Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Kseniia Fedorova

5 The Communicative Nature of Linguistic Interference in Learning and Teaching of Slavic Languages

Authors: Kseniia Fedorova


The article is devoted to interlinguistic homonymy and enantiosemy analysis. These phenomena belong to the process of linguistic interference, which leads to violation of the communicative utterances integrity and causes misunderstanding between foreign interlocutors - native speakers of different Slavic languages. More attention is paid to investigation of non-typical speech situations, which occurred spontaneously or created by somebody intentionally being based on described phenomenon mechanism. The classification of typical students' mistakes connected with the paradox of interference is being represented in the article. The survey contributes to speech act theory, contemporary linguodidactics, translation science and comparative lexicology of Slavonic languages.

Keywords: adherent enantiosemy, interference, interslavonic homonymy, speech act

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4 Income-Consumption Relationships in Pakistan (1980-2011): A Cointegration Approach

Authors: Himayatullah Khan, Alena Fedorova


The present paper analyses the income-consumption relationships in Pakistan using annual time series data from 1980-81 to 2010-1. The paper uses the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test to check the unit root and stationarity in these two time series. The paper finds that the two time series are nonstationary but stationary at their first difference levels. The Augmented Engle-Granger test and the Cointegrating Regression Durbin-Watson test imply that the two time series of consumption and income are cointegrated and that long-run marginal propensity to consume is 0.88 which is given by the estimated (static) equilibrium relation. The paper also used the error correction mechanism to find out to model dynamic relationship. The purpose of the ECM is to indicate the speed of adjustment from the short-run equilibrium to the long-run equilibrium state. The results show that MPC is equal to 0.93 and is highly significant. The coefficient of Engle-Granger residuals is negative but insignificant. Statistically, the equilibrium error term is zero, which suggests that consumption adjusts to changes in GDP in the same period. The short-run changes in GDP have a positive impact on short-run changes in consumption. The paper concludes that we may interpret 0.93 as the short-run MPC. The pair-wise Granger Causality test shows that both GDP and consumption Granger cause each other.

Keywords: cointegrating regression, Augmented Dickey Fuller test, Augmented Engle-Granger test, Granger causality, error correction mechanism

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3 Functions of Public Policy in Private International Law

Authors: Fedorova Elena


In this article, we draw a distinction between two important functions of public policy in private international law. The first function is widely recognized and relates to the prevention of application of foreign laws and enforcement of foreign court judgments whenever their effects are incompatible with the domestic legal system of the forum. This effectively protects sovereign rights of the forum state as it allows to resist against the undesirable effects of foreign law-making and law-enforcement policies. The second function is less obvious, but not less important. As the internal private legal relationships, international private relationships are usually governed by rules of public policy, to which the parties can not derogate by mutual agreement. Thefore, for international private law relations public policy has a different function than previously mentioned: in this case, the public policy acts as a defense against unacceptable effects of the party autonomy. Thus, this second function of public policy consists in the limitation of the party autonomy wich effects would be unacceptable for the local legal system. In the frame of this second function the author will analyse two types of public policy which can limit the party autonomy: « substantial » public policy (which regulates the substance of international legal relationship) and « conflictual » public policy (which regulates the party autonomy to choose the law applicable for the substance of relationship). The author provides an analysis of these functions of the public policy in the field of international contract law because of the important role of the principle of party autonomy for international contract relations.

Keywords: public policy, general theory of private international law, substantial public policy, conflictual public policy

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2 Evidence of a Negativity Bias in the Keywords of Scientific Papers

Authors: Kseniia Zviagintseva, Brett Buttliere


Science is fundamentally a problem-solving enterprise, and scientists pay more attention to the negative things, that cause them dissonance and negative affective state of uncertainty or contradiction. While this is agreed upon by philosophers of science, there are few empirical demonstrations. Here we examine the keywords from those papers published by PLoS in 2014 and show with several sentiment analyzers that negative keywords are studied more than positive keywords. Our dataset is the 927,406 keywords of 32,870 scientific articles in all fields published in 2014 by the journal PLOS ONE (collected from Counting how often the 47,415 unique keywords are used, we can examine whether those negative topics are studied more than positive. In order to find the sentiment of the keywords, we utilized two sentiment analysis tools, Hu and Liu (2004) and SentiStrength (2014). The results below are for Hu and Liu as these are the less convincing results. The average keyword was utilized 19.56 times, with half of the keywords being utilized only 1 time and the maximum number of uses being 18,589 times. The keywords identified as negative were utilized 37.39 times, on average, with the positive keywords being utilized 14.72 times and the neutral keywords - 19.29, on average. This difference is only marginally significant, with an F value of 2.82, with a p of .05, but one must keep in mind that more than half of the keywords are utilized only 1 time, artificially increasing the variance and driving the effect size down. To examine more closely, we looked at those top 25 most utilized keywords that have a sentiment. Among the top 25, there are only two positive words, ‘care’ and ‘dynamics’, in position numbers 5 and 13 respectively, with all the rest being identified as negative. ‘Diseases’ is the most studied keyword with 8,790 uses, with ‘cancer’ and ‘infectious’ being the second and fourth most utilized sentiment-laden keywords. The sentiment analysis is not perfect though, as the words ‘diseases’ and ‘disease’ are split by taking 1st and 3rd positions. Combining them, they remain as the most common sentiment-laden keyword, being utilized 13,236 times. More than just splitting the words, the sentiment analyzer logs ‘regression’ and ‘rat’ as negative, and these should probably be considered false positives. Despite these potential problems, the effect is apparent, as even the positive keywords like ‘care’ could or should be considered negative, since this word is most commonly utilized as a part of ‘health care’, ‘critical care’ or ‘quality of care’ and generally associated with how to improve it. All in all, the results suggest that negative concepts are studied more, also providing support for the notion that science is most generally a problem-solving enterprise. The results also provide evidence that negativity and contradiction are related to greater productivity and positive outcomes.

Keywords: bibliometrics, keywords analysis, negativity bias, positive and negative words, scientific papers, scientometrics

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1 Features of Composites Application in Shipbuilding

Authors: Valerii Levshakov, Olga Fedorova


Specific features of ship structures, made from composites, i.e. simultaneous shaping of material and structure, large sizes, complicated outlines and tapered thickness have defined leading role of technology, integrating test results from material science, designing and structural analysis. Main procedures of composite shipbuilding are contact molding, vacuum molding and winding. Now, the most demanded composite shipbuilding technology is the manufacture of structures from fiberglass and multilayer hybrid composites by means of vacuum molding. This technology enables the manufacture of products with improved strength properties (in comparison with contact molding), reduction of production duration, weight and secures better environmental conditions in production area. Mechanized winding is applied for the manufacture of parts, shaped as rotary bodies – i.e. parts of ship, oil and other pipelines, deep-submergence vehicles hulls, bottles, reservoirs and other structures. This procedure involves processing of reinforcing fiberglass, carbon and polyaramide fibers. Polyaramide fibers have tensile strength of 5000 MPa, elastic modulus value of 130 MPa and rigidity of the same can be compared with rigidity of fiberglass, however, the weight of polyaramide fiber is 30% less than weight of fiberglass. The same enables to the manufacture different structures, including that, using both – fiberglass and organic composites. Organic composites are widely used for the manufacture of parts with size and weight limitations. High price of polyaramide fiber restricts the use of organic composites. Perspective area of winding technology development is the manufacture of carbon fiber shafts and couplings for ships. JSC ‘Shipbuilding & Shiprepair Technology Center’ (JSC SSTC) developed technology of dielectric uncouplers for cryogenic lines, cooled by gaseous or liquid cryogenic agents (helium, nitrogen, etc.) for temperature range 4.2-300 K and pressure up to 30 MPa – the same is used for separating components of electro physical equipment with different electrical potentials. Dielectric uncouplers were developed, the manufactured and tested in accordance with International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Technical specification. Spiral uncouplers withstand operating voltage of 30 kV, direct-flow uncoupler – 4 kV. Application of spiral channel instead of rectilinear enables increasing of breakdown potential and reduction of uncouplers sizes. 95 uncouplers were successfully the manufactured and tested. At the present time, Russian the manufacturers of ship composite structures have started absorption of technology of manufacturing the same using automated prepreg laminating; this technology enables the manufacture of structures with improved operational specifications.

Keywords: fiberglass, infusion, polymeric composites, winding

Procedia PDF Downloads 165