Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Ananya G.

20 2D Convolutional Networks for Automatic Segmentation of Knee Cartilage in 3D MRI

Authors: Ananya Ananya, Karthik Rao


Accurate segmentation of knee cartilage in 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) images for quantitative assessment of volume is crucial for studying and diagnosing osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, one of the major causes of disability in elderly people. Radiologists generally perform this task in slice-by-slice manner taking 15-20 minutes per 3D image, and lead to high inter and intra observer variability. Hence automatic methods for knee cartilage segmentation are desirable and are an active field of research. This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of 2D convolutional neural networks based fully automated methods for knee cartilage segmentation in 3D MRI. The architectures are validated based on 40 test images and 60 training images from SKI10 dataset. The proposed methods segment 2D slices one by one, which are then combined to give segmentation for whole 3D images. Proposed methods are modified versions of U-net and dilated convolutions, consisting of a single step that segments the given image to 5 labels: background, femoral cartilage, tibia cartilage, femoral bone and tibia bone; cartilages being the primary components of interest. U-net consists of a contracting path and an expanding path, to capture context and localization respectively. Dilated convolutions lead to an exponential expansion of receptive field with only a linear increase in a number of parameters. A combination of modified U-net and dilated convolutions has also been explored. These architectures segment one 3D image in 8 – 10 seconds giving average volumetric Dice Score Coefficients (DSC) of 0.950 - 0.962 for femoral cartilage and 0.951 - 0.966 for tibia cartilage, reference being the manual segmentation.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, dilated convolutions, 3 dimensional, fully automated, knee cartilage, MRI, segmentation, U-net

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19 Federated Learning in Healthcare

Authors: Ananya Gangavarapu


Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based models are providing diagnostic capabilities on par with the medical specialists in many specialty areas. However, collecting the medical data for training purposes is very challenging because of the increased regulations around data collections and privacy concerns around personal health data. The gathering of the data becomes even more difficult if the capture devices are edge-based mobile devices (like smartphones) with feeble wireless connectivity in rural/remote areas. In this paper, I would like to highlight Federated Learning approach to mitigate data privacy and security issues.

Keywords: deep learning in healthcare, data privacy, federated learning, training in distributed environment

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18 Science behind Quantum Teleportation

Authors: Ananya G., B. Varshitha, Shwetha S., Kavitha S. N., Praveen Kumar Gupta


Teleportation is the ability to travel by just reappearing at some other spot. Though teleportation has never been achieved, quantum teleportation is possible. Quantum teleportation is a process of transferring the quantum state of a particle onto another particle, under the circumstance that one does not get to know any information about the state in the process of transformation. This paper presents a brief overview of quantum teleportation, discussing the topics like Entanglement, EPR Paradox, Bell's Theorem, Qubits, elements for a successful teleport, some examples of advanced teleportation systems (also covers few ongoing experiments), applications (that includes quantum cryptography), and the current hurdles for future scientists interested in this field. Finally, major advantages and limitations to the existing teleportation theory are discussed.

Keywords: teleportation, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement, qubits, EPR paradox, bell states, quantum particles, spooky action at a distance

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17 Sustainable Textiles: Innovation through Waste

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal


This paper traces the waste produced by the textile industry and evaluates the need for this waste to be reused or repurposed. From ancient times the textile industry has been a prominent part of all the economies of the world. It is famous for traditional as well as mill made fabrics. However the beauty and utility radiated by the textiles are juxtaposed by the piling amount of waste that the whole life cycle of a textile production and disposal entails. Waste happens in stages in a textile life cycle. It can be broadly categorised as pre-consumer and post-consumer waste. This research suggests suitable processes and techniques for channelizing post-industrial waste. It explores the scope of textile waste as a raw material for innovation and design. It discusses the role of designers in using waste to create useful and appealing designs. The paper examines the need of designers to create novel ideas to reuse textiles. This paper is based on secondary research. Most of the information used is taken from books and journals. The DEFRA report 2009 is also consulted for comprehensive data on textile waste percentage.

Keywords: designers, repurposing, textiles, waste

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16 Contested Visions of Exploration in IR: Theoretical Engagements, Reflections and New Agendas on the Dynamics of Global Order

Authors: Ananya Sharma


International Relations is a discipline of paradoxes. The State is the dominant political institution, with mainstream analysis theorizing the State, but theory remains at best a reactionary monolith. Critical Theorists have been pushing the envelope and to that extent, there has been a clear shift in the dominant discourse away from State-centrism to individuals and group-level behaviour. This paradigm shift has been accompanied with more nuanced conceptualizations of other variables at play–power, security, and trust, to name a few. Yet, the ambit of “what is discussed” remains primarily embedded in realist conceptualizations. With this background in mind, this paper will attempt to understand, juxtapose and evaluate how “order” has been conceptualized in International Relations theory. This paper is a tentative attempt to present a “state of the art” and in the process, set the stage for a deeper study to draw attention to what the author feels is a gaping lacuna in IR theory. The paper looks at how different branches of international relations theory envisage world order and the silences embedded therein. Further, by locating order and disorder inhabiting the same reality along a continuum, alternative readings of world orders are drawn from the critical theoretical traditions, in which various articulations of justice impart the key normative pillar to the world order.

Keywords: global justice, international relations theory, legitimacy, world order

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15 Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Incorporating Toxicity of Particulate Matter Constituents for Developing Regulatory Limits on Particulate Matter

Authors: Ananya Das, Arun Kumar, Gazala Habib, Vivekanandan Perumal


Regulatory bodies has proposed limits on Particulate Matter (PM) concentration in air; however, it does not explicitly indicate the incorporation of effects of toxicities of constituents of PM in developing regulatory limits. This study aimed to provide a structured approach to incorporate toxic effects of components in developing regulatory limits on PM. A four-step human health risk assessment framework consists of - (1) hazard identification (parameters: PM and its constituents and their associated toxic effects on health), (2) exposure assessment (parameters: concentrations of PM and constituents, information on size and shape of PM; fate and transport of PM and constituents in respiratory system), (3) dose-response assessment (parameters: reference dose or target toxicity dose of PM and its constituents), and (4) risk estimation (metric: hazard quotient and/or lifetime incremental risk of cancer as applicable). Then parameters required at every step were obtained from literature. Using this information, an attempt has been made to determine limits on PM using component-specific information. An example calculation was conducted for exposures of PM2.5 and its metal constituents from Indian ambient environment to determine limit on PM values. Identified data gaps were: (1) concentrations of PM and its constituents and their relationship with sampling regions, (2) relationship of toxicity of PM with its components.

Keywords: air, component-specific toxicity, human health risks, particulate matter

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14 An IVRs Storytelling Model for Learning Entrepreneurial Mindsets in Media Dark Zones

Authors: Ananya Agrawal, Vineesh Amin


In a prolonged period of uncertainty and disruptions in the pre-said normal order, non-cognitive skills, especially entrepreneurial mindsets, have become a pillar that can reform the educational models to inform the economy. Born in the middle of the pandemic, Udhyam Learning Foundation's IVR-based storytelling program - Call-a-Kahaani – is an evolving experiment with an aim to kindle entrepreneurial mindsets in the remotest locations of India in an accessible and engaging manner. At the heart of this experiment is the belief that at every phase in our life’s story, we have a choice to make that will direct how the next phase of our life unfolds. This interactive program is thus designed using real-time storytelling principles to empower learners, ages 24 and below, to make choices and take decisions as they become more self-aware practice grit, try new things through stories and guided activities and interactions, simply over a phone call. This research paper highlights a framework to build and deliver a scalable, data-oriented, low-tech program to kindle entrepreneurial mindsets in media dark zones supported by iterative design and prototyping to reach a scale of 9000+ unique learners from across 15+ states in India within one year of its inception. The paper provides an in-depth account of the technical development, content creation, learning and assessment frameworks, as well as mobilization models which have been leveraged to build this end-to-end system.

Keywords: non-cognitive skills, entrepreneurial mindsets, speech interface, remote learning, storytelling

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13 Evolution of Textiles in the Indian Subcontinent

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal


The objective of this paper is to trace the origin and evolution of clothing in the Indian Subcontinent. The paper seeks to understand the need for mankind to shed his natural state and adopt clothing as an inseparable accessory for his body. It explores the various theories of the origin of clothing. The known journey of clothing of this region started from the Indus Valley Civilisation which dates back to 2500 BC. Due to the weather conditions of the region, few actual samples have survived, and most of the knowledge of textiles is derived from the sculptures and other remains from this era. The understanding of textiles of the period after the Indus Valley Civilisation (2500-1500 BC) till the Mauryan and the Sunga Period (321-72 BC) comes from literary sources, e.g., Vedas, Smritis, the eminent Indian epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, forest books, etc. Textile production was one of the most important economic activities of this region. It was next only to agriculture. While attempting to trace the history of clothing the paper draws the evolution of Indian traditional fashion through the change of rulers of this region and the development of the modern Indian traditional dress, i.e., sari, salwar kamiz, dhoti, etc. The major aims of the study are to define the different time periods chronologically and to inspect the major changes in textile fashion, manufacturing, and materials that took place. This study is based on secondary research. It is founded on data taken primarily from books and journals. Not much of visuals are added in the paper as actual fabric references are near nonexistent. It gives a brief history of the ancient textiles of India from the time frame of 2500 BC-8th C AD.

Keywords: evolution, history, origin, textiles

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12 Magnetoresistance Transition from Negative to Positive in Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube and Composite with Polyaniline

Authors: Krishna Prasad Maity, Narendra Tanty, Ananya Patra, V. Prasad


Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a well-known material for very good electrical, thermal conductivity and high tensile strength. Because of that, it’s widely used in many fields like nanotechnology, electronics, optics, etc. In last two decades, polyaniline (PANI) with CNT and functionalized CNT (fCNT) have been promising materials in application of gas sensing, electromagnetic shielding, electrode of capacitor etc. So, the study of electrical conductivity of PANI/CNT and PANI/fCNT is important to understand the charge transport and interaction between PANI and CNT in the composite. It is observed that a transition in magnetoresistance (MR) with lowering temperature, increasing magnetic field and decreasing CNT percentage in CNT/PANI composite. Functionalization of CNT prevent the nanotube aggregation, improves interfacial interaction, dispersion and stabilized in polymer matrix. However, it shortens the length, breaks C-C sp² bonds and enhances the disorder creating defects on the side walls. We have studied electrical resistivity and MR in PANI with CNT and fCNT composites for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2K and up to magnetic field 5T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long-range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.

Keywords: coulomb interaction, magnetoresistance transition, polyaniline composite, polaron-bipolaron

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11 Tumour Radionuclides Therapy: in vitro and in vivo Dose Distribution Study

Authors: Rekaya A. Shabbir, Marco Mingarelli, Glenn Flux, Ananya Choudhury, Tim A. D. Smith


Introduction: Heterogeneity of dose distributions across a tumour is problematic for targeted radiotherapy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhance dose-distributions of targeted radionuclides. The aim of this study is to demonstrate if tumour dose-distribution of targeted AuNPs radiolabelled with either of two radioisotopes (¹⁷⁷Lu and ⁹⁰Y) in breast cancer cells produced homogeneous dose distributions. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to study the importance of receptor level on cytotoxicity of EGFR-targeted AuNPs in breast and colorectal cancer cells. Methods: AuNPs were functionalised with DOTA and OPPS-PEG-SVA to optimise labelling with radionuclide tracers and targeting with Erbitux. Radionuclides were chelated with DOTA, and the uptake of the radiolabelled AuNPs and targeted activity in vitro in both cell lines measured using liquid scintillation counting. Cells with medium (HCT8) and high (MDA-MB-468) EGFR expression were incubated with targeted ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs for 4h, then washed and allowed to form colonies. Nude mice bearing tumours were used to study the biodistribution by injecting ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs or ⁹⁰Y-AuNPs via the tail vein. Heterogeneity of dose-distribution in tumours was determined using autoradiography. Results: Colony formation (% control) was 81 ± 4.7% (HCT8) and 32 ± 9% (MDA-MB-468). High uptake was observed in the liver and spleen, indicating hepatobiliary excretion. Imaging showed heterogeneity in dose-distributions for both radionuclides across the tumours. Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect of EGFR-targeted AuNPs is greater in cells with higher EGFR expression. Dose-distributions for individual radiolabelled nanoparticles were heterogeneous across tumours. Further strategies are required to improve the uniformity of dose distribution prior to clinical trials.

Keywords: cancer cells, dose distributions, radionuclide therapy, targeted gold nanoparticles

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10 Comparison of Tidalites in Siliciclastics and Mixed Siliciclastic Carbonate Systems: An Outstanding Example from Proterozoic Simla Basin, Western Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Tithi Banerjee, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


The comparison of ancient tidalites recorded in both siliciclastics and carbonates has not been well documented due to a lack of suitable outcropping examples. The Proterozoic Simla Basin, Lesser Himalaya serves a unique example in this regard. An attempt has been made in the present work to differentiate sedimentary facies and architectural elements of tidalites in both siliciclastics and carbonates recorded in the Simla Basin. Lithofacies and microfacies analysis led to identification of 11 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements from the siliciclastics, 6 lithofacies and 3 architectural elements from the carbonates. The most diagnostic features for comparison of the two tidalite systems are sedimentary structures, textures, and architectural elements. The physical features such as flaser-lnticular bedding, mud/silt couplets, tidal rhythmites, tidal bundles, cross stratified successions, tidal bars, tidal channels, microbial structures are common to both the environments. The architecture of these tidalites attests to sedimentation in shallow subtidal to intertidal flat facies, affected by intermittent reworking by open marine waves/storms. The seventeen facies attributes were categorized into two major facies belts (FA1 and FA2). FA1 delineated from the lower part of the Chhaosa Formation (middle part of the Simla Basin) represents a prograding muddy pro-delta deposit whereas FA2 delineated from the upper part of the Basantpur Formation (lower part of the Simla Basin) bears the signature of an inner-mid carbonate ramp deposit. Facies distribution indicates development of highstand systems tract (HST) during sea level still stand related to normal regression. The aggradational to progradational bedsets record the history of slow rise in sea level.

Keywords: proterozoic, Simla Basin, tidalites, inner-mid carbonate ramp, prodelta, TST, HST

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9 Behavioral Effects of Oxidant and Reduced Chemorepellent on Mutant and Wild-Type Tetrahymena thermophila

Authors: Ananya Govindarajan


Tetrahymena thermophila is a single-cell, eukaryotic organism that belongs to the Protozoa Kingdom. Tetrahymena thermophila is often used in signal transduction pathway studies because of its ability to model sensory input and the effects of environmental conditions such as chemicals and temperature. The recently discovered G37 chemorepellent receptor showed increased responsiveness to all chemorepellents. Investigating the mutant G37 Tetrahymena gene in various test solutions, including ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, tetrazolium blue, potassium chloride, and dithiothreitol were performed to determine the role of oxidants and reducing agents with the mutant and wild-type cells (CU427) to assess the role of the receptor. Behavioral assays and recordings processed by ImageJ indicated that ferric chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and tetrazolium blue yielded little to no chemorepellent responses from G37 cells (<20% ARs). CU427 cells were over-responsive based on the mean percent of cells (>50% ARs). Reducing agents elicited chemorepellent responses from both G37 and CU427, in addition to potassium chloride. Cell responses were classified as over-responsive (>50% ARs). Dithiothreitol yielded unexpected results as G37 (37.0% ARs) and CU427 (38.1% ARs) had relatively similar responses and were only responsive and not over-responsive to the reducing agent test chemical solution. Ultimately, this indicates that the G37 receptor is more interactive with molecules that are reducing agents or non-oxidant compounds; G37 may be unable to sense and respond to oxidants effectively, further elucidating the pathways of the G37 strain and nature of this receptor. Results also indicate that the CSF most likely contained an oxidant, like ferric chloride. This research can be further applied to neuronal influences and how specific compounds may affect human neurons individually and their excitability as the responses model action potentials and membrane potential.

Keywords: tetrahymena thermophila, signal transduction, chemosensory, oxidant, reducing agent

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8 Analysis of Anti-Tuberculosis Immune Response Induced in Lungs by Intranasal Immunization with Mycobacterium indicus pranii

Authors: Ananya Gupta, Sangeeta Bhaskar


Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a saprophytic mycobacterium. It is a predecessor of M. avium complex (MAC). Whole genome analysis and growth kinetics studies have placed MIP in between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. It shares significant antigenic repertoire with M. tuberculosis and have unique immunomodulatory properties. MIP provides better protection than BCG against pulmonary tuberculosis in animal models. Immunization with MIP by aerosol route provides significantly higher protection as compared to immunization by subcutaneous (s.c.) route. However, mechanism behind differential protection has not been studied. In this study, using mice model we have evaluated and compared the M.tb specific immune response in lung compartments (airway lumen / lung interstitium) as well as spleen following MIP immunization via nasal (i.n.) and s.c. route. MIP i.n. vaccination resulted in increased seeding of memory T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells) in the airway lumen. Frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing Th1 migratory marker (CXCR3) and activation marker (CD69) were also high in airway lumen of MIP i.n. group. Significantly high ex vivo secretion of cytokines- IFN-, IL-12, IL-17 and TNF- from cells of airway luminal spaces provides evidence of antigen-specific lung immune response, besides generating systemic immunity comparable to MIP s.c. group. Analysis of T cell response on per cell basis revealed that antigen specific T-cells of MIP i.n. group were functionally superior as higher percentage of these cells simultaneously secreted IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha cytokines as compared to MIP s.c. group. T-cells secreting more than one of the cytokines simultaneously are believed to have robust effector response and crucial for protection, compared with single cytokine secreting T-cells. Adoptive transfer of airway luminal T-cells from MIP i.n. group into trachea of naive B6 mice revealed that MIP induced CD8 T-cells play crucial role in providing long term protection. Thus the study demonstrates that MIP intranasal vaccination induces M.tb specific memory T-cells in the airway lumen that results in an early and robust recall response against M.tb infection.

Keywords: airway lumen, Mycobacterium indicus pranii, Th1 migratory markers, vaccination

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7 Recognition of a Thinly Bedded Distal Turbidite: A Case Study from a Proterozoic Delta System, Chaossa Formation, Simla Group, Western Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Priyanka Mazumdar, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


A lot of progress has been achieved in the research of turbidites during the last decades. However, their relationship to delta systems still deserves further attention. This paper addresses example of fine grained turbidite from a pro-deltaic deposit of a Proterozoic mixed energy delta system exposed along Chaossa-Baliana river section of the Chaossa Formation of the Simla Basin. Lithostratigraphic analysis of the Chaossa Formation reveals three major facies associations (prodelta deposit-FA1, delta slope deposit-FA2 and delta front deposit-FA3) based on lithofacies types, petrography and sedimentary structures. Detailed process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analysis of the study area have led to identification of more than150 m thick coarsening-upwards deltaic successions composed of fine grained turbidites overlain by delta slope deposits. Erosional features are locally common at the base of turbidite beds and still more widespread at the top. The complete sequence has eight sub-divisions that are here termed T1 to T8. The basal subdivision (T1) comprises a massive graded unit with a sharp, scoured base, internal parallel-lamination and cross-lamination. The overlying sequence shows textural and compositional grading through alternating silt and mud laminae (T2). T2 is overlying by T3 which is characterized by climbing ripple and cross lamination. Parallel laminae are the predominant facies attributes of T4 which caps the T3 unit. T5 has a loaded scour base and is mainly characterized laminated silt. The topmost three divisions, graded mud (T6), ungraded mud (T7) and laminated mud (T8). The proposed sequence is analogous to the Bouma (1962) structural scheme for sandy turbidites. Repetition of partial sequences represents deposition from different stages of evolution of a large, muddy, turbidity flow. Detailed facies analysis of the study area reveals that the sediments of the turbidites developed during normal regression at the stage of stable or marginally rising sea level. Thin-bedded turbidites were deposited predominantly by turbidity currents in the relatively shallower part of the Simla basin. The fine-grained turbidites are developed by resedimentation of delta-front sands and slumping of upper pro-delta muds.

Keywords: turbidites, prodelta, proterozoic, Simla Basin, Bouma sequence

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6 Lamivudine Continuation/Tenofovir Add-on Adversely Affects Treatment Response among Lamivudine Non-Responder HIV-HBV Co-Infected Patients from Eastern India

Authors: Ananya Pal, Neelakshi Sarkar, Debraj Saha, Dipanwita Das, Subhashish Kamal Guha, Bibhuti Saha, Runu Chakravarty


Presently, tenofovir disoproxil fumurate (TDF) is the most effective anti-viral agent for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in individuals co-infected with HIV and HBV as TDF has activity to suppress both wild-type and lamivudine (3TC)-resistant HBV. However, suboptimal response to TDF was reported in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals with prior 3TC therapy from different countries recently. The incidence of 3TC-resistant HBV strains is quite high in HIV-HBV co-infected patients experiencing long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in eastern India. In spite of this risk, most of the patients with long-term 3TC treatment are continued with the same anti-viral agent in this country. Only a few have received TDF in addition to 3TC in the ART regimen since TDF has been available in India for the treatment of HIV-infected patients in 2012. In this preliminary study, we investigated the virologic and biochemical parameters among HIV-HBV co-infected patients who are non-responders to 3TC treatment during the continuation of 3TC or TDF add-on to 3TC in their ART regimen. Fifteen HIV-HBV co-infected patients who experienced long-term 3TC (mean duration months 36.87 ± 24.08 months) were identified with high HBV viremia ( > 20,000 IU/ml) or harbouring 3TC-resistant HBV. These patients receiving ART from School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, the main ART centre in eastern India were followed-up semi-annually for next three visits. Different virologic parameters including quantification of plasma HBV load by real-time PCR, detection of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) by commercial ELISA and anti-viral resistant mutations by sequencing were studied. During three follow-up among study subjects, 86%, 47%, and 43% had 3TC-mono-therapy (mean treatment-duration 41.54±18.84, 49.67±11.67, 54.17±12.37 months respectively) whereas 14%, 53%, and 57% experienced TDF in addition to 3TC (mean treatment duration 4.5±2.12, 16.56±11.06, and 23±4.07 months respectively). Mean CD4 cell-count in patients receiving 3TC was tended to be lower during third follow-up as compared to the first and the second [520.67±380.30 (1st), 454.8±196.90 (2nd), and 397.5±189.24 (3rd) cells/mm3) and similar trend was seen in patients experiencing TDF in addition to 3TC [334.5±330.218 (1st), 476.5±194.25 (2nd), and 461.17±269.89 (3rd) cells/mm3]. Serum HBV load was increased during successive follow-up of patients with 3TC-mono-therapy. Initiation of TDF lowered serum HBV-load among 3TC-non-responders at the time of second visit ( < 2,000 IU/ml), interestingly during third follow-up, mean HBV viremia increased >1 log IU/ml (mean 3.56±2.84 log IU/ml). Persistence of 3TC-resistant double and triple mutations was also observed in both the treatment regimens. Mean serum alanine aminotransferase remained elevated in these patients during this follow-up study. Persistence of high HBV viraemia and 3TC-resistant mutation in HBV during the continuation of 3TC might lead to major public health threat in India. The inclusion of TDF in the ART regimen of 3TC non-responder HIV-HBV co-infected patients showed adverse treatment response in terms of virologic and biochemical parameters. Therefore, serious attention is necessary for proper management of long-term 3TC experienced HIV-HBV co-infected patients with high HBV viraemia or 3TC-resistant HBV mutants in India.

Keywords: HBV, HIV, TDF, 3TC-resistant

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5 Wave Agitated Signatures in the Oolitic Limestones of Kunihar Formation, Proterozoic Simla Group, Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Alono Thorie, Ananya Mukhopadhyay


Ooid bearing horizons of the Proterozoic Kunihar Formation, Simla Group, Lesser Himalaya have been addressed in the present work. The study is concentrated around the outskirts of Arki town, Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Based on the sedimentary facies associations, the processes that promote the formation of ooids have been documented. The facies associations that have been recorded are: (i) Oolitic-Intraclastic grainstone (FA1), (ii) Oolitic grainstone (FA2), (iii) Boundstone (FA3), (iv) Dolomudstone (FA4) and (v) Rudstone (FA5). Oolitic-Intraclastic grainstone (FA1) mainly consists of well sorted ooids with concentric laminae and intraclasts. Large ooids with grain sizes more than 4 mm are characteristic of oolites throughout the area. Normally graded beds consisting of ooids and intraclasts are frequently documented in storm sediments in shelf environments and carbonate platforms. The well-sorted grainstone fabric indicates deposition in a high-energy shoal with tidal currents and storm reworking. FA2 comprises spherical to elliptical grains up to 8.5cm in size with concentric cortex and micritic nuclei. Peloids in FA2 are elliptical, rounded objects <0.3 mm in size. FA1 and FA2 have been recorded alongside boundstones (FA3) comprising stromatolites having columnar, wavy and domal morphology. Boundstones (FA3) reflect microbial growth in carbonate platforms and reefs. Dolomudstones (FA4) interbedded with cross laminated sandstones and erosional surfaces reflect sedimentation in storm dominated zones below fair-weather wave base. Rudstone (FA5) is composed of oolitic grainstone (FA2), boundstone (FA3) and dolomudstone (FA4). These clasts are few mm to more than 10 cm in length. Rudstones indicate deposition along a slope with intermittent influence of wave currents and storm activities. Most ooids from the Kunihar Formation are regular ooids with abundance of broken ooids. Compound and concentric ooids indicating medium to low energy environments are present but scarce. Ooids from high energy domains are more dominant than ooids developed from low energy environments. The unusually large size of the Kunihar ooids (more than 8.5 cm) is rare in the geological record. Development of carbonate deposits such as oolitic- intraclastic Grainstones (FA1), oolitic grainstones (FA2) and rudstones (FA5), and reflect deposition in an agitated beach environment with abundant microbial activity and high energy shallow marine waters influenced by tide, wave and storm currents. Occurrences of boundstone (FA4) or stromatolitic carbonate amongst oolitic facies (FA1 and FA2) and appearance of compound and concentric ooids indicate intervals of calm in between agitated phases of storm, wave and tidal activities.

Keywords: proterozoic, Simla Group, ooids, stromatolites

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4 Assessment of Cellular Metabolites and Impedance for Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer among Habitual Smokers

Authors: Ripon Sarkar, Kabita Chaterjee, Ananya Barui


Smoking is one of the leading causes of oral cancer. Cigarette smoke affects various cellular parameters and alters molecular metabolism of cells. Epithelial cells losses their cytoskeleton structure, membrane integrity, cellular polarity that subsequently initiates the process of epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition due to long exposure of cigarette smoking. It changes the normal cellular metabolic activity which induces oxidative stress and enhances the reactive oxygen spices (ROS) formation. Excessive ROS and associated oxidative stress are considered to be a driving force in alteration in cellular phenotypes, polarity distribution and mitochondrial metabolism. Noninvasive assessment of such parameters plays essential role in development of routine screening system for early diagnosis of oral cancer. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is one of such method applied for detection of cellular membrane impedance which can be correlated to cell membrane integrity. Present study intends to explore the alteration in cellular impedance along with the expression of cellular polarity molecules and cytoskeleton distributions in oral epithelial cells of habitual smokers and to correlate the outcome to that of clinically diagnosed oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Total 80 subjects were categorized into four study groups: nonsmoker (NS), cigarette smoker (CS), oral leukoplakia (OLPK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cytoskeleton distribution was analyzed by staining of actin filament and generation of ROS was measured using assay kit using standard protocol. Cell impedance was measured through ECIS method at different frequencies. Expression of E-cadherin and protease-activated receptor (PAR) proteins were observed through immune-fluorescence method. Distribution of actin filament is well organized in NS group however; distribution pattern was grossly varied in CS, OLPK and OSCC. Generation of ROS was low in NS which subsequently increased towards OSCC. Expressions of E-cadherin and change in cellular electrical impedance in different study groups indicated the hallmark of cancer progression from NS to OSCC. Expressions of E-cadherin, PAR protein, and cell impedance were decreased from NS to CS and farther OSCC. Generally, the oral epithelial cells exhibit apico-basal polarity however with cancer progression these cells lose their characteristic polarity distribution. In this study expression of polarity molecule and ECIS observation indicates such altered pattern of polarity among smoker group. Overall the present study monitored the alterations in intracellular ROS generation and cell metabolic function, membrane integrity in oral epithelial cells in cigarette smokers. Present study thus has clinical significance, and it may help in developing a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer amongst susceptible individuals.

Keywords: cigarette smoking, early oral cancer detection, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, noninvasive screening

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3 Modification of Hyrax Expansion Screw to Be Used as an Intro-Oral Distractor for Anterior Maxillary Distraction in a Patient with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Case Report

Authors: Ananya Hazare, Ranjit Kamble


Introduction: Patients with Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) can present with a maxillary retrution after cleft repair. Anterior Maxillary distraction osteogenesis (AMD) is a technique that provides simultaneous skeletal advancement and expansion of the soft tissues related to an anterior segment of the maxilla. This case presented is a case of AMD. The advantage of this technique is that the occlusion in the posterior segment can be maintained, and only the segment in cross bite is advanced for correction of the midfacial deficiency. The other alternative treatment is anterior movement by a Lefort 1 osteotomy. When a Lefort 1 osteotomy is compared with the Distraction osteogenesis or AMD, the disadvantages of the Le Fort 1 include a higher risk of morbidity, requirement of fixation, relapse tendency and unexpected changes in the nasal form. These complications were eliminated by AMD technique. This was followed by placement of the implant in the bone formed after AMD. Hence complete surgical, orthodontic and prosthodontics rehabilitation of the patient was done by an interdisciplinary approach. Methods: Patient presented with repaired UCL/P of the right side with midfacial retrusion. Intro-oral examination revealed a good occlusion in the posterior arch and anterior Crossbite from canine to canine. Patient's both maxillary lateral incisors were missing. The lower arch was well aligned with all teeth present. The study models when scored according to GOSLON yardstick received a score of 4. After pre-surgical orthodontic phase was completed an intraoral distractor was fabricated by modification of HYRAX expansion screw. After surgery, low subapical osteotomy cuts were placed and the distractor was fixed. The latency period of 5 days was observed after which the distraction was started. Distraction was done at a rate of 1 mm/day with a rhythm of 0.5mm in morning and 0.5mm in the evening. The total distraction of 12 mm was done. After a consolidation period, the distractor was removed, and retention by a removable partial denture was given. Radiographic examination confirmed mature bone formation in the distracted segment. Implants were placed and allowed to osseointegrate for approximately 4 months and were then loaded with abutments. Results: Total distraction done was 12mm and after relapse it was 8mm. After consolidation phase the radiographic examination revealed a B2 quality of bone according to the Misch's classification and sufficient height from the maxillary sinus. These findings were indicative for placement of implants in the distracted bone formed in premolar region. Implants were placed and after radiographic evidence of osseointegration was seen they were loaded with abutments. Thus resulting in a complete rehabilitation of a cleft patient by an interdisciplinary approach. Conclusion: Anterior maxillary distraction can be used as an alternative method instead of complete distraction osteogenesis or Lefort 1 advancement of maxilla in cases where the advancement needed is minimum. Use of HYRAX expansion screw modified as intra-oral distractor can be used in such cases, which significantly reduces the cost of treatment, as expensive distractors are not used. This technique is very useful and efficient in countries like India where the patient cannot afford expensive treatment options.

Keywords: cleft lip and palate, distraction osteogenesis, anterior maxillary distraction, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics, hyrax expansion screw modification

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2 Recognition of a Stacked Wave-Tide Dominated Fluvio-Marine Depositional System in an Ancient Rock Record, Proterozoic Simla Group, Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Ananya Mukhopadhyay, Priyanka Mazumdar, Tithi Banerjee, Alono Thorie


Outcrop-based facies analysis of the Proterozoic rock successions in the Simla Basin, Lesser Himalaya was combined with the application of sequence stratigraphy to delineate the stages of wave-tide dominated fluvio-marine depositional system development. On this basis, a vertical profile depositional model has been developed. Based on lateral and vertical facies transitions, twenty lithofacies have been delineated from the lower-middle-upper part of the Simla Group, which are categorized into four major facies (FA1, FA2, FA3 and FA4) belts. FA1 documented from the Basantpur Formation (lower part of the Simla Group) indicates evolution of a distally steepened carbonate ramp deposits) highly influenced by sea level fluctuations, where outer, mid and inner ramp sub environments were identified. This transition from inner-mid to outer ramp is marked by a distinct slope break that has been widely cited as an example of a distally steepened ramp. The Basantpur carbonate ramp represents two different systems tracts: TST and HST which developed at different stages of sea level fluctuations. FA2 manifested from the Kunihar Formation (uncorformably overlying the Basantpur Formation) indicates deposition in a rimmed shelf (rich in microbial activity) sub-environment and bears the signature of an HST. FA3 delineated from the Chhaosa Formation (unconformably overlying the Kunihar mixed siliciclastic carbonates, middle part of the Simla Group) provides an excellent example of tide- and wave influenced deltaic deposit (FA3) which is characterized by wave dominated shorefacies deposit in the lower part, sharply overlain by fluvio-tidal channel and/or estuarine bay successions in the middle part followed by a tide dominated muddy tidal flat in the upper part. Despite large-scale progradation, the Chhaosa deltaic deposits are volumetrically dominated by transgressive estuarine deposits. The transgressive deposits are overlain by highstand units which are characterized by muddy tidal flat deposit. The Sanjauli Formation (upper part of the Simla Basin) records a major marine regression leading to the shifting of the shoreline basinward thereby resulting in fluvial incision on the top of the Chhaosa deltaic succession. The development of a braided fluvial system (FA4) with prominent fluvial incision is marked by presence of conglomerate-sandstone facies associations. Prominent fluvial incision on top of the delta deposits indicates the presence of sub-aerial TYPE 1 unconformity. The fluvial deposits mark the closure of sedimentation in the Simla basin that evolved during high frequency periods of coastal progradation and retrogradation. Each of the depositional cycles represents shoreline regression followed by transgression which is bounded by flooding surfaces and further followed by regression. The proposed depositional model in the present work deals with lateral facies variation due to shift in shore line along with fluctuations in accommodation space on a wave-tide influenced depositional system owing to fluctuations of sea level. This model will probably find its applicability in similar depositional setups.

Keywords: proterozoic, carbonate ramp, tide dominated delta, braided fluvial system, TYPE 1 unconformity

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1 Optical Coherence Tomography in Differentiation of Acute and Non-Healing Wounds

Authors: Ananya Barui, Provas Banerjee, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee


Application of optical technology in medicine and biology has a long track-record. In this endeavor, OCT is able to attract both engineers and biologists to work together in the field of photonics for establishing a striking non-invasive imaging technology. In contrast to other in vivo imaging modalities like Raman imaging, confocal imaging, two-photon microscopy etc. which can perform in vivo imaging upto 100-200 micron depth due to limitation in numerical aperture or scattering, however, OCT can achieve high-resolution imaging upto few millimeters of tissue structures depending on their refractive index in different anatomical location. This tomographic system depends on interference of two light waves in an interferometer to produce a depth profile of specimen. In wound healing, frequent collection of biopsies for follow-up of repair process could be avoided by such imaging technique. Real time skin OCT (the optical biopsy) has efficacy in deeper and faster illumination of cutaneou tissue to acquire high resolution cross sectional images of their internal micro-structure. Swept Source-OCT (SS-OCT), a novel imaging technique, can generate high-speed depth profile (~ 2 mm) of wound at a sweeping rate of laser with micron level resolution and optimum coherent length of 5-6 mm. Normally multi-layered skin tissue depicts different optical properties along with variation in thickness, refractive index and composition (i.e. keratine layer, water, fat etc.) according to their anatomical location. For instance, stratum corneum, the upper-most and relatively dehydrated layer of epidermis reflects more light and produces more lucid and a sharp demarcation line with rest of the hydrated epidermal region. During wound healing or regeneration, optical properties of cutaneous tissue continuously altered with maturation of wound bed. More mature and less hydrated tissue component reflects more light and becomes visible as a brighter area in comparison to immature region which content higher amount water or fat that depicts as a darker area in OCT image. Non-healing wound possess prolonged inflammation and inhibits nascent proliferative stage. Accumulation of necrotic tissues also prevents the repair of non-healing wounds. Due to high resolution and potentiality to reflect the compositional aspects of tissues in terms of their optical properties, this tomographic method may facilitate in differentiating non-healing and acute wounds in addition to clinical observations. Non-invasive OCT offers better insight regarding specific biological status of tissue in health and pathological conditions, OCT images could be associated with histo-pathological ‘gold standard’. This correlated SS-OCT and microscopic evaluation of the wound edges can provide information regarding progressive healing and maturation of the epithelial components. In the context of searching analogy between two different imaging modalities, their relative performances in imaging of healing bed were estimated for probing an alternative approach. Present study validated utility of SS-OCT in revealing micro-anatomic structure in the healing bed with newer information. Exploring precise correspondence of OCT images features with histo-chemical findings related to epithelial integrity of the regenerated tissue could have great implication. It could establish the ‘optical biopsy’ as a potent non-invasive diagnostic tool for cutaneous pathology.

Keywords: histo-pathology, non invasive imaging, OCT, wound healing

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