Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 417

Search results for: unilateral constraint

417 Effect of Robot Configuration Parameters, Masses and Friction on Painlevé Paradox for a Sliding Two-Link (P-R) Robot

Authors: Hassan Mohammad Alkomy, Hesham Elkaranshawy, Ahmed Ibrahim Ashour, Khaled Tawfik Mohamed

Abstract:

For a rigid body sliding on a rough surface, a range of uncertainty or non-uniqueness of solution could be found, which is termed: Painlevé paradox. Painlevé paradox is the reason of a wide range of bouncing motion, observed during sliding of robotic manipulators on rough surfaces. In this research work, the existence of the paradox zone during the sliding motion of a two-link (P-R) robotic manipulator with a unilateral constraint is investigated. Parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of friction, link-length ratio, total height and link-mass ratio on the paradox zone.

Keywords: dynamical system, friction, multibody system, painlevé paradox, robotic systems, sliding robots, unilateral constraint

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416 A Survey on Constraint Solving Approaches Using Parallel Architectures

Authors: Nebras Gharbi, Itebeddine Ghorbel

Abstract:

In the latest years and with the advancements of the multicore computing world, the constraint programming community tried to benefit from the capacity of new machines and make the best use of them through several parallel schemes for constraint solving. In this paper, we propose a survey of the different proposed approaches to solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems using parallel architectures. These approaches use in a different way a parallel architecture: the problem itself could be solved differently by several solvers or could be split over solvers.

Keywords: constraint programming, parallel programming, constraint satisfaction problem, speed-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
415 Influence of Bilateral and Unilateral Flatfoot on Pelvic Alignment

Authors: Mohamed Taher Eldesoky, Enas Elsayed Abutaleb

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Background: The changes in foot posture possibly generate changes in the pelvic alignment, although, there is lack of evidence about the effects of bilateral and unilateral flatfoot on possible changes in pelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of flatfoot on the sagittal and frontal planes of pelvic postures. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects, aged 18–40 years, were assigned into three groups. 20 healthy subjects, 19 subjects with bilateral flexible second-degree flat foot, and 17 subjects with unilateral flexible second-degree flat foot. 3D assessment of the pelvis using the formetric-II device was used to evaluate pelvic alignment in the frontal and sagittal planes by measuring pelvic inclination and pelvic tilt angles. Results: ANOVA test with LSD test were used for statistical analysis. Both Unilateral and bilateral second degree flatfoot produced significant (P < 0.05) pelvic anteversion in comparison to the healthy subjects (P < 0.05), but the bilateral flatfoot subjects seemed to have more anteversion than the unilateral subjects. Unilateral flatfoot caused a significant (P<0.05) lateral pelvic tilt in the direction of the affected side in comparison to the healthy and bilateral flatfoot subjects. Conclusion: The bilateral and unilateral second degree flatfoot changed pelvic alignment. Both of them led to increases of pelvic anteversion while the unilateral one caused lateral pelvic tilt toward the affected side. Thus, foot posture should be considered when assessing patients with pelvic misalignment and disorders.

Keywords: bilateral flatfoot, unilateral flatfoot, pelvic alignment, foot posture

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414 Crossbite Unilateral Correction Using Transpalatal Arch with Extension Arm Modification

Authors: Hanifa Maryani Ahmad, Muslim Yusuf

Abstract:

Background: Unilateral crossbite can be defined as an abnormal transverse relationship between the upper and lower teeth where the mandibular buccal cusp occluding to the maxillary buccal cusp and which involves only one side of the arch. This report describes the treatment of an adolescent female with Class III malocclussion unilateral crossbite resulting from a mildly constricted maxillary arch. The patient had a Class III skeletal relationship, Class III molar relationships, unilateral crossbite on the left side, and deviated midlines. Objectives: The treatment objectives were to correct the abnormal transverse relationship, achieve proper dental inclination, and correct the unilateral crossbites to improve the facial profile. Case management: The treatment protocol was using transpalatal arch with extension arm modification to expand the maxillary arch. Following the levelling and aligning stage of treatment, using a vertical loop while mandibular arch was expanded after getting an end to end relationship on the anterior side. Results: Corrections of the unilateral crossbite were achieved in 4 months. The treatment is still on process because the canines relationship were not corrected. Conclusions: This report highlights a treatment using transpalatal arch with extension arm modification that can be used to expand the transverse width of an arch to correct the discrepancy. Even though the treatment processes were still ongoing, the correction of the unilateral crossbite have been achieved in 4 months by only using the transpalatal arch.

Keywords: crossbite unilateral, late growing, non-extraction, transpalatal arch

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413 Finite Element Analysis of the Lumbar Spine after Unilateral and Bilateral Laminotomies and Laminectomy

Authors: Chih-Hsien Chen, Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Wei Chang, Yen-Nien Chen, Chih-Han Chang, Chun-Ting Li

Abstract:

Laminotomy is a spinal decompression surgery compatible with a minimally invasive approach. However, the unilateral laminotomy for bilateral side decompression leads to more perioperative complications than the bilateral laminotomy. Although the unilateral laminotomy removes the least bone tissue among the spinal decompression surgeries, the difference of spinal stability between unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy is rarely investigated. This study aims to compare the biomechanical effects of unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy on the lumbar spine by finite element (FE) simulation. A three-dimensional FE model of the lumbar spine (L1–L5) was constructed with the vertebral body, discs, and ligaments, as well as the sacrum was constructed. Three different surgical methods, namely unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy, at L3–L4 and L4–L5 were considered. Partial pedicle and entire ligamentum flavum were removed to simulate bilateral decompression in laminotomy. The entire lamina and spinal processes from the lower L3 to upper L5 were detached in the laminectomy model. Then, four kinds of loadings, namely flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation, were applied on the lumbar with various decompression conditions. The results indicated that the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy both increased the range of motion (ROM) compared with intact lumbar, while the laminectomy increased more ROM than both laminotomy did. The difference of ROM between the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy was very minor. Furthermore, bilateral laminotomy demonstrated similar poster element stress with unilateral laminotomy. Unilateral and bilateral laminotomy are equally suggested to bilateral decompression of lumbar spine with minimally invasive technique because limited effect was aroused due to more bone remove in the bilateral laminotomy on the lumbar stability. Furthermore, laminectomy is the last option for lumbar decompression.

Keywords: minimally invasive technique, lumbar decompression, laminotomy, laminectomy, finite element method

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412 Effect of Bilateral and Unilateral Castration on Feed Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Growers Rabbit (Orytolagus cunniculus)

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N Tsado, M. S. T. Rita, D. S. Umar

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This study was conducted on eighteen (18) New Zealand and chinchilla breeds of rabbits were used. The rabbits were allotted to 3 treatments with each treatment having six (6) animals with two (2) replicates. T1 were castrated, which both testes was removed (Bilateral); T2 were castrated, which only one testes was removed (unilateral) and T3 were not castrated (control). In nutrient digestibility, T1 and T2 (p>0.05) has a higher rate than T3. There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in live weight and dressing weight among the treatment groups. There is a significant (p > 0.05) difference in visceral organs in the treatment groups.

Keywords: New Zealand, chinchilla, castration, bilateral, unilateral

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411 Biomechanical Evaluation for Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression: Unilateral Versus Bilateral Approaches

Authors: Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Hsien Chen, Chih-Han Chang

Abstract:

Unilateral laminotomy and bilateral laminotomies were successful decompressions methods for managing spinal stenosis that numerous studies have reported. Thus, unilateral laminotomy was rated technically much more demanding than bilateral laminotomies, whereas the bilateral laminotomies were associated with a positive benefit to reduce more complications. There were including incidental durotomy, increased radicular deficit, and epidural hematoma. However, no relative biomechanical analysis for evaluating spinal instability treated with unilateral and bilateral laminotomies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of different decompressions methods by experimental and finite element analysis. Three porcine lumbar spines were biomechanically evaluated for their range of motion, and the results were compared following unilateral or bilateral laminotomies. The experimental protocol included flexion and extension in the following procedures: intact, unilateral, and bilateral laminotomies (L2–L5). The specimens in this study were tested in flexion (8 Nm) and extension (6 Nm) of pure moment. Spinal segment kinematic data was captured by using the motion tracking system. A 3D finite element lumbar spine model (L1-S1) containing vertebral body, discs, and ligaments were constructed. This model was used to simulate the situation of treating unilateral and bilateral laminotomies at L3-L4 and L4-L5. The bottom surface of S1 vertebral body was fully geometrically constrained in this study. A 10 Nm pure moment also applied on the top surface of L1 vertebral body to drive lumbar doing different motion, such as flexion and extension. The experimental results showed that in the flexion, the ROMs (±standard deviation) of L3–L4 were 1.35±0.23, 1.34±0.67, and 1.66±0.07 degrees of the intact, unilateral, and bilateral laminotomies, respectively. The ROMs of L4–L5 were 4.35±0.29, 4.06±0.87, and 4.2±0.32 degrees, respectively. No statistical significance was observed in these three groups (P>0.05). In the extension, the ROMs of L3–L4 were 0.89±0.16, 1.69±0.08, and 1.73±0.13 degrees, respectively. In the L4-L5, the ROMs were 1.4±0.12, 2.44±0.26, and 2.5±0.29 degrees, respectively. Significant differences were observed among all trials, except between the unilateral and bilateral laminotomy groups. At the simulation results portion, the similar results were discovered with the experiment. No significant differences were found at L4-L5 both flexion and extension in each group. Only 0.02 and 0.04 degrees variation were observed during flexion and extension between the unilateral and bilateral laminotomy groups. In conclusions, the present results by finite element analysis and experimental reveal that no significant differences were observed during flexion and extension between unilateral and bilateral laminotomies in short-term follow-up. From a biomechanical point of view, bilateral laminotomies seem to exhibit a similar stability as unilateral laminotomy. In clinical practice, the bilateral laminotomies are likely to reduce technical difficulties and prevent perioperative complications; this study proved this benefit through biomechanical analysis. The results may provide some recommendations for surgeons to make the final decision.

Keywords: unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomies, spinal stenosis, finite element analysis

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410 Effect of Unilateral Unoperated Ovarian Endometrioma on Responsiveness to Hyperstimulation

Authors: Abdelmaguid Ramzy, Mohamed Bahaa

Abstract:

Introduction: The effects of ovarian endometrioma on fertility outcomes with IVF have been always related to poor outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of unilateral unoperated ovarian endometrioma < 2cm on the number of developing follicles and compare them with the contralateral ovary as a control. Design: Retrospective case control study. Setting: KasrEl-Aini IVF center. Patient(s): We studied 32 women with unilateral endometrioma who underwent their first IVF cycle. Methods: 32 Patients aged between 20-35 years selected for IVF who were diagnosed with one unilateral endometrioma (diameter <2 cm) and who did not undergo previous ovarian surgery were retrospectively identified. The number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger in the ovary that contained endometrioma were compared with those from the contralateral ovary. They were all hyperstimulated using long protocol with (225-300 IU) gonadotrophins. Primary outcome: The number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger. Result(s): The mean ± SD age, Day 3 serum FSH and LH were 27± 3.7 years, 5.8 ± 1.6 IU/ml and 4.5 ± 1.7 IU/ml respectively. There was no significant difference in the number of follicles > 17 mm on the day of HCG trigger in the ovary that contained endometrioma (4.4 ±2.5) and in the opposite ovary (4.5 ± 2.8) (P= 0.48). Conclusion: The presence of ovarian endometrioma in a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle for IVF treatment is not associated with a reduced number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger.

Keywords: endometrioma, folliculometry, hyperstimulation, fertility

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409 Resource Constrained Time-Cost Trade-Off Analysis in Construction Project Planning and Control

Authors: Sangwon Han, Chengquan Jin

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Time-cost trade-off (TCTO) is one of the most significant part of construction project management. Despite the significance, current TCTO analysis, based on the Critical Path Method, does not consider resource constraint, and accordingly sometimes generates an impractical and/or infeasible schedule planning in terms of resource availability. Therefore, resource constraint needs to be considered when doing TCTO analysis. In this research, genetic algorithms (GA) based optimization model is created in order to find the optimal schedule. This model is utilized to compare four distinct scenarios (i.e., 1) initial CPM, 2) TCTO without considering resource constraint, 3) resource allocation after TCTO, and 4) TCTO with considering resource constraint) in terms of duration, cost, and resource utilization. The comparison results identify that ‘TCTO with considering resource constraint’ generates the optimal schedule with the respect of duration, cost, and resource. This verifies the need for consideration of resource constraint when doing TCTO analysis. It is expected that the proposed model will produce more feasible and optimal schedule.

Keywords: time-cost trade-off, genetic algorithms, critical path, resource availability

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408 Bi-Directional Evolutionary Topology Optimization Based on Critical Fatigue Constraint

Authors: Khodamorad Nabaki, Jianhu Shen, Xiaodong Huang

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This paper develops a method for considering the critical fatigue stress as a constraint in the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. Our aim is to reach an optimal design in which high cycle fatigue failure does not occur for a specific life time. The critical fatigue stress is calculated based on modified Goodman criteria and used as a stress constraint in our topology optimization problem. Since fatigue generally does not occur for compressive stresses, we use the p-norm approach of the stress measurement that considers the highest tensile principal stress in each point as stress measure to calculate the sensitivity numbers. The BESO method has been extended to minimize volume an object subjected to the critical fatigue stress constraint. The optimization results are compared with the results from the compliance minimization problem which shows clearly the merits of our newly developed approach.

Keywords: topology optimization, BESO method, p-norm, fatigue constraint

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407 The Rupture Potential of Nerve Tissue Constrained Intracranial Saccular Aneurysm

Authors: M. Alam, P. Seshaiyer

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The rupture predictability of intracranial aneurysm is one of the most important parameters for physicians in surgical treatment. As most of the intracranial aneurysms are asymptomatic, still the rupture potential of both symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions is relatively unknown. Moreover, an intracranial aneurysm constrained by a nerve tissue might be a common scenario for a physician to deal with during the treatment process. Here, we perform a computational modeling of nerve tissue constrained intracranial saccular aneurysm to show a protective role of constrained tissue on the aneurysm. A comparative parametric study of the model also performs taking long constraint, medium constraint, short constraint, point contact, narrow neck aneurysm, wide neck aneurysm as parameters for the analysis. Results show that contact constraint aneurysm generates less stress near the fundus compared to no constraint aneurysm, hence works as a protective wall for the aneurysm not to be ruptured.

Keywords: rupture potential, intracranial saccular aneurysm, anisotropic hyper-elastic material, finite element analysis

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406 A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Multi Constraint Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

Authors: Uyanga Sukhbaatar, Ahmed Lbath, Mendamar Majig

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The Orienteering Problem is the most known example to start modeling tourist trip design problem. In order to meet tourist’s interest and constraint the OP is becoming more and more complicate to solve. The Multi Constraint Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows is the last extension of the OP which differentiates from other extensions by including more extra associated constraints. The goal of the MCTOPTW is maximizing tourist’s satisfaction score in same time not to violate any of these constraints. This paper presents a genetic algorithmic approach to tackle the MCTOPTW. The benchmark data from literature is tested by our algorithm and the performance results are compared.

Keywords: multi constraint team orienteering problem with time windows, genetic algorithm, tour planning system

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405 Exhaustive Study of Essential Constraint Satisfaction Problem Techniques Based on N-Queens Problem

Authors: Md. Ahsan Ayub, Kazi A. Kalpoma, Humaira Tasnim Proma, Syed Mehrab Kabir, Rakib Ibna Hamid Chowdhury

Abstract:

Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is observed in various applications, i.e., scheduling problems, timetabling problems, assignment problems, etc. Researchers adopt a CSP technique to tackle a certain problem; however, each technique follows different approaches and ways to solve a problem network. In our exhaustive study, it has been possible to visualize the processes of essential CSP algorithms from a very concrete constraint satisfaction example, NQueens Problem, in order to possess a deep understanding about how a particular constraint satisfaction problem will be dealt with by our studied and implemented techniques. Besides, benchmark results - time vs. value of N in N-Queens - have been generated from our implemented approaches, which help understand at what factor each algorithm produces solutions; especially, in N-Queens puzzle. Thus, extended decisions can be made to instantiate a real life problem within CSP’s framework.

Keywords: arc consistency (AC), backjumping algorithm (BJ), backtracking algorithm (BT), constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), forward checking (FC), least constrained values (LCV), maintaining arc consistency (MAC), minimum remaining values (MRV), N-Queens problem

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404 Hydraulic Resources Management under Imperfect Competition with Thermal Plants in the Wholesale Electricity Market

Authors: Abdessalem Abbassi, Ahlem Dakhlaoui, Lota D. Tamini

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In this paper, we analyze infinite discrete-time games between hydraulic and thermal power operators in the wholesale electricity market under Cournot competition. We consider a deregulated electrical industry where certain demand is satisfied by hydraulic and thermal technologies. The hydraulic operator decides the production in each season of each period that maximizes the sum of expected profits from power generation with respect to the stochastic dynamic constraint on the water stored in the dam, the environmental constraint and the non-negative output constraint. In contrast, the thermal plant is operated with quadratic cost function, with respect to the capacity production constraint and the non-negativity output constraint. We show that under imperfect competition, the hydraulic operator has a strategic storage of water in the peak season. Then, we quantify the strategic inter-annual and intra-annual water transfer and compare the numerical results. Finally, we show that the thermal operator can restrict the hydraulic output without compensation.

Keywords: asymmetric risk aversion, electricity wholesale market, hydropower dams, imperfect competition

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403 A Single Stage Cleft Rhinoplasty Technique for Primary Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate 'The Gujrat Technique'

Authors: Diaa Othman, Muhammad Adil Khan, Muhammad Riaz

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Without an early intervention to correct the unilateral complete cleft lip and palate deformity, nasal architecture can progress to an exaggerated cleft nose deformity. We present the results of a modified unilateral cleft rhinoplasty procedure ‘the Gujrat technique’ to correct this deformity. Ninety pediatric and adult patients with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip underwent primary and secondary composite cleft rhinoplasty using the Gujrat technique as a single stage operation over a 10-year period. The technique involved an open rhinoplasty with Tennison lip repair, and employed a combination of three autologous cartilage grafts, seven cartilage-molding sutures and a prolene mesh graft for alar base support. Post-operative evaluation of nasal symmetry was undertaken using the validated computer program ‘SymNose’. Functional outcome and patient satisfaction were assessed using the NOSE scale and ROE (rhinoplasty outcome evaluation) questionnaires. The single group study design used the non-parametric matching pairs Wilcoxon Sign test (p < 0.001), and showed overall good to excellent functional and aesthetic outcomes, including nasal projection and tip definition, and higher scores of the digital SymNose grading system. Objective assessment of the Gujrat cleft rhinoplasty technique demonstrates its aesthetic appeal and functional versatility. Overall it is a simple and reproducible technique, with no significant complications.

Keywords: cleft lip and palate, congenital rhinoplasty, nasal deformity, secondary rhinoplasty

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402 Social Comparison at the Workplace: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kolkata, India

Authors: Pooja Balasubramanian, Ghida Karbala

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Unfair treatment at the workplace encourages workers to adjust their behavior in order to restore fairness and align monetary returns to costs. This adjustment of behavior, however, may differ depending on the reference group considered to evaluate equity. In this aspect two main questions are to be considered: How do workers respond to unfair treatment at the workplace? And how does this response change depending on the identity of the reference group? To answer the above research questions, this paper utilizes data from a randomized field experiment conducted in Kolkata, India where student assistants were hired to help in a data entry task. Recruited workers were working in a team of two and were offered a fixed wage per hour. Workers were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: A control group not subjected (1) to wage cuts (2) A general wage cut (3) A unilateral wage cut in reference to colleagues with similar social identity (4) A unilateral wage cut in reference to colleagues with a different social identity, where social identity is defined in terms of gender. Results show a significant decrease in the quantity and quality of work following a general wage cut. A more severe drop in productivity was presented by men in the case of unilateral wage cut, while women experiencing unilateral wage cuts didn’t exhibit a similar behavior regardless of the gender of the team member. To the contrary, women matched with a male colleague and experiencing unilateral wage cut show a slight increase in productivity, a result that contributes to the discussion regarding the paradox of the 'content female worker'. These findings highlight the necessity of a better understanding of the social comparison processes prevailing at the workplace, given the major role they play in determining the level of productivity supplied.

Keywords: effort supply, fairness, reference groups, social comparison

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401 Share Pledging and Financial Constraints in China

Authors: Zijian Cheng, Frank Liu, Yupu Sun

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The relationship between the intensity of share pledging activities and the level of financial constraint in publicly listed firms in China is examined in this paper. Empirical results show that the high financial constraint level may motivate insiders to use share pledging as an alternative funding source and an expropriation mechanism. Share collateralization can cause a subsequently more constrained financing condition. Evidence is found that share pledging made by the controlling shareholder is likely to mitigate financial constraints in the following year. Research findings are robust to alternative measures and an instrumental variable for dealing with endogeneity problems.

Keywords: share pledge, financial constraint, controlling shareholder, dividend policy

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400 Three-Stage Multivariate Stratified Sample Surveys with Probabilistic Cost Constraint and Random Variance

Authors: Sanam Haseen, Abdul Bari

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In this paper a three stage multivariate programming problem with random survey cost and variances as random variables has been formulated as a non-linear stochastic programming problem. The problem has been converted into an equivalent deterministic form using chance constraint programming and modified E-modeling. An empirical study of the problem has been done at the end of the paper using R-simulation.

Keywords: chance constraint programming, modified E-model, stochastic programming, stratified sample surveys, three stage sample surveys

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399 Quality-Of-Service-Aware Green Bandwidth Allocation in Ethernet Passive Optical Network

Authors: Tzu-Yang Lin, Chuan-Ching Sue

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Sleep mechanisms are commonly used to ensure the energy efficiency of each optical network unit (ONU) that concerns a single class delay constraint in the Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON). How long the ONUs can sleep without violating the delay constraint has become a research problem. Particularly, we can derive an analytical model to determine the optimal sleep time of ONUs in every cycle without violating the maximum class delay constraint. The bandwidth allocation considering such optimal sleep time is called Green Bandwidth Allocation (GBA). Although the GBA mechanism guarantees that the different class delay constraints do not violate the maximum class delay constraint, packets with a more relaxed delay constraint will be treated as those with the most stringent delay constraint and may be sent early. This means that the ONU will waste energy in active mode to send packets in advance which did not need to be sent at the current time. Accordingly, we proposed a QoS-aware GBA using a novel intra-ONU scheduling to control the packets to be sent according to their respective delay constraints, thereby enhancing energy efficiency without deteriorating delay performance. If packets are not explicitly classified but with different packet delay constraints, we can modify the intra-ONU scheduling to classify packets according to their packet delay constraints rather than their classes. Moreover, we propose the switchable ONU architecture in which the ONU can switch the architecture according to the sleep time length, thus improving energy efficiency in the QoS-aware GBA. The simulation results show that the QoS-aware GBA ensures that packets in different classes or with different delay constraints do not violate their respective delay constraints and consume less power than the original GBA.

Keywords: Passive Optical Networks, PONs, Optical Network Unit, ONU, energy efficiency, delay constraint

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398 Constraint-Directed Techniques for Transport Scheduling with Capacity Restrictions of Automotive Manufacturing Components

Authors: Martha Ndeley, John Ikome

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In this paper, we expand the scope of constraint-directed techniques to deal with the case of transportation schedule with capacity restrictions where the scheduling problem includes alternative activities. That is, not only does the scheduling problem consist of determining when an activity is to be executed, but also determining which set of alternative activities is to be executed at all level of transportation from input to output. Such problems encompass both alternative resource problems and alternative process plan problems. We formulate a constraint-based representation of alternative activities to model problems containing such choices. We then extend existing constraint-directed scheduling heuristic commitment techniques and propagators to reason directly about the fact that an activity does not necessarily have to exist in a final transportation schedule without being completed. Tentative results show that an algorithm using a novel texture-based heuristic commitment technique propagators achieves the best overall performance of the techniques tested.

Keywords: production, transportation, scheduling, integrated

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397 Size Reduction of Images Using Constraint Optimization Approach for Machine Communications

Authors: Chee Sun Won

Abstract:

This paper presents the size reduction of images for machine-to-machine communications. Here, the salient image regions to be preserved include the image patches of the key-points such as corners and blobs. Based on a saliency image map from the key-points and their image patches, an axis-aligned grid-size optimization is proposed for the reduction of image size. To increase the size-reduction efficiency the aspect ratio constraint is relaxed in the constraint optimization framework. The proposed method yields higher matching accuracy after the size reduction than the conventional content-aware image size-reduction methods.

Keywords: image compression, image matching, key-point detection and description, machine-to-machine communication

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396 EU Regulation 868/04: Report of a Unilateral Approach on Unfair Subsidisation and Unfair Pricing Practices and Its Failure

Authors: Andrea Trimarchi

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This paper is designed to provide a comprehensive overview on the EU Regulation No. 868/2004 concerning protection against subsidisation and unfair pricing practices regarding non-EU carriers and causing injury to Community air carriers. The analysis will focus, at first, on the exegetical scrutiny of the legal categories encompassed by the Regulation. In addition to that, while considering the peculiarities of such legal instrument, the attention will be addressed on the assessment on its effectiveness. The Regulation, indeed, having received lots of criticism, is in need of a profound revision. In this context, the present work will try to take into account the policy alternatives. In light of the failure of Regulation 868, which is to be seen as the expression of a unilateral and regional approach, there would seem to be the necessity for the aviation sector to reconsider the topic of subsidisation and unfair pricing practices in a more international oriented manner.

Keywords: non-EU airlines, aviation, subisidisation, unfair

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395 Facial Partial Unilateral Lentiginosis Treated with Low-Fluence Q-Switched 1,064-Nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser

Authors: En Hyung Kim

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Partial unilateral lentiginosis (PUL) is an unusual pigmentary disorder characterized by numerous lentigines grouped within an area of normal skin. Although treatment is not necessary, many patients with facial PUL seek medical help for cosmetic reasons. There is no established standard treatment for PUL. Conventional lasers may cause postinflammatory hyperpigmentation because keratinocytes are injured during the process. Also scarring, long downtime and pain are important issues. Case: A 19-year-old patient with facial PUL was treated with 1064-nm Q-Switched Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (QS Nd:YAG) laser. The patient was treated at one-week intervals starting with a spot size of 6 mm, a fluence of 2.5 J/cm2 and a pulse rate of 10 Hz with 1-2 passes of slow sliding technique with approximately 5-15 % overlap. The fluence was elevated to 3 J/cm2 after the 4th session according to treatment response and patient tolerance. After 10 treatment sessions the lesions were remarkably improved. Discussion: Although the exact mechanism by which low fluence 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser improves pigmentary lesions is unclear, the term ‘subcellular selective photothermolysis’ and ‘melanocyte apoptosis and replacement’ have been proposed. If appropriate measures are taken to monitor patient response during and after the procedure, low fluence 1064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser may achieve good cosmetic result in the treatment of PUL with a very safe and effective profile.

Keywords: laser toning, low fluence, 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, partial unilateral lentiginosis

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394 Extended Constraint Mask Based One-Bit Transform for Low-Complexity Fast Motion Estimation

Authors: Oğuzhan Urhan

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In this paper, an improved motion estimation (ME) approach based on weighted constrained one-bit transform is proposed for block-based ME employed in video encoders. Binary ME approaches utilize low bit-depth representation of the original image frames with a Boolean exclusive-OR based hardware efficient matching criterion to decrease computational burden of the ME stage. Weighted constrained one-bit transform (WC‑1BT) based approach improves the performance of conventional C-1BT based ME employing 2-bit depth constraint mask instead of a 1-bit depth mask. In this work, the range of constraint mask is further extended to increase ME performance of WC-1BT approach. Experiments reveal that the proposed method provides better ME accuracy compared existing similar ME methods in the literature.

Keywords: fast motion estimation; low-complexity motion estimation, video coding

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393 An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Precedence Constraint

Authors: M. F. F. Ab Rashid, A. N. Mohd Rose, N. M. Z. Nik Mohamed, W. S. Wan Harun, S. A. Che Ghani

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Traveling salesman problem with precedence constraint (TSPPC) is one of the most complex problems in combinatorial optimization. The existing algorithms to solve TSPPC cost large computational time to find the optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient genetic algorithm that guarantees optimal solution with less number of generations and iterations time. Unlike the existing algorithm that generates priority factor as chromosome, the proposed algorithm directly generates sequence of solution as chromosome. As a result, the proposed algorithm is capable of generating optimal solution with smaller number of generations and iteration time compare to existing algorithm.

Keywords: traveling salesman problem, sequencing, genetic algorithm, precedence constraint

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392 A Survey on Compression Methods for Table Constraints

Authors: N. Gharbi

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Constraint Satisfaction problems are mathematical problems that are often used to model many real-world problems for which we look if there exists a solution satisfying all its constraints. Table constraints are important for modeling parts of many problems since they list all combinations of allowed or forbidden values. However, they admit practical limitations because they are sometimes too large to be represented in a direct way. In this paper, we present a survey of the different categories of the proposed approaches to compress table constraints in order to reduce both space and time complexities.

Keywords: constraint programming, compression, data mining, table constraints

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391 Detection of Lymphedema after Breast Cancer in Yucatecan Women

Authors: Olais A. Ingrid, Peraza G. Leydi, Estrella C. Damaris

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Breast cancer is the most common among women worldwide; the different treatments can bring sequels that directly affect the quality of life, such as lymphedema. The objective was to determine if there is presence of lymphedema secondary to breast cancer in Yucatecan women. It was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study, 92 women were included who met the following criteria: women with surgical treatment for unilateral: breast cancer, aged between 25 and 65 years old, minimum 6 weeks after unilateral breast surgery and have completed any type of chemotherapy or adjuvant radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The evaluation was through indirect measurement volume by circometry to determine the presence of lymphedema. 23% of women had lymphedema grade I. It related to the presence of some of the symptoms like stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion and feeling of heaviness in the arm of the operated side of the breast. It is important to determine the presence of lymphedema to perform physical therapy treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, lymphedema, physical therapy, Yucatan

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390 Using Unilateral Diplomatic Assurances to Evade Provisional Measures' Orders

Authors: William Thomas Worster

Abstract:

This paper will highlight the failure of international adjudication to prevent a state from evading an order of provisional measures by simply issuing a diplomatic assurance to the court. This practice changes the positions of the litigants as equals before a court, prevents the court from inquiring into the reliability of the political pledge as it would with assurances from a state to an individual, and diminishes the court’s ability to control its own proceedings in the face of concerns over sovereignty. Both the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) and International Court of Justice (ICJ) will entertain these kinds of unilateral pledges, but they consider them differently when the declaration is made between states or between a state and an individual, and when made directly to the court. In short, diplomatic assurances issued between states or to individuals are usually considered not to be legally binding and are essentially questions of fact, but unilateral assurances issued directly to an international court are questions of law, and usually legally binding. At the same time, orders for provisional measures are now understood also to be legally binding, yet international courts will sometimes permit a state to substitute an assurance in place of an order for provisional measures. This emerging practice has brought the nature of a state as a sovereign capable of creating legal obligations into the forum of adjudication where the parties should have equality of arms and permitted states to create legal obligations that escape inquiry into the reliability of the outcome. While most recent practice has occurred at the ICJ in state-to-state litigation, there is some practice potentially extending the practice to human rights courts. Especially where the litigants are factually unequal – a state and an individual – this practice is problematic since states could more easily overcome factual failings in their pledges and evade the control of the court. Consider, for example, the potential for evading non-refoulement obligations by extending the current diplomatic assurances practice from the state-to-state context to the state-to-court context. The dual nature of assurances, as both legal and factual instruments, should be considered as addressed to distinct questions, each with its own considerations, and that we need to be more demanding about their precise legal and factual effects.

Keywords: unilateral, diplomacy, assurances, undertakings, provisional measures, interim measures

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389 Reconstruction of Binary Matrices Satisfying Neighborhood Constraints by Simulated Annealing

Authors: Divyesh Patel, Tanuja Srivastava

Abstract:

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of reconstructing binary matrices satisfying exactly-1-4-adjacency constraint from its row and column projections. This problem is formulated into a maximization problem. The objective function gives a measure of adjacency constraint for the binary matrices. The maximization problem is solved by the simulated annealing algorithm and experimental results are presented.

Keywords: discrete tomography, exactly-1-4-adjacency, simulated annealing, binary matrices

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388 Call-Back Laterality and Bilaterality: Possible Screening Mammography Quality Metrics

Authors: Samson Munn, Virginia H. Kim, Huija Chen, Sean Maldonado, Michelle Kim, Paul Koscheski, Babak N. Kalantari, Gregory Eckel, Albert Lee

Abstract:

In terms of screening mammography quality, neither the portion of reports that advise call-back imaging that should be bilateral versus unilateral nor how much the unilateral call-backs may appropriately diverge from 50–50 (left versus right) is known. Many factors may affect detection laterality: display arrangement, reflections preferentially striking one display location, hanging protocols, seating positions with respect to others and displays, visual field cuts, health, etc. The call-back bilateral fraction may reflect radiologist experience (not in our data) or confidence level. Thus, laterality and bilaterality of call-backs advised in screening mammography reports could be worthy quality metrics. Here, laterality data did not reveal a concern until drilling down to individuals. Bilateral screening mammogram report recommendations by five breast imaging, attending radiologists at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (Torrance, California) 9/1/15--8/31/16 and 9/1/16--8/31/17 were retrospectively reviewed. Recommended call-backs for bilateral versus unilateral, and for left versus right, findings were counted. Chi-square (χ²) statistic was applied. Year 1: of 2,665 bilateral screening mammograms, reports of 556 (20.9%) recommended call-back, of which 99 (17.8% of the 556) were for bilateral findings. Of the 457 unilateral recommendations, 222 (48.6%) regarded the left breast. Year 2: of 2,106 bilateral screening mammograms, reports of 439 (20.8%) recommended call-back, of which 65 (14.8% of the 439) were for bilateral findings. Of the 374 unilateral recommendations, 182 (48.7%) regarded the left breast. Individual ranges of call-backs that were bilateral were 13.2–23.3%, 10.2–22.5%, and 13.6–17.9%, by year(s) 1, 2, and 1+2, respectively; these ranges were unrelated to experience level; the two-year mean was 15.8% (SD=1.9%). The lowest χ² p value of the group's sidedness disparities years 1, 2, and 1+2 was > 0.4. Regarding four individual radiologists, the lowest p value was 0.42. However, the fifth radiologist disfavored the left, with p values of 0.21, 0.19, and 0.07, respectively; that radiologist had the greatest number of years of experience. There was a concerning, 93% likelihood that bias against left breast findings evidenced by one of our radiologists was not random. Notably, very soon after the period under review, he retired, presented with leukemia, and died. We call for research to be done, particularly by large departments with many radiologists, of two possible, new, quality metrics in screening mammography: laterality and bilaterality. (Images, patient outcomes, report validity, and radiologist psychological confidence levels were not assessed. No intervention nor subsequent data collection was conducted. This uncomplicated collection of data and simple appraisal were not designed, nor had there been any intention to develop or contribute, to generalizable knowledge (per U.S. DHHS 45 CFR, part 46)).

Keywords: mammography, screening mammography, quality, quality metrics, laterality

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