and their maximum exceed 100 °C. The dependence of these results on strain rate indicates that there exists a strong correlation between damage rate sensitivity and heat dissipation, which might be useful when developing damage models under dynamic loading tacking into account the effect of the energy balance of adhesively bonded joints.

Keywords: adhesive bonded joints, Hopkinson bars, out-of-plane tests, dynamic compression properties, damage mechanisms, heat dissipation

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