Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1513

Search results for: Hassan Mohammad Alkomy

1513 Effect of Robot Configuration Parameters, Masses and Friction on Painlevé Paradox for a Sliding Two-Link (P-R) Robot

Authors: Hassan Mohammad Alkomy, Hesham Elkaranshawy, Ahmed Ibrahim Ashour, Khaled Tawfik Mohamed

Abstract:

For a rigid body sliding on a rough surface, a range of uncertainty or non-uniqueness of solution could be found, which is termed: Painlevé paradox. Painlevé paradox is the reason of a wide range of bouncing motion, observed during sliding of robotic manipulators on rough surfaces. In this research work, the existence of the paradox zone during the sliding motion of a two-link (P-R) robotic manipulator with a unilateral constraint is investigated. Parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of friction, link-length ratio, total height and link-mass ratio on the paradox zone.

Keywords: dynamical system, friction, multibody system, painlevé paradox, robotic systems, sliding robots, unilateral constraint

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1512 Bacterial Flora of the Anopheles Fluviatilis S. L. in an Endemic Malaria Area in Southeastern Iran for Candidate Paraterasgenesis Strains

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Jalal Mohammadi Soleimani, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Sara Hajikhani, Roonak Bakhtiari, Morteza Akbari, Siamak Hydarzadeh

Abstract:

Malaria is an infectious disease and considered most important health problems in the southeast of Iran. Iran is elimination malaria phase and new tool need to vector control. Paraterasgenesis is a new way to cut of life cycle of the malaria parasite. In this study, the microflora of the surface and gut of various stages of Anopheles fluviatilis James as one of the important malaria vector was studied using biochemical and molecular techniques during 2013-2014. Twelve bacteria species were found including; Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Citrobacter braakii، Citrobacter freundii، Aeromonas hydrophila، Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Serratia fonticola، Enterobacter sakazakii and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The species of Alcaligenes faecalis, Providencia vermicola and Enterobacter hormaechei were identified in various stages of the vector and confirmed by biochemical and molecular techniques. We found Providencia rettgeri proper candidate for paratransgenesis.

Keywords: Anopheles fluviatilis, bacteria, malaria, Paraterasgenesis, Southern Iran

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1511 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

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1510 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Aluminum Composite Reinforced with Carbon Nano Tube Dispersion via Ultrasonic and Ball Mill Attrition after Sever Plastic Deformation

Authors: Hassan Zare, Mohammad Jahedi, Mohammad Reza Toroghinejad, Mahmoud Meratian, Marko Knezevic

Abstract:

In this study, the carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced Al matrix nanocomposites were fabricated by ECAP. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) process is one of the most important methods for powder densification due to the presence of shear strain. This method samples with variety passes (one, two, four and eight passes) in C route were prepared at room temperature. A few study about metal matrix nanocomposite reinforced carbon nanotube done, the reaction intersection of interface and carbon nanotube cause to reduce the efficiency of nanocomposite. In this paper, we checked mechanical and physical properties of aluminum-CNT composite that manufactured by ECAP when the composite is deformed. The non-agglomerated CNTs were distributed homogeneously with 2% consolidation in the Aluminum matrix. The ECAP process was performed on the both monolithic and composite with distributed CNT samples for 8 passes.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, ball mill attrition, ultrasonic, consolidation

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1509 The English Translation of Arabic Metaphors in the Holy Qura’n

Authors: Mohammad Hamzah Alshehab

Abstract:

Metaphor is a substitute expression in everyday life in languages, thoughts and actions. It has an original value in language use with different conceptual, grammatical and properties. In addition, it is a central concept in literary studies. The present paper aims at investigating metaphor’s types imbedded in some Holy Verses (HV). For achieving the objectives of this paper, two English versions were chosen , the first is the Translation of the Meanings of the Noble Qura’n in the English Language by Mohammad AlHilali and Mohammad Khan, and the second version is the English Translation of the Holy Qura’n by Mohammad Ali were used. The researcher selected (20) Holy Verses include metaphors to be analyzed and investigated. Metaphor types were categorized by an assessment of the two translations followed by a discussion between the two versions of translation.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphor’s types, Holy Qura’n, Holy Verses

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1508 Parametric Analysis and Optimal Design of Functionally Graded Plates Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and a Hybrid Meshless Method

Authors: Foad Nazari, Seyed Mahmood Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Abolbashari, Mohammad Hassan Abolbashari

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the optimal design of functionally graded plates using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. In this study, meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is employed to obtain the functionally graded (FG) plate’s natural frequencies. Effects of two parameters including thickness to height ratio and volume fraction index on the natural frequencies and total mass of plate are studied by using the MLPG results. Then the first natural frequency of the plate, for different conditions where MLPG data are not available, is predicted by an artificial neural network (ANN) approach which is trained by back-error propagation (BEP) technique. The ANN results show that the predicted data are in good agreement with the actual one. To maximize the first natural frequency and minimize the mass of FG plate simultaneously, the weighted sum optimization approach and PSO algorithm are used. However, the proposed optimization process of this study can provide the designers of FG plates with useful data.

Keywords: optimal design, natural frequency, FG plate, hybrid meshless method, MLPG method, ANN approach, particle swarm optimization

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1507 A Qualitative Analysis of People Views of Microfinance in Lebanon

Authors: Ali Abu Ali, Mohammad Salhab

Abstract:

Introduction: In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) microfinance struggles to find momentum. The Lebanese economy has been struggling through the years due to domestic and external, political and social instability. Although as of 2014 there are around 23 MFIs that are mainly subsidized by the USAID, operating in the country, the Lebanese microfinance market is mostly dominated by three microfinance institutions: Al Majmoua, Vitas, and Al Quard Al Hassan Association. Methodology: A quantitative approach using a standardized questionnaire would analyse the perception of the average Lebanese towards microfinance. A questionnaire was designed and validated. Results: Almost half of the respondents earn a monthly income ranged between $100 and $600. Almost 52% of the respondents were university graduates, around 25% finished secondary and high school, and 12% hold a masters or MBA degree. Topic understanding towards microfinance differs across Lebanese areas. The highest percentage of respondents who claim that microfinance offers financial services to low income people are the residents of Beirut (35.1%), Bekaa (30.8%), and South of Lebanon (24.7%). Higher levels of topic understanding were associated with lower levels of age range. Al Quard el Hassan foundation was regarded as the most known micro financial institution operating in Lebanon. In general, Lebanese people tend to believe that microfinance can play an important role in reducing unemployment rates and poverty levels in Lebanon. When people were asked what would motivate you to get a loan from MFIs, most of the respondent (57.4%) across all the Lebanese region claimed that it was the need for money to satisfy a need such as paying back a loan, to fix something at home, or for self-consideration like buying a car. Conclusion: Our findings showed that in general Lebanese tend to have a positive perception towards microfinance. However, most Lebanese perceive microfinance as the process of just providing loans without specifying for whom it is intended. We advise that government introduces laws to regulate the microfinance market.

Keywords: microfinance, economics, finance, business, analysis, theory

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1506 Improving an Automotive Bumper Structure for Pedestrian Protection

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard, Abolfazl Khalkhali, Khashayar Ghadirinejad

Abstract:

In the present study, first, a three-dimensional finite element model of lower legform impactor according to the pedestrian protection regulation EC 78/2009 is carried out. The FE model of lower legform impactor then validated on static and dynamic tests by three main criteria which are bending angle, shear displacement and upper tibia acceleration. At the second step, the validated impactor is employed to evaluate bumper of a B-class automotive based on pedestrian protection criteria defined in EC regulation. Finally, based on some investigations an improved design for the bumper is then represented and compared with the base design. Results show that very good improvement in meeting the pedestrian protection criteria is achieved.

Keywords: pedestrian protection, legform impactor, automotive bumper, finite element method

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1505 Eu³⁺ PVC Membrane Sensor Based on 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-Tetraacetic Acid

Authors: Noshin Mehrabian, Mohammad Reza Abedi, Hassan Ali Zamani

Abstract:

A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane sensor produced by using 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DAPTA) as active material is described. The electrode displays Nernstian behavior over the concentration range 1.0×10⁻⁶ to 1.0×10⁻² M. The detection limit of the electrode is 7.2×10⁻⁷ M. The best performance was obtained with the membrane containing 30% polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 65% nitrobenzene (NB), 2% sodium tetra phenyl borate (Na TPB), 3% DAPTA. The potentiometric response of the proposed electrode is pH independent in the range of 2.5–‎‎9.1. ‎The proposed sensor displays a fast response time 'less than 10s'. The electrode shows a good selectivity for Eu (III) ion with respect to most common cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric ‎titration of 25 mL of a 1.0×10⁻⁴ M Eu (III) solution with a 1.0×10⁻² M EDTA solution.

Keywords: potentiometry, PVC membrane, sensor, ion-selective electrode

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1504 Customers’ Priority to Implement SSTs Using AHP Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Jafariahangari, Marjan Habibi, Miresmaeil Mirnabibaboli, Mirza Hassan Hosseini

Abstract:

Self-service technologies (SSTs) make an important contribution to the daily life of people nowadays. However, the introduction of SST does not lead to its usage. Thereby, this paper was an attempt on discovery of the most preferred SST in the customers’ point of view. To fulfill this aim, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied based on Saaty’s questionnaire which was administered to the customers of e-banking services located in Golestan providence, north of Iran. This study used qualitative factors in association with the intention of consumers’ usage of SSTs to rank three SSTs: ATM, mobile banking, and internet banking. The results showed that mobile banking get the highest weight in consumers’ point of view. This research can be useful both for managers and service providers and also for customers who intend to use e-banking.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, decision-making, e-banking, self-service technologies, Iran

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1503 Evolution of Cord Absorbed Dose during Larynx Cancer Radiotherapy, with 3D Treatment Planning and Tissue Equivalent Phantom

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Amir Hossein Goodarzi, Majid Azarniush

Abstract:

Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic phantom as an equivalent to the human body. When high-energy X-rays are externally applied to treat laryngeal cancer, the absorbed dose at the laryngeal lumen is lower than given dose because of air space which it should pass through before reaching the lesion. Specially in case of high-energy X-rays, the loss of dose is considerable. Three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions have been computed for high-energy photon radiation therapy of laryngeal and hypo pharyngeal cancers, using a coaxial pair of opposing lateral beams in fixed positions. Treatment plans obtained under various conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: 3D treatment planning, anthropomorphic phantom, larynx cancer, radiotherapy

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1502 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar

Abstract:

Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn

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1501 Bioinformatics Identification of Rare Codon Clusters in Proteins Structure of HBV

Authors: Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Mohammad Ghorbani Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammadreza Fattahi, Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad, Saeid Salehi, Saeideh Zahedi, Amir Ahmadimoghaddam, Parviz Farzadnia Dr., Mohammadreza Hajyani Asl Bs

Abstract:

Hepatitis B as an infectious disease has eight main genotypes (A–H). The aim of this study is to Bioinformatically identify Rare Codon Clusters (RCC) in proteins structure of HBV. For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) of HBV proteins; used of uni-prot database and Pfam search tool were used. Obtained Pfam IDs were analyzed in Sherlocc program and RCCs in HBV proteins were detected. In further, the structures of TrEMBL entries proteins studied in PDB database and 3D structures of the HBV proteins and locations of RCCs were visualized and studied using Swiss PDB Viewer software. Pfam search tool have found nine significant hits and 0 insignificant hits in 3 frames. Results of Pfams studied in the Sherlocc program show this program not identified RCCs in the external core antigen (PF08290) and truncated HBeAg protein (PF08290). By contrast the RCCs become identified in Hepatitis core antigen (PF00906) Large envelope protein S (PF00695), X protein (PF00739), DNA polymerase (viral) N-terminal domain (PF00242) and Protein P (Pf00336). In HBV genome, seven RCC identified that found in hepatitis core antigen, large envelope protein S and DNA polymerase proteins and proteins structures of TrEMBL entries sequences that reported in Sherlocc program outputs are not complete. Based on situation of RCC in structure of HBV proteins, it suggested those RCCs are important in HBV life cycle. We hoped that this study provide a new and deep perspective in protein research and drug design for treatment of HBV.

Keywords: rare codon clusters, hepatitis B virus, bioinformatic study, infectious disease

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1500 Socioeconomic Values and Administration in Northern Nigeria: An Examination of the Impacts of Dearth of Values

Authors: Hassan Alhaji Hassan, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim

Abstract:

The research looks at the decaying socioeconomic values in northern Nigeria, which is directly affecting the administration of service at different levels. The aim is to establish the consequence of a valueless society on individual and public life at different levels. The result of governments’ continued neglect of education, societal values, which have negatively affected societal development and indeed development in general. Therefore, focus is on governments’ poor performance in Nigeria, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research asserts the need for the application of the values of some traditional values as personal principles and good governance as the way out of the present deteriorating conditions.

Keywords: socioeconomic, values, education, Northern Nigeria, good governance

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1499 Risk Based on Computer Auditing and Measures of ‎Prevention

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Khorashadi Zadeh, Amin Karkon, Seyd Mohammad Reza Mashhoori

Abstract:

The technology of computer audit played a major role in the progress and prospects of a proper application to improve the quality and efficiency of audit work. But due to the technical complexity and the specific risks of computer audit, it should be shown effective in audit and preventive action. Mainly through research in this paper, we propose the causes of audit risk in a computer environment and the risk of further proposals for measures to control, to some extent reduce the risk of computer audit and improve the audit quality.

Keywords: computer auditing, risk, measures to prevent, information management

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1498 Occupational Cumulative Effective Doses of Radiation Workers in Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar

Authors: Omar Bobes, Abeer Al-Attar, Mohammad Hassan Kharita, Huda Al-Naemi

Abstract:

The number of radiological examinations has increased steadily in recent years. As a result, the risk of possible radiation-induced consequential damage also increases through continuous, lifelong, and increasing exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, radiation dose monitoring in medicine became an essential element of medical practice. In this study, the occupational cumulative doses for radiation workers in Hamad medical corporation in Qatar have been assessed for a period of five years. The number of monitored workers selected for this study was 555 (out of a total of 1250 monitored workers) who have been working continuously -with no interruption- with ionizing radiation over the past five years from 2015 to 2019. The aim of this work is to examine the occupational groups and the activities where the higher radiation exposure occurred and in what order of magnitude. The most exposed group was the nuclear medicine technologist staff, with an average cumulative dose of 8.4 mSv. The highest individual cumulative dose was 9.8 mSv recorded for the PET-CT technologist category.

Keywords: cumulative dose, effective dose, monitoring, occupational exposure, dosimetry

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1497 Risk-Based Computer Auditing and Measures of Prevention

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Khorashadi Zadeh, Amin Karkon, Seyd Mohammad Reza Mashhoori ‎

Abstract:

the technology of Computer audit played a major role in the progress and ‎prospects of a proper application to improve the quality and efficiency of audit ‎work. But due to the technical complexity and the specific risks of computer ‎audit, it should be shown effective in audit and preventive action. Mainly through ‎research in this paper, we proposes the causes of audit risk in a computer ‎environment and the risk of further proposals for measures to control, to some ‎extent reduce the risk of computer audit and improve the audit quality.‎

Keywords: computer auditing, risk, measures to prevent, information technology

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1496 Comparison of Salt-Water Intrusion into Eastern and Western Coastal Aquifers of Urmia Lake thru Over-Exploration of Groundwater Resources

Authors: Saman Javadi, Mohammad Hassan Mahmoudi, Fatemeh Jafari, Aminreza Neshat

Abstract:

Urmia Lake’s water level has been dropped during the past decade. Although the most common reason in studies was declared climate change, but observation of adjacent lake (like Van in Turkey) is not the same as the common reason. Most of studies were focused on climate and land use change, but groundwater resource as one of the most important element is negligible. Due to population and agriculture activities growth, exploration of groundwater resource has been increased. In as much as continued decline of water levels can lead to saltwater intrusion, reduce stream discharge near outcrop regions and threaten groundwater quality, aquifers of this region were affected by saltwater intrusion of Urmia Lake. In this research comparison of saltwater intrusion into eastern and western coastal aquifer was studied. In conclusion eastern aquifers are in a critical situation; vice versa the western ones are in a better situation. Thus applying management of groundwater operation would be necessary for eastern aquifers.

Keywords: coastal aquifer, groundwater over-exploration, saltwater intrusion, Urmia Lake

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1495 Best Practices for Healthy Estuaries

Authors: Hassan Badkoobehi, Pradip Peter Dey, Mohammad Amin, Milan Jose Carlos, Basmal Hana, Fadi Zaco

Abstract:

The economy of coastline areas depends on the natural splendor of estuaries. When estuaries are improperly managed or polluted, long or short term damage to local economy or harm to local life forms can be caused. Estuaries are shelters for thousands of species such as birds, mammals, fish, crustaceans, insects, reptiles, and amphibians. The delicate balance of these life forms in estuaries requires careful planning for the benefit of all. The commercial value of estuaries is very important; recreational activities that people enjoy like boating, kayaking, windsurfing, swimming, bird-watching and fishing are marketable. Estuaries are national treasures with vital community and ecological resources. Years of estuarine environmental studies have produced extensive results that merit consideration. This study reviews research results from various sources and suggests best strategies for maintaining healthy estuaries in the current socioeconomic conditions. The main hypothesis is that many estuaries can be restored to their original healthy status in a cost effective manner with restoration or prevention plans suggested in published studies.

Keywords: environment, pollution, sustainable, wildlife

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1494 Clinical Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis Receiving Extended and Standard Meropenem Infusion in Malaysian Hospitals

Authors: Fahmi Hassan, Noorizan Abdul Aziz, Yahaya Hassan, Hazlinda Abu Hassan

Abstract:

Sepsis incidence in critical care settings is a major problem in health care. Extended antibiotic infusion is thought to be superior to traditional dosing especially when treating critically ill patients with sepsis. We compared clinical outcomes of critically ill patients with sepsis receiving 30-minute meropenem infusion and three-hour meropenem infusion. A retrospective case-control study was conducted among septic patients treated with meropenem infusion in ICUs of three hospitals. Patients included in the study received either extended or standard meropenem infusion as per the practice of individual settings. Outcomes and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the electronic databases and patients’ files. A total of 108 patients received extended meropenem infusion while another 117 patients received standard meropenem infusion. Patients receiving the extended meropenem infusion were found to have a significantly lower shorter length of hospital and ICU stay. It was also found that among those receiving extended meropenem infusion, 54.7% (64/117) had a reduction of SAPS II score, while only 44% (48/108) of patients receiving standard meropenem infusion had reduced scores. This study will strengthen the evidence in using extended meropenem infusion as a standard practice in critical care settings. As this is the first study of its kind done in Malaysia, it proves that prolonged meropenem infusion may be beneficial to critically ill patients with sepsis. However, randomized clinical trials with large sample size should be carried out in local settings in order to minimize other confounders that may influence with the result of the study.

Keywords: antibiotics, beta lactams, critical care, extended infusion, meropenem

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1493 Islamization of Knowledge with Special Reference to Mohd Kamal Hassan's Perspective

Authors: Abdul Latheef O. Mavukkandy

Abstract:

Islamization of knowledge (IOK) is an intellectual movement emerged in the middle of 1970s to address the threats by modern western civilizational onslaughts. This paper analyzes the discourse of Islamization of knowledge with special reference to the views of Kamal Hassan who prefers an alternative term called 'Islamicization'. First of all the theoretical and practical outlines of IOK movement were presented by Ismail Raji al-Faruqi in his book 'Islamization of Knowledge; General Principles and Work Plan' in 1982. He identified that the educational system in the Muslim world accounted for the decline of Muslim Ummah through de-Islamization and demoralization. So, the need for IOK was an academic challenge to reconstruct the Ummah. Kamal Hassan kept just different view from Ismail Raji al-Faruqi and Muhammed Naquib al-Attas that he coined the terms 'Relevantization and Contextualization'. So, he wanted the 'Islamization of Islamic Revealed Knowledge'. So, he used Islamization of Human Knowledge (IOHK) instead of IOK. As part of this movement, the IOK identified that the textbooks used in Muslim educational institutions systematically keep the students estranged from Islam and its heritage. Furthermore, the modern secular knowledge develops secular attitude devoid of Islamic moral philosophy and the sense of mission in life. Based upon the content analysis of some of the sources, this study found that Islamization of Knowledge is an important movement in Islamic world, but the IOK project is not practicable completely because of the lack of trained teachers and resources. Although, the project resulted in the foundation of some universities and publishing more works, journals and doctoral thesis on different dimensions of Islamization of Knowledge.

Keywords: Islamization, Islamicization, releventization, human knowledge

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1492 Reviewing the Relation of Language and Minorities' Rights

Authors: Mohsen Davarzani, Ehsan Lame, Mohammad Taghi Hassan Zadeh

Abstract:

Language is considered as a powerful and outstanding feature of ethnicity. However, humiliating and prohibiting using human language is one the most heinous and brutal acts in the form of racism. In other words, racism can be a product of physiological humiliations and discrimination, such as skin color, and can also be resulted from ethnic humiliation and discrimination such as language, customs and so on. Ethnic and racial discrimination is one of the main problems of the world that minorities and occasionally the majority have suffered from. Nowadays, few states can be found in which all individuals and its citizens are of the same race and ethnicity, culture and language. In these countries, referred to as the multinational states, (eg, Iran, Switzerland, India, etc.), there are the communities and groups which have their own linguistic, cultural and historical characteristics. Characteristics of human rights issues, diversity of issues and plurality of meanings indicate that they appear in various aspects. The states are obliged to respect, as per national and international obligations, the rights of all citizens from different angles, especially different groups that require special attention in order of the particular aspects such as ethnicity, religious and political minorities, children, women, workers, unions and in case the states are in breach of any of these items, they are faced with challenges in local, regional or international fields.

Keywords: law, language, minorities, ethnicity

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1491 Evaluate the Changes in Stress Level Using Facial Thermal Imaging

Authors: Amin Derakhshan, Mohammad Mikaili, Mohammad Ali Khalilzadeh, Amin Mohammadian

Abstract:

This paper proposes a stress recognition system from multi-modal bio-potential signals. For stress recognition, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and LDA are applied to design the stress classifiers and its characteristics are investigated. Using gathered data under psychological polygraph experiments, the classifiers are trained and tested. The pattern recognition method classifies stressful from non-stressful subjects based on labels which come from polygraph data. The successful classification rate is 96% for 12 subjects. It means that facial thermal imaging due to its non-contact advantage could be a remarkable alternative for psycho-physiological methods.

Keywords: stress, thermal imaging, face, SVM, polygraph

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1490 Cavitating Jet Design for Enhanced Drilling Performance

Authors: Abdullah Ababtain, Mouhammad El Hassan, Hassan Assoum, Anas Sakout

Abstract:

In this paper, a brief literature review on cavitation jets is presented in order to introduce the cavitation mechanism, strategies to assess when cavitation occurs, and the factors that influence cavitation in cavitating jets. The objectivity of the cavitation number often used to predict cavitation is also discussed. The results show that cavitation cannot be foreseen just using the cavitation number. Therefore, more efforts are needed to innovate and develop a self-resonating jet geometry that would be maintains the flow and the pressure in the cavitation condition just earlier than the flow acts on the target that would be used in such operating conditions. This study focused on a particular aspect related to improving drilling efficiency and the rate of penetration (ROP). In addition, a discussion on the methods used to measure cavitation and the factors that affect cavitation occurrence will be discussed. Two different types of cavitation nozzles were designed and tested. It has been shown that the self-resonating cavitation nozzle presents greater performance than standard non-resonating nozzle. It is thus concluded that a self-resonating cavitation jet present a high potential for improving drilling performance.

Keywords: cavitating jet, erosion, cavitation number, rate of penetration (ROP)

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1489 Preparation, Characterisation, and Antibacterial Activity of Green-Biosynthesised Silver Nanoparticles Using Clinacanthus Nutans Extract

Authors: Salahaedin Waiezi, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik Malek, Hassan Abdelmagid Elzamzami, Shahrulnizahana Mohammad Din

Abstract:

A green and safe approach to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) can be performed using plant leaf extract as the reducing agent. Hence, this paper reports the biosynthesis of AgNP using Clinacanthus nutans plant extract. C. nutans is known as belalai gajah in Malaysia and is widely used as a medicinal herb locally. The biosynthesized AgNP, using C. nutans aqueous extract at pH 10, with the reaction temperature of 70°C and 48 h reaction time, was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A peak appeared in the UV-Vis spectra at around 400 nm, while XRD confirmed the crystal structure of AgNP, with the average size between 20 to 30 nm, as shown in FESEM and TEM. The antibacterial activity of the biosynthesized AgNP, which was performed using the disc diffusion technique (DDT) indicated effective inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, minimal antibacterial activity was detected against Enterococcus faecalis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In general, AgNP produced using C. nutans leaf extract possesses potential antibacterial activity.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Clinacanthus nutans, antibacterial agent, biosynthesis

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1488 Flood Scenarios for Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: M. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Raj H. Sharma, Fatema Akram

Abstract:

Future flood can be predicted using the probable maximum flood (PMF). PMF is calculated using the historical discharge or rainfall data considering the other climatic parameter stationary. However, climate is changing globally and the key climatic variables are temperature, evaporation, rainfall and sea level rise (SLR). To develop scenarios to a basin or catchment scale these important climatic variables should be considered. Nowadays scenario based on climatic variables is more suitable than PMF. Six scenarios were developed for a large Fitzroy basin and presented in this paper.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall, potential evaporation, scenario, sea level rise (SLR), sub-catchment

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1487 Burden of Severe COVID-19 in Center of Iran: Results of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)

Authors: Moslem Taheri Soodejani, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi

Abstract:

Introduction: The outbreak of Covid-19 disease is an international public health concern. Therefore, the analysis of information related to mortality and disability due to COVID-19 is considered important, so the present study was designed and conducted with the aim of assessing COVID-19 Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) in Yazd. Methods: In Yazd province, all suspected cases of Covid-19 that would be referred to central hospitals in order to get confirmed through PCR or CT scan tests were recruited to our study. The fatality data of Covid- 19 was gathered from the forensic medicine organization. The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) combines in one measure years of life lost (YLL), the loss of healthy life due to premature mortality and years of life lived with disability (YLD), the loss of healthy life because of disease and disability. Results: The total burden of COVID-19 was 23,472 years. The number of years lost due to premature death was 23385 and the number of years of life with disability due to COVID-19 was estimated to be 87 years. The disease burden was 12992 years for men and 10480 years for women. The overall incidence of COVID-19 was 1411 per 100,000, of which 1419 in men and 1402 in women per 100,000. Conclusion: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic affected a large population and the residents of Yazd Province lost many years of their lives due to this disease.

Keywords: DALY, covid- 19, Yazd, Iran

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1486 Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Extract of Sea Pen Virgularia gustaviana on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Sharareh Sharifi, Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Marine organisms such as soft coral, sponge, ascidians, and tunicate containing rich source of natural compound have been studied in last decades because of their special chemical compounds with anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-cancer property of ethyl acetate extracted from marine sea pen Virgularia gustaviana found from Persian Gulf coastal (Bandar Abbas). The extraction processes were carried out with ethyl acetate for five days. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for qualitative identification of crude extract. The viability of HeLa and MDA-Mb-231 cancer cells was investigated using MTT assay at the concentration of 25, 50, and a 100 µl/ml of ethyl acetate is extracted. The crude extract of Virgularia gustaviana demonstrated ten fractions with different Retention factor (Rf) by TLC and Retention time (Rt) evaluated by HPLC. The crude extract dose-dependently decreased cancer cell viability compared to control group. According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted from Virgularia gustaviana inhibits the growth of cancer cells, an effect which needs to be further investigated in the future studies.

Keywords: anti-cancer, Hela cancer cell, MDA-Md-231 cancer cell, Virgularia gustavina

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1485 Modern Literary Authors and Samuel Beckett's Trace of Lost Self in Modernity

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

In a depression after world wars, Beckett's plays presented a picture of the world fragmented and disrupted. Among other modern literary works, Beckett's path-breakingly innovative literature presented the parodies of pointlessness of human actions and thoughts in the world. This new dramatic style catapulted Beckett to the centre stage of modern drama, though it should be mentioned that he may not have been influenced in this without the prevailing climate of ideas. The prevailing literary attitude of Modernism indicates that the modern world is irrational and incoherent. The present study explores Samuel Beckett's literary approach to modern drama and shows how the author could create the characters stuck in a lifelong suspicious about the Self.

Keywords: modern drama, absurdity, the theatre of the absurd, existentialism, self searching

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1484 Investigation of Neutral Axis Shifting and Wall Thickness Distribution of Bent Tubes Produced by Rotary Draw Bending

Authors: Bernd Engel, Hassan Raheem Hassan

Abstract:

Rotary draw bending is a method used for tube forming. During the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness changes in the cross section of the tube. Wall thinning of the tube takes place at the extrados, whereas wall thickening of the tube occurs at the intrados. This paper investigates the tube bending with rotary draw bending process using thick-walled tubes and different material properties (16Mo3 and 10CrMo9-10). The experimental tests and finite element simulations are used to calculate the variable characteristics (wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting and longitudinal strain distribution). These results are compared with results of a plasto-mechanical model. Moreover, the cross section distortion is investigated in this study. This study helped to get bends with smaller wall factor for different material properties.

Keywords: rotary draw bending, thick wall tube, material properties, material influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 446