Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: cryptic lineage

58 Cytochrome B Marker Reveals Three Distinct Genetic Lineages of the Oriental Latrine Fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia

Authors: Rajagopal Kavitha, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, Mohd Yusof Farida Zuraina, Mohd Salleh Ahmad Firdaus, Navaratnam Shanti, Abdul Haiyee Zaibunnisa

Abstract:

This study investigated the hidden genetic lineages in the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) across four states (i.e., Johore, Pahang, Perak and Selangor) and a federal territory (i.e., Kuala Lumpur) in Malaysia using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) genetic marker. The Cyt b phylogenetic tree and haplotype network revealed three distinct genetic lineages of Ch. megacephala. Lineage A, the basal clade was restricted to flies that originated from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, while Lineages B and C, comprised of flies from all studied populations. An overlap of the three genetically divergent groups of Ch. megacephala was observed. However, the flies from both Kuala Lumpur and Selangor populations consisted of three different lineages, indicating that they are genetically diverse compared to those from Pahang, Perak and Johore.

Keywords: forensic entomology, calliphoridae, mitochondrial DNA, cryptic lineage

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57 Drug Susceptibility and Genotypic Assessment of Mycobacterial Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in North East Ethiopia

Authors: Minwuyelet Maru, Solomon Habtemariam, Endalamaw Gadissa, Abraham Aseffa

Abstract:

Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The burden of TB is aggravated by emergence and expansion of drug resistant tuberculosis and different lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) have been reported in many parts of the country. Describing strains of Mycobacterial isolates and drug susceptibility pattern is necessary. Method: Sputum samples were collected from smear positive pulmonary TB patients age >= 7 years between October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013 and Mycobacterial strains isolated on Loweensten Jensen (LJ) media. Each strain was characterized by deletion typing and Spoligotyping. Drug sensitivity testing was determined with the indirect proportion method using Middle brook 7H10 media and association to determine possible risk factors to drug resistance was done. Result: A total of 144 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were enrolled. The age of participants ranged from 7 to 78 with mean age of 29.22 (±10.77) years. In this study 82.2% (n=97) of the isolates were sensitive to the four first line anti-tuberculosis drugs and resistance to any of the four drugs tested was 17.8% (n=21). A high frequency of any resistance was observed in isoniazid, 13.6%, (n=16) followed by streptomycin, 11.8% (n=14). No significant association of isoniazid resistance with HIV, sex and history of previous TB treatment was observed but there was significant association with age, high between 31-35 years of age (p=0.01). Majority, 89.9% (n=128) of participants were new cases and only 11.1% (n=16) had history of previous TB treatment. No MDR-TB from new cases and 2 MDRTB (13.3%) was isolated from re-treatment cases which was significantly associated with previous TB treatment (p<0.01). Thirty two different types of spoligotype patterns were identified and 74.1% were grouped in to 13 clusters. The dominant strains were SIT 25, 18.1% (n=21), SIT 53, 17.2% (n=20) and SIT 149, 8.6% (n=10). Lineage 4 is the predominant lineage followed by lineage 3 and lineage 7 comprising 65.5% (n=76), 28.4% (n=33) and 6% (n=7) respectively. Majority of strains from lineage 3 and 4 were SIT 25 (63.6%) and SIT 53 (26.3%) whereas SIT 343 was the dominant strain from lineage 7 (71.4%). Conclusion: Wide spread of lineage 3 and lineage 4 of the modern lineage and high number of strain cluster indicates high ongoing transmission. The high proportion resistance to any of the first line anti-tuberculosis drugs may be a potential source in the emergence of MDR-TB. Wide spread of SIT 25 and SIT 53 having a tendency of ease transmission and presence of higher resistance of isoniazid in working and mobile age group, 31-35 years of age may increase risk of drug resistant strains transmission.

Keywords: tuberculosis, drug susceptibility, strain diversity, lineage, Ethiopia, spoligotyping

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56 Computational Approaches to Study Lineage Plasticity in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Almudena Espin Perez, Tyler Risom, Carl Pelz, Isabel English, Robert M. Angelo, Rosalie Sears, Andrew J. Gentles

Abstract:

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most deadly malignancies. The role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is gaining significant attention in cancer research. Despite ongoing efforts, the nature of the interactions between tumors, immune cells, and stromal cells remains poorly understood. The cell-intrinsic properties that govern cell lineage plasticity in PDAC and extrinsic influences of immune populations require technically challenging approaches due to the inherently heterogeneous nature of PDAC. Understanding the cell lineage plasticity of PDAC will improve the development of novel strategies that could be translated to the clinic. Members of the team have demonstrated that the acquisition of ductal to neuroendocrine lineage plasticity in PDAC confers therapeutic resistance and is a biomarker of poor outcomes in patients. Our approach combines computational methods for deconvolving bulk transcriptomic cancer data using CIBERSORTx and high-throughput single-cell imaging using Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) to study lineage plasticity in PDAC and its relationship to the infiltrating immune system. The CIBERSORTx algorithm uses signature matrices from immune cells and stroma from sorted and single-cell data in order to 1) infer the fractions of different immune cell types and stromal cells in bulked gene expression data and 2) impute a representative transcriptome profile for each cell type. We studied a unique set of 300 genomically well-characterized primary PDAC samples with rich clinical annotation. We deconvolved the PDAC transcriptome profiles using CIBERSORTx, leveraging publicly available single-cell RNA-seq data from normal pancreatic tissue and PDAC to estimate cell type proportions in PDAC, and digitally reconstruct cell-specific transcriptional profiles from our study dataset. We built signature matrices and optimized by simulations and comparison to ground truth data. We identified cell-type-specific transcriptional programs that contribute to cancer cell lineage plasticity, especially in the ductal compartment. We also studied cell differentiation hierarchies using CytoTRACE and predict cell lineage trajectories for acinar and ductal cells that we believe are pinpointing relevant information on PDAC progression. Collaborators (Angelo lab, Stanford University) has led the development of the Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) platform for spatial proteomics. We will use in the very near future MIBI from tissue microarray of 40 PDAC samples to understand the spatial relationship between cancer cell lineage plasticity and stromal cells focused on infiltrating immune cells, using the relevant markers of PDAC plasticity identified from the RNA-seq analysis.

Keywords: deconvolution, imaging, microenvironment, PDAC

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55 RAD-Seq Data Reveals Evidence of Local Adaptation between Upstream and Downstream Populations of Australian Glass Shrimp

Authors: Sharmeen Rahman, Daniel Schmidt, Jane Hughes

Abstract:

Paratya australiensis Kemp (Decapoda: Atyidae) is a widely distributed indigenous freshwater shrimp, highly abundant in eastern Australia. This species has been considered as a model stream organism to study genetics, dispersal, biology, behaviour and evolution in Atyids. Paratya has a filter feeding and scavenging habit which plays a significant role in the formation of lotic community structure. It has been shown to reduce periphyton and sediment from hard substrates of coastal streams and hence acts as a strongly-interacting ecosystem macroconsumer. Besides, Paratya is one of the major food sources for stream dwelling fishes. Paratya australiensis is a cryptic species complex consisting of 9 highly divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages. Among them, one lineage has been observed to favour upstream sites at higher altitudes, with cooler water temperatures. This study aims to identify local adaptation in upstream and downstream populations of this lineage in three streams in the Conondale Range, North-eastern Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Two populations (up and down stream) from each stream have been chosen to test for local adaptation, and a parallel pattern of adaptation is expected across all streams. Six populations each consisting of 24 individuals were sequenced using the Restriction Site Associated DNA-seq (RAD-seq) technique. Genetic markers (SNPs) were developed using double digest RAD sequencing (ddRAD-seq). These were used for de novo assembly of Paratya genome. De novo assembly was done using the STACKs program and produced 56, 344 loci for 47 individuals from one stream. Among these individuals, 39 individuals shared 5819 loci, and these markers are being used to test for local adaptation using Fst outlier tests (Arlequin) and Bayesian analysis (BayeScan) between up and downstream populations. Fst outlier test detected 27 loci likely to be under selection and the Bayesian analysis also detected 27 loci as under selection. Among these 27 loci, 3 loci showed evidence of selection at a significance level using BayeScan program. On the other hand, up and downstream populations are strongly diverged at neutral loci with a Fst =0.37. Similar analysis will be done with all six populations to determine if there is a parallel pattern of adaptation across all streams. Furthermore, multi-locus among population covariance analysis will be done to identify potential markers under selection as well as to compare single locus versus multi-locus approaches for detecting local adaptation. Adaptive genes identified in this study can be used for future studies to design primers and test for adaptation in related crustacean species.

Keywords: Paratya australiensis, rainforest streams, selection, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs)

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54 One Species into Five: Nucleo-Mito Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Species in 'Frankliniella Schultzei Complex': Vector for Tospoviruses

Authors: Vikas Kumar, Kailash Chandra, Kaomud Tyagi

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The insect order Thysanoptera includes small insects commonly called thrips. As insect vectors, only thrips are capable of Tospoviruses transmission (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) affecting various crops. Currently, fifteen species of subfamily Thripinae (Thripidae) have been reported as vectors for tospoviruses. Frankliniella schultzei, which is reported as act as a vector for at least five tospovirses, have been suspected to be a species complex with more than one species. It is one of the historical unresolved issues where, two species namely, F. schultzei Trybom and F. sulphurea Schmutz were erected from South Africa and Srilanaka respectively. These two species were considered to be valid until 1968 when sulphurea was treated as colour morph (pale form) and synonymised under schultzei (dark form) However, these two have been considered as valid species by some of the thrips workers. Parallel studies have indicated that brown form of schultzei is a vector for tospoviruses while yellow form is a non-vector. However, recent studies have shown that yellow populations have also been documented as vectors. In view of all these facts, it is highly important to have a clear understanding whether these colour forms represent true species or merely different populations with different vector carrying capacities and whether there is some hidden diversity in 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex'. In this study, we aim to study the 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex' with molecular spectacles with DNA data from India and Australia and Africa. A total of fifty-five specimens was collected from diverse locations in India and Australia. We generated molecular data using partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (mtCOI) and 28S rRNA gene. For COI dataset, there were seventy-four sequences, out of which data on fifty-five was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. All the four different tree construction methods: neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, yielded the same tree topology and produced five cryptic species with high genetic divergence. For, rDNA, there were forty-five sequences, out of which data on thirty-nine was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. The four tree building methods yielded four cryptic species with high bootstrap support value/posterior probability. Here we could not retrieve one cryptic species from South Africa as we could not generate data on rDNA from South Africa and sequence for rDNA from African region were not available in the database. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (barcode index numbers, automatic barcode gap discovery, general mixed Yule-coalescent, and Poisson-tree-processes) also supported the phylogenetic data and produced 5 and 4 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) for mtCOI and 28S dataset respectively. These results of our study indicate the likelihood that F. sulphurea may be a valid species, however, more morphological and molecular data is required on specimens from type localities of these two species and comparison with type specimens.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, species complex, thrips, species delimitation

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53 Effect of Spermatogenic Lineage Differentiated Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treatment of Rat Testis after Cyclophosphamide Injection

Authors: Ranya M. Abdelgalil, Mona A. A. Arafa, Reem H. Shaker, Hala G. Metwally

Abstract:

This study is aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of differentiated adipose tissue- mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on rat testis after the adverse effects induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), an anticancer drug. To achieve this target, twenty-seven adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned into three groups (n = 9 each). The 1st group received no treatment (control group), the 2nd group received an intra-peritoneal injection of 50 mg/kg/day cyclophosphamide for 15 consecutive days (CP group) and the 3rd group received the same dose of (CP group) then received 1 ml intra-testicular injection containing one million spermatogenic lineage differentiated human AT-MSCs suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and nutritive serum (AT-MSCs group). The body weight and testicular weight and volume were measured. The level of testosterone hormone and FSH as well as the sperm count and motility, and DNA concentration, were analyzed. Histological (H&E, Prussian blue) and immunohistochemical (PCNA, Bcl-2) staining of the testis were performed to reveal the changes of testicular structure, homing of AT-MSCs, proliferating cells, and apoptotic cells, respectively. The mean area percentage of positive immunostaining for PCNA and Bcl2 were measured. The CP group revealed a significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and volume, sperm count and motility, T level and DNA concentration, while FSH level was significantly increased. The structure of the testis was markedly affected. The mean area % of positive staining of PCNA and Bcl-2 was decreased. All previously mentioned findings were almost retrieved in AT-MSCs treated group. These results conclusively provided experimental evidence of using AT-MSCs in the amelioration of testicular adverse effects induced by CP and may be useful for future regenerative medicine and clinical applications.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, human adipose tissue, cyclophosphamide, adverse effects, testis, histology

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52 Identifying Apis millefera Strains in Akkar District (North Lebanon) Using Mitochondrial DNA: A Step in Preserving the Local Strain A. m. Syriaca

Authors: Zeina Nasr, Bashar Merheb

Abstract:

The honey bee is a social insect that had driven the human interest much more than any other organism. Beekeeping practices dated the appearance of Man on earth and now it provides a hobby or a secondary work that contributes to the family revenue and requires a little time engagement and money investment. Honey production is not the only contribution of honey bees to the economy, since honey bees play an important role in the pollination. Bee keeping in Lebanon is an important part of the agricultural economy. However, a growing concern about bees is spreading globally, due to an accelerated decline of bees colonies. This raises the alert to preserve and protect local bee strains against uncontrolled introduction of foreign strains and invasive parasitic species. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers are commonly used in studying genetic variation in the Apis mellifera species. The DraI-COI-COII test is based on the analysis of the intergenic region between the two genes COI and COII. The different honey bee strains differ in the presence or absence of the p sequence and the number of Q sequences present. A. m. syriaca belonging to the lineage Z, is the native honey bee subspecies in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine. A. m. syriaca is known for its high defensiveness, even though it has many important advantages. However, commercial breeder strains, such as the Italian (A. m. ligustica), and Carniolan (A. m. carnica) strains, have been introduced by beekeepers and regularly used for honey production. This raises worries about the disappearance of the local subspecies. It is obvious that identifying A. m. syriaca colonies and protecting them against uncontrolled mating with other bee strains is a crucial step to protect and improve the original local strain. This study aims to reveal the existing sub-species of honey bee in Akkar – Lebanon and to assess the influence of introgression on the hybridization of the local strain. This will help to identify areas of pure A.m. syriaca population over this district to be considered in choosing syriaca reserves. We collected samples of bees from different regions of Akkar district in order to perform mtDNA analysis. We determined the restriction fragments length of the intergenic region COI-COII, using the restriction enzyme DraI. The results showed both the C and the Z lineages. Four restriction patterns were identified among the restriction maps of the studied samples. The most abundant mitochondrial lineage is the Z lineage constituting about 60% of the identified samples. Al-Dreib region reported the lowest introgression with foreign mtDNA of 21% making it the most suitable area for a genetic reserve of syriaca in Akkar based on its lowest introgression and suitable environment in addition to the attitude of local beekeepers to conserve the local strain. Finally, this study is the first step in constructing conservation programs for the preservation of the local strain and should be generalized to the whole Lebanese population, consistent with the effort done in neighboring countries.

Keywords: Akkar Lebanon, Apis millefera syriaca, DraI-COI-COII test, mitochondrial DNA

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51 Sri Aurobindo's Views on Heraclitus' Philosophy: A Synthesis

Authors: Kamaladevi Kunkolienker

Abstract:

This paper appreciates the stimulating and thought-provoking synthesis of Heraclitus’ philosophy offered by Sri Aurobindo. The deep philosophical insights of Heraclitus expressed in aphoristic and cryptic form inspired him and supported his system of Integral Yoga. An attempt is made to reconstruct and synthesize Eastern and Western philosophical insights through hermeneutical treatment of many concepts. Aurobindo points out the sameness and kinship between Heraclitus’ thought and concepts from Vedic and upanishadic texts with illustrations and thus undertakes the task of synthesizing them. This fruitful synthesis also brings out the scientific perspective of Heraclitus’ thought and showcases it as a rare flowering of philosophy. It also enables the thinkers to reflect, reinterpret and synthesize such philosophies to bring out their significance in post-modern philosophy and science.

Keywords: all, change, fire, one

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50 Clinical Presentation and Immune Response to Intramammary Infection of Holstein-Friesian Heifers with Isolates from Two Staphylococcus aureus Lineages

Authors: Dagmara A. Niedziela, Mark P. Murphy, Orla M. Keane, Finola C. Leonard

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent cause of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis in Ireland. Mastitis caused by S. aureus is often chronic and tends to recur after antibiotic treatment. This may be due to several virulence factors, including attributes that enable the bacterium to internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells, where it may evade antibiotic treatment, or evade the host immune response. Four bovine-adapted lineages (CC71, CC97, CC151 and ST136) were identified among a collection of Irish S. aureus mastitis isolates. Genotypic variation of mastitis-causing strains may contribute to different presentations of the disease, including differences in milk somatic cell count (SCC), the main method of mastitis detection. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of bacterial strain and lineage on host immune response, by employing cell culture methods in vitro as well as an in vivo infection model. Twelve bovine adapted S. aureus strains were examined for internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and their ability to induce an immune response from bMEC (using qPCR and ELISA). In vitro studies found differences in a variety of virulence traits between the lineages. Strains from lineages CC97 and CC71 internalized more efficiently into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) than CC151 and ST136. CC97 strains also induced immune genes in bMEC more strongly than strains from the other 3 lineages. One strain each of CC151 and CC97 that differed in their ability to cause an immune response in bMEC were selected on the basis of the above in vitro experiments. Fourteen first-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were purchased from 2 farms on the basis of low SCC (less than 50 000 cells/ml) and infection free status. Seven cows were infected with 1.73 x 102 c.f.u. of the CC97 strain (Group 1) and another seven with 5.83 x 102 c.f.u. of the CC151 strain (Group 2). The contralateral quarter of each cow was inoculated with PBS (vehicle). Clinical signs of infection (temperature, milk and udder appearance, milk yield) were monitored for 30 days. Blood and milk samples were taken to determine bacterial counts in milk, SCC, white blood cell populations and cytokines. Differences in disease presentation in vivo between groups were observed, with two animals from Group 2 developing clinical mastitis and requiring antibiotic treatment, while one animal from Group 1 did not develop an infection for the duration of the study. Fever (temperature > 39.5⁰C) was observed in 3 animals from Group 2 and in none from Group 1. Significant differences in SCC and bacterial load between groups were observed in the initial stages of infection (week 1). Data is also being collected on cytokines and chemokines secreted during the course of infection. The results of this study suggest that a strain from lineage CC151 may cause more severe clinical mastitis, while a strain from lineage CC97 may cause mild, subclinical mastitis. Diversity between strains of S. aureus may therefore influence the clinical presentation of mastitis, which in turn may influence disease detection and treatment needs.

Keywords: Bovine mastitis, host immune response, host-pathogen interactions, Staphylococcus aureus

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49 Systematic Taxonomy and Phylogenetic of Commercial Fish Species of Family Nemipetridae from Malaysian Waters and Neighboring Seas

Authors: Ayesha Imtiaz, Darlina Md. Naim

Abstract:

Family Nemipteridae is among the most abundantly distributed family in Malaysian fish markets due to its high contribution to landing sites of Malaysia. Using an advanced molecular approach that used two mitochondrial (Cytochrome oxidase c I and Cytochrome oxidase b) and one nuclear gene (Recombination activating gene, RAGI) to expose cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among commercially important species of family Nemipteridae. Our research covered all genera (including 31 species out total 45 species) of family Nemipteridae, distributed in Malaysia. We also found certain type of geographical barriers in the South China sea that reduces dispersal and stops a few species to intermix. Northside of the South China Sea (near Vietnam) does not allow genetic diversity to mix with the Southern side of the South China sea (Sarawak) and reduces dispersal. Straits of Malacca reduce the intermixing genetic diversity of South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.

Keywords: Nemipteridae, RAG I, south east Asia, Malaysia

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48 Phylogenetic Inferences based on Morphoanatomical Characters in Plectranthus esculentus N. E. Br. (Lamiaceae) from Nigeria

Authors: Otuwose E. Agyeno, Adeniyi A. Jayeola, Bashir A. Ajala

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P. esculentus is indigenous to Nigeria yet no wild relation has been encountered or reported. This has made it difficult to establish proper lineages between the varieties and landraces under cultivation. The present work is the first to determine the apormophy of 135 morphoanatomical characters in organs of 46 accessions drawn from 23 populations of this species based on dicta. The character states were coded in accession x character-state matrices and only 83 were informative and utilised for neighbour joining clustering based on euclidean values, and heuristic search in parsimony analysis using PAST ver. 3.15 software. Compatibility and evolutionary trends between accessions were then explored from values and diagrams produced. The low consistency indices (CI) recorded support monophyly and low homoplasy in this taxon. Agglomerative schedules based on character type and source data sets divided the accessions into mainly 3 clades, each of complexes of accessions. Solenostemon rotundifolius (Poir) J.K Morton was the outgroup (OG) used, and it occurred within the largest clades except when the characters were combined in a data set. The OG showed better compatibility with accessions of populations of landrace Isci, and varieties Riyum and Long’at. Otherwise, its aerial parts are more consistent with those of accessions of variety Bebot. The highly polytomous clades produced due to anatomical data set may be an indication of how stable such characters are in this species. Strict consensus trees with more than 60 nodes outputted showed that the basal nodes were strongly supported by 3 to 17 characters across the data sets, suggesting that populations of this species are more alike. The OG was clearly the first diverging lineage and closely related to accessions of landrace Gwe and variety Bebot morphologically, but different from them anatomically. It was also distantly related to landrace Fina and variety Long’at in terms of root, stem and leaf structural attributes. There were at least 5 other clades with each comprising of complexes of accessions from different localities and terrains within the study area. Spherical stem in cross section, size of vascular bundles at the stem corners as well as the alternate and whorl phyllotaxy are attributes which may have facilitated each other’s evolution in all accessions of the landrace Gwe, and they may be innovative since such states are not characteristic of the larger Lamiaceae, and Plectranthus L’Her in particular. In conclusion, this study has provided valuable information about infraspecific diversity in this taxon. It supports recognition of the varietal statuses accorded to populations of P. esculentus, as well as the hypothesis that the wild gene might have been distributed on the Jos Plateau. However, molecular characterisation of accessions of populations of this species would resolve this problem better.

Keywords: clustering, lineage, morphoanatomical characters, Nigeria, phylogenetics, Plectranthus esculentus, population

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47 Jurrasic Deposit Ichnofossil Study of Cores from Bintuni Basin, Eastern Indonesia

Authors: Aswan Aswan

Abstract:

Ichnofossils were examined based on two wells cores of Jurassic sediment from Bintuni Basin, West Papua, Indonesia. The cores are the Jurassic interval and known as the potential reservoir interval in this area. Representative of 18 ichnogenera was recorded including forms assigned to Arenicolites, Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, cryptic bioturbation, Glossifungites, Lockeia, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhizocorallium, Rosselia, root structure, Skolithos, Teichicnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The two cores represent a depositional system that is dominated by tidal flat, shallow marine shelf continuum possibly crossed by estuaries or tidal shoals channels. From the first core identified two deepening cycles. The shallow one is a shallow marine with tidal influence while the deeper one attached to the shelf. Shallow interval usually indicates by appearances of Ophiomorpha and Glossifungites while the deeper shallow marine interval signs by the abundance of Phycosiphon. The second core reveals eight deepening cycles.

Keywords: ichnofossil, Jurassic, sediment, reservoir, Bintuni, Indonesia, West Papua

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46 Bifunctional Activity and Stability of Fused Plasmodium falciparum Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

Authors: Patsarawadee Paojinda, Waranya Imprasittichai, Sudaratana R. Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai

Abstract:

Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. Here, we produced gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT and expressed the bifunctional protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using affinity and anion-exchange chromatography, exhibited enzymatic activities and functioned as a dimer. The activities, although unstable, can be stabilized by its substrate and product during purification and long-term storage. Furthermore, the enzyme expressed a perfect catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). The kcat was selectively enhanced up to 3 orders of magnitude, while the Km was not much affected and remained at low µM levels when compared to the monofunctional enzymes. The fusion of the two enzymes, creating a “super-enzyme” with perfect catalytic power and more flexibility, reflects cryptic relationship of enzymatic reactivaties and metabolic functions on molecular evolution.

Keywords: bifunctional enzyme, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, plasmodium falciparum

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45 Performance Analysis of Domotics System as Real-Time Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

Authors: Dauda A. Oladosu, Kamorudeen A Olaiya, Abdurahman Bello

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The deployment of smart meters by utility providers to gather fine grained spatiotemporal consumption data has grossly influenced the consumers’ emotion and behavior towards energy utilization. The quest for reduction in power consumption is now a subject of concern and one the methods adopted by the consumers to achieve this is Non-intrusive Load (appliance) Monitoring. Hence, this work presents performance Analysis of Domotics System as a tool for load monitoring when integrated with Consumer Control Unit of residential building. The system was developed with basic elements which enhance remote sensing, DTMF (Dual Tone Multi-frequency) recognition and cryptic messaging when specific task was performed. To demonstrate its applicability and suitability, this prototype was used consistently for six months at different load demands and the utilities consumed were documented. The results obtained shows good response when phone dialed, and the packet delivery of feedback SMS was quite satisfactory, making the implemented system to be of good quality with affordable cost and performs the desired functions. Besides, comparative analysis showed notable reduction in energy consumption and invariably lessened electrical bill of the consumer.

Keywords: automation, domotics, energy, load, remote, schedule

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44 A Novel Co-Culture System for the Cementoblastic Differentiation of SHED

Authors: Manal Farea, Adam Husein, Ahmad S. Halim, Zurairah Berahim, Nurul A. Abdullah, Khairani I. Mokhtar, Kasmawati Mokhtar

Abstract:

Endodontic furcal perforation remains both an endodontic and a periodontal problem. Regeneration of cementum is very essential for the perforation repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells on the cementogenic differentiation of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in the presence of chitosan scaffold-TGFβ1. HERS cells were isolated and characterized then co-cultured with SHED with/without chitosan scaffold-TGFβ1. SHED proliferation was assessed by PrestoBlue. Alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization behaviour and gene/protein expression of cemento/osteoblast phenotype of SHED were evaluated. Results of the present study showed that HERS cells in association with chitosan-TGFβ1 enhanced proliferation and cemento/osteogenic differentiation of SHED. Our novel co-culture system confirmed the potential effect of HERS cells to stimulate the differentiation of SHED along the cementoblastic lineage which was triggered in the presence of chitosan-TGFβ1. This approach possesses a novel therapeutic strategy for future endodontic perforation and periodontitis.

Keywords: cementogenesis, co-culture system, HERS, SHED

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43 Targeting Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor ATF-Like Mediated Immune Cells Regulation to Reduce Crohn’s Disease Fistula Incidence

Authors: Mohammadjavad Sotoudeheian, Soroush Nematollahi

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Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic gastrointestinal segment inflammation encompassing immune dysregulation in a genetically susceptible individual in response to the environmental triggers and interaction between the microbiome and immune system. Uncontrolled inflammation leads to long-term complications, including fibrotic strictures and enteric fistulae. Increased production of Th1 and Th17-cell cytokines and defects in T-regulatory cells have been associated with CD. Th17-cells are essential for protection against extracellular pathogens, but their atypical activity can cause autoimmunity. Intrinsic defects in the control of programmed cell death in the mucosal T-cell compartment are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of CD. The apoptosis defect in mucosal T-cells in CD has been endorsed as an imbalance of the Bcl-2 and the Bax. The immune system encounters foreign antigens through microbial colonization of mucosal surfaces or infections. In addition, FOSL downregulated IL-26 expression, a cytokine that marks inflammatory Th17-populations in patients suffering from CD. Furthermore, the expression of IL-23 is associated with the transcription factor primary leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like (Batf). Batf-deficiency demonstrated the crucial role of Batf in colitis development. Batf and IL-23 mediate their effects by inducing IL-6 production. Strong association of IL-23R, Stat3, and Stat4 with IBD susceptibility point to a critical involvement of T-cells. IL-23R levels in transfer fistula were dependent on the AP-1 transcription factor JunB that additionally controlled levels of RORγt by facilitating DNA binding of Batf. T lymphocytes lacking JunB failed to induce IL-23- and Th17-mediated experimental colitis highlighting the relevance of JunB for the IL-23/ Th17 pathway. The absence of T-bet causes unrestrained Th17-cell differentiation. T-cells are central parts of immune-mediated colon fistula. Especially Th17-cells were highly prevalent in inflamed IBD tissues, as RORγt is effective in preventing colitis. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) contain unique T-cell subsets, including cells expressing RORγt. Increased activated Th17 and decreased T-regulatory cells in inflamed intestinal tissues had been seen. T-cells differentiate in response to many cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, and TGF-β, into Th17-cells, a process which is critically dependent on the Batf. IL-23 promotes Th17-cell in the colon. Batf manages the generation of IL-23 induced IL-23R+ Th17-cells. Batf is necessary for TGF-β/IL-6-induced Th17-polarization. Batf-expressing T-cells are the core of T-cell-mediated colitis. The human-specific parts of three AP-1 transcription factors, FOSL1, FOSL2, and BATF, are essential during the early stages of Th17 differentiation. BATF supports the Th17 lineage. FOSL1, FOSL2, and BATF make possession of regulatory loci of genes in the Th17 lineage cascade. The AP1 transcription factor Batf is identified to control intestinal inflammation and seems to regulate pathways within lymphocytes, which could theoretically control the expression of several genes. It shows central regulatory properties over Th17-cell development and is intensely upregulated within IBD-affected tissues. Here, we demonstrated that targeting Batf in IBD appears as a therapeutic approach that reduces colitogenic T-cell activities during fistula formation while aiming to affect inflammation in the gut epithelial cells.

Keywords: immune system, Crohn’s Disease, BATF, T helper cells, Bcl, interleukin, FOSL

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42 Preparedness and Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: Experiences from Northwestern Italy

Authors: Federica Verna, Alessandra Pautasso, Maria Caramelli, Cristiana Maurella, Walter Mignone, Cristina Casalone

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Mosquito-Borne Diseases (MBDs) are dangerously increasing in prevalence, geographical distribution and severity, representing an emerging threat for both humans and animals. Interaction between multiple disciplines is needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of MBDs, according to the One Health concept. This work reports the integrated surveillance system enforced by IZSPLV in Piedmont, Liguria and Valle d’Aosta regions (Northwestern Italy) in order to control MDBs spread. Veterinary services and local human health authority are involved in an information network, to connect the surveillance of human clinical cases with entomological surveillance and veterinary monitoring in order to implement control measures in case of outbreak. A systematic entomological surveillance is carried out during the vector season using mosquitoes traps located in sites selected according to risk factors. Collected mosquitoes are counted, identified to species level by morphological standard classification keys and pooled by collection site, date and species with a maximum of 100 individuals. Pools are analyzed, after RNA extraction, by Real Time RT-PCR distinctive for West Nile Virus (WNV) Lineage 1 and Lineage 2, Real Time RT-PCR USUTU virus (USUV) and a traditional flavivirus End-point RT-PCR. Positive pools are sequenced and the related sequences employed to perform a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) in the GenBank library. Positive samples are sent to the National Reference Centre for Animal Exotic Diseases (CESME, Teramo) for confirmation. With particular reference to WNV, after the confirmation, as provided by national legislation, control measures involving both local veterinary and human health services are activated: equine sera are randomly sampled within a 4 km radius from the positive collection sites and tested with ELISA kit and WNV NAT screening of blood donors is introduced. This surveillance network allowed to detect since 2011 USUV circulation in this area of Italy. WNV was detected in Piedmont and Liguria for the first time in 2014 in mosquitoes. During the 2015 vector season, we observed the expansion of its activity in Piedmont. The virus was detected in almost all Provinces both in mosquitoes (6 pools) and animals (19 equine sera, 4 birds). No blood bag tested resulted infected. The first neuroinvasive human case occurred too. Competent authorities should be aware of a potentially increased risk of MBDs activity during the 2016 vector season. This work shows that this surveillance network allowed to early detect the presence of MBDs in humans and animals, and provided useful information to public authorities, in order to apply control measures. Finally, an additional value of our diagnostic protocol is the ability to detect all viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family, considering the emergence caused by other Flaviviruses in humans such as the recent Zika virus infection in South America. Italy has climatic and environmental features conducive to Zika virus transmission, the competent vector and many travellers from Brazil reported every year.

Keywords: integrated surveillance, mosquito borne disease, West Nile virus, Zika virus

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41 Women's Rights in the Constitution of Nepal: 2015

Authors: Sudir Silwal, Surendra KC

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Nepalese legal system was derived from Hindu sacred before the democratic movement in 1990. Before this movement, Nepal had a patrimonial system. Nepal has ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Women organizations of the various political parties, different social organizations and women activists are playing the significant role to empower the women through the social awareness campaign across the country. As a result, 33% women representation in the local government has ascertained by the current constitution. The Constitution of Nepal-2015 has mentioned the rights of women as a fundamental right and it also has provisioned the National Women Commission as the constitutional body. This constitution is the model of gender friendly constitution in the world. As per this constitution, the Citizenship certificate is issued based on the lineage of the mother or father along with gender identity. The current constitution has guaranteed 33% women participation in judiciary, bureaucracy and legislation. This constitution further states that the parliament must elect a woman either as the president or the vice president. Similarly same rule is applied to elect the speaker and the deputy speaker in the parliament. In the same constitution, rights of the third gender also has guaranteed. The guiding principles of the constitution further explain that the constitution has followed the rule of positive discrimination and proportional representation of women in all elements of the state. This study shows that the state is not only focused in the representation of women in all structure of the nation but also need to emphasize the enhancement of the capability of the women to make them equal to the men.

Keywords: constitution, empowerment, representation, women's rights

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40 Systematics of Water Lilies (Genus Nymphaea L.) Using 18S rDNA Sequences

Authors: M. Nakkuntod, S. Srinarang, K.W. Hilu

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Water lily (Nymphaea L.) is the largest genus of Nymphaeaceae. This family is composed of six genera (Nuphar, Ondinea, Euryale, Victoria, Barclaya, Nymphaea). Its members are nearly worldwide in tropical and temperate regions. The classification of some species in Nymphaea is ambiguous due to high variation in leaf and flower parts such as leaf margin, stamen appendage. Therefore, the phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rDNA were constructed to delimit this genus. DNAs of 52 specimens belonging to water lily family were extracted using modified conventional method containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The results showed that the amplified fragment is about 1600 base pairs in size. After analysis, the aligned sequences presented 9.36% for variable characters comprising 2.66% of parsimonious informative sites and 6.70% of singleton sites. Moreover, there are 6 regions of 1-2 base(s) for insertion/deletion. The phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with high bootstrap support indicated that genus Nymphaea was a paraphyletic group because of Ondinea, Victoria and Euryale disruption. Within genus Nymphaea, subgenus Nymphaea is a basal lineage group which cooperated with Euryale and Victoria. The other four subgenera, namely Lotos, Hydrocallis, Brachyceras and Anecphya were included the same large clade which Ondinea was placed within Anecphya clade due to geographical sharing.

Keywords: nrDNA, phylogeny, taxonomy, waterlily

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39 The Aesthetics of Time in Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Reappraisal of the Eternal Recurrence of the Same

Authors: Melanie Tang

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According to Nietzsche, the eternal recurrence is his most important idea. However, it is perhaps his most cryptic and difficult to interpret. Early readings considered it as a cosmological hypothesis about the cyclic nature of time. However, following Nehamas’s ‘Life as Literature’ (1985), it has become a widespread interpretation that the eternal recurrence never really had any theoretical dimensions, and is not actually a philosophy of time, but a practical thought experiment intended to measure the extent to which we have mastered and perfected our lives. This paper endeavours to challenge this line of thought becoming scholarly consensus, and to carry out a more complex analysis of the eternal recurrence as it is presented in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. In its wider scope, this research proposes that Thus Spoke Zarathustra — as opposed to The Birth of Tragedy — be taken as the primary source for a study of Nietzsche’s Aesthetics, due to its more intrinsic aesthetic qualities and expressive devices. The eternal recurrence is the central philosophy of a work that communicates its ideas in unprecedentedly experimental and aesthetic terms, and a more in-depth understanding of why Nietzsche chooses to present his conception of time in aesthetic terms is warranted. Through hermeneutical analysis of Thus Spoke Zarathustra and engagement with secondary sources such as those by Nehamas, Karl Löwith, and Jill Marsden, the present analysis challenges the ethics of self-perfection upon which current interpretations of the recurrence are based, as well as their reliance upon a linear conception of time. Instead, it finds the recurrence to be a cyclic interplay between the self and the world, rather than a metric pertaining solely to the self. In this interpretation, time is found to be composed of an intertemporal rather than linear multitude of will to power, which structures itself through tensional cycles into an experience of circular time that can be seen to have aesthetic dimensions. In putting forth this understanding of the eternal recurrence, this research hopes to reopen debate on this key concept in the field of Nietzsche studies.

Keywords: Nietzsche, eternal recurrence, Zarathustra, aesthetics, time

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38 Lightweight and Seamless Distributed Scheme for the Smart Home

Authors: Muhammad Mehran Arshad Khan, Chengliang Wang, Zou Minhui, Danyal Badar Soomro

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Security of the smart home in terms of behavior activity pattern recognition is a totally dissimilar and unique issue as compared to the security issues of other scenarios. Sensor devices (low capacity and high capacity) interact and negotiate each other by detecting the daily behavior activity of individuals to execute common tasks. Once a device (e.g., surveillance camera, smart phone and light detection sensor etc.) is compromised, an adversary can then get access to a specific device and can damage daily behavior activity by altering the data and commands. In this scenario, a group of common instruction processes may get involved to generate deadlock. Therefore, an effective suitable security solution is required for smart home architecture. This paper proposes seamless distributed Scheme which fortifies low computational wireless devices for secure communication. Proposed scheme is based on lightweight key-session process to upheld cryptic-link for trajectory by recognizing of individual’s behavior activities pattern. Every device and service provider unit (low capacity sensors (LCS) and high capacity sensors (HCS)) uses an authentication token and originates a secure trajectory connection in network. Analysis of experiments is revealed that proposed scheme strengthens the devices against device seizure attack by recognizing daily behavior activities, minimum utilization memory space of LCS and avoids network from deadlock. Additionally, the results of a comparison with other schemes indicate that scheme manages efficiency in term of computation and communication.

Keywords: authentication, key-session, security, wireless sensors

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37 Role of Interleukin 6 on Cell Differentiations in Stem Cells Isolated from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth

Authors: Nunthawan Nowwarote, Waleerat Sukarawan, Prasit Pavasant, Thanaphum Osathanon

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Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine, regulating various biological responses in several tissues. A Recent study shows that IL-6 plays a role in stemness maintenance in stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). However, the role of IL-6 on cell differentiation in SHEDs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effect of IL-6 on SHEDs differentiation. Cells were isolated from dental pulp tissues of human deciduous teeth. Flow cytometry was used to determined mesenchymal stem cell marker expression, and the multipotential differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic lineage ) was also determined. The mRNA was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the phenotypes were confirmed by chemical and immunofluorescence staining. Results demonstrated that SHEDs expressed CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 but not CD45. Further, the up-regulation of osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic marker genes was observed upon maintaining cells in osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic induction medium, respectively. The addition of IL-6 induced osteogenic by up-regulated osteogenic marker gene also increased in vitro mineralization. Under neurogenic medium supplement with IL-6, up-regulated neurogenic marker. Whereas, an addition of IL-6 attenuated adipogenic differentiation by SHEDs. In conclusion, this evidence implies that IL-6 may participate in cells differentiation ability of SHEDs.

Keywords: SHEDs, IL-6, cell differentiations, dental pulp

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36 Reassembling a Fragmented Border Landscape at Crossroads: Indigenous Rights, Rural Sustainability, Regional Integration and Post-Colonial Justice in Hong Kong

Authors: Chiu-Yin Leung

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This research investigates a complex assemblage among indigenous identities, socio-political organization and national apparatus in the border landscape of post-colonial Hong Kong. This former British colony had designated a transient mode of governance in its New Territories and particularly the northernmost borderland in 1951-2012. With a discriminated system of land provisions for the indigenous villagers, the place has been inherited with distinctive village-based culture, historic monuments and agrarian practices until its sovereignty return into the People’s Republic of China. In its latest development imperatives by the national strategic planning, the frontier area of Hong Kong has been identified as a strategy site for regional economic integration in South China, with cross-border projects of innovation and technology zones, mega-transport infrastructure and inter-jurisdictional arrangement. Contemporary literature theorizes borders as the material and discursive production of territoriality, which manifest in state apparatus and the daily lives of its citizens and condense in the contested articulations of power, security and citizenship. Drawing on the concept of assemblage, this paper attempts to tract how the border regime and infrastructure in Hong Kong as a city are deeply ingrained in the everyday lived spaces of the local communities but also the changing urban and regional strategies across different longitudinal moments. Through an intensive ethnographic fieldwork among the borderland villages since 2008 and the extensive analysis of colonial archives, new development plans and spatial planning frameworks, the author navigates the genealogy of the border landscape in Ta Kwu Ling frontier area and its implications as the milieu for new state space, covering heterogeneous fields particularly in indigenous rights, heritage preservation, rural sustainability and regional economy. Empirical evidence suggests an apparent bias towards indigenous power and colonial representation in classifying landscape values and conserving historical monuments. Squatter and farm tenants are often deprived of property rights, statutory participation and livelihood option in the planning process. The postcolonial bureaucracies have great difficulties in mobilizing resources to catch up with the swift, political-first approach of the mainland counterparts. Meanwhile, the cultural heritage, lineage network and memory landscape are not protected altogether with any holistic view or collaborative effort across the border. The enactment of land resumption and compensation scheme is furthermore disturbed by lineage-based customary law, technocratic bureaucracy, intra-community conflicts and multi-scalar political mobilization. As many traces of colonial misfortune and tyranny have been whitewashed without proper management, the author argues that postcolonial justice is yet reconciled in this fragmented border landscape. The assemblage of border in mainstream representation has tended to oversimplify local struggles as a collective mist and setup a wider production of schizophrenia experiences in the discussion of further economic integration among Hong Kong and other mainland cities in the Pearl River Delta Region. The research is expected to shed new light on the theorizing of border regions and postcolonialism beyond Eurocentric perspectives. In reassembling the borderland experiences with other arrays in state governance, village organization and indigenous identities, the author also suggests an alternative epistemology in reconciling socio-spatial differences and opening up imaginaries for positive interventions.

Keywords: heritage conservation, indigenous communities, post-colonial borderland, regional development, rural sustainability

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35 The Advantages of Using DNA-Barcoding for Determining the Fraud in Seafood

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan

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Although seafood is an important part of human diet and categorized highly traded food industry internationally, it is remain overlooked generally in the global food security aspect. Food product authentication is the main interest in the aim of both avoids commercial fraud and to consider the risks that might be harmful to human health safety. In recent years, with increasing consumer demand for regarding food content and it's transparency, there are some instrumental analyses emerging for determining food fraud depend on some analytical methodologies such as proteomic and metabolomics. While, fish and seafood consumed as fresh previously, within advanced technology, processed or packaged seafood consumption have increased. After processing or packaging seafood, morphological identification is impossible when some of the external features have been removed. The main fish and seafood quality-related issues are the authentications of seafood contents such as mislabelling products which may be contaminated and replacement partly or completely, by lower quality or cheaper ones. For all mentioned reasons, truthful consistent and easily applicable analytical methods are needed for assurance the correct labelling and verifying of seafood products. DNA-barcoding methods become popular robust that used in taxonomic research for endangered or cryptic species in recent years; they are used for determining food traceability also. In this review, when comparing the other proteomic and metabolic analysis, DNA-based methods are allowing a chance to identification all type of food even as raw, spiced and processed products. This privilege caused by DNA is a comparatively stable molecule than protein and other molecules. Furthermore showing variations in sequence based on different species and founding in all organisms, make DNA-based analysis more preferable. This review was performed to clarify the main advantages of using DNA-barcoding for determining seafood fraud among other techniques.

Keywords: DNA-barcoding, genetic analysis, food fraud, mislabelling, packaged seafood

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34 Ecosystem Engineering Strengthens Bottom-Up and Weakens Top-Down Effects via Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions

Authors: Zhiwei Zhong, Xiaofei Li, Deli Wang

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Ecosystem engineering is a powerful force shaping community structure and ecosystem function. Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms by which engineers affect vital ecosystem processes like trophic interactions. Here, we examine the potential for a herbivore ecosystem engineer, domestic sheep, to affect trophic interactions between the web-building spider Argiope bruennichi, its grasshopper prey Euchorthippus spp., and the grasshoppers’ host plant Leymus chinensis. By integrating small- and large-scale field experiments, we demonstrate that: 1) moderate sheep grazing changed the structure of plant communities by suppressing strongly interacting forbs within a grassland matrix; 2) this change in plant community structure drove interaction modifications between the grasshoppers and their grass host plants and between grasshoppers and their spider predators, and 3) these interaction modifications were entirely mediated by plasticity in grasshopper behavior. Overall, ecosystem engineering by sheep grazing strengthened bottom-up effects and weakened top-down effects via trait-mediated interactions, resulting in a nearly two-fold increase in grasshopper densities. Interestingly, the grasshopper behavioral shifts which reduced spider per capita predation rates in the microcosms did not translate to reduced spider predation rates at the larger system scale because increased grasshopper densities offset behavioral effects at larger scales. Our findings demonstrate that 1) ecosystem engineering can strongly alter trophic interactions, 2) such effects can be driven by cryptic trait-mediated interactions, and 3) the relative importance of trait- versus density effects as measured by microcosm experiments may not reflect the importance of these processes at realistic ecological scales due to scale-dependent interactions.

Keywords: bottom-up effects, ecosystem engineering, trait-mediated indirect effects, top-down effects

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33 The Four-Way Interactions among Host Plant-Whitefly-Virus-Endosymbionts in Insect and Disease Development

Authors: N. R. Prasannakumar, M. N. Maruthi

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The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera; Aleyrodidae) is a highly polyphagous pest reported to infest over 600 plant hosts globally. About 42 genetic groups/cryptic species of B. tabaci exist in the world on different hosts. The species have variable behaviour with respect to feeding, development and transmission of viral diseases. Feeding on diverse host plants affect both whitefly development and the population of the endosymbionts harboured by the insects. Due to changes in the level of endosymbionts, the virus transmission efficiency by the vector also gets affected. We investigated these interactions on five host plants – egg plant, tomato, beans, okra and cotton - using a single whitefly species Asia 1 infected with three different bacteria Portiera, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus. The Asia 1 transmits the Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus (ToLCBV) effectively and thus was used in the interaction studies. We found a significant impact of hosts on whitefly growth and development; eggplant was most favourable host, while okra and tomato were least favourable. Among the endosymbiotic bacteria, the titre of Wolbachia was significantly affected by feeding of B. tabaci on different host plants whereas Arsenophonus and Portiera were unaffected. When whitefly fed on ToLCBV-infected tomato plants, the Arsenophonus population was significantly increased, indicating its previously confirmed role in ToLCBV transmission. Further, screening of total proteins of B. tabaci Asia 1 genetic group interacting with ToLCBV coat protein was carried out using Y2H system. Some of the proteins found to be interacting with ToLCBV CP were HSPs 70kDa, GroEL, nucleoproteins, vitellogenins, apolipophorins, lachesins, enolase. The reported protein thus would be the potential targets for novel whitefly control strategies such as RNAi or novel insecticide target sites for sustainable whitefly management after confirmation of genuine proteins.

Keywords: cDNA, whitefly, ToLCBV, endosymbionts, Y2H

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
32 Cryptic Diversity: Identifying Two Morphologically Similar Species of Invasive Apple Snails in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Suganiya Rama Rao, Yoon-Yen Yow, Thor-Seng Liew, Shyamala Ratnayeke

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Invasive snails in the genus Pomacea have spread across Southeast Asia including Peninsular Malaysia. Apart from significant economic costs to wetland crops, very little is known about the snails’ effects on native species, and wetland function through their alteration of macrophyte communities. This study was conducted to establish diagnostic characteristics of Pomacea species in the Malaysian environment using genetic and morphological criteria. Snails were collected from eight localities in northern and central regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The mitochondrial COI gene of 52 adult snails was amplified and sequenced. Maximum likelihood analysis was used to analyse species identity and assess phylogenetic relationships among snails from different geographic locations. Shells of the two species were compared using geometric morphometric analysis and covariance analyses. Shell height accounted for most of the observed variation between P. canaliculata and P. maculata, with the latter possessing a smaller mean ratio of shell height: aperture height (p < 0.0001) and shell height to shell width (give p < 0.0001). Genomic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of two monophyletic taxa, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in Peninsular Malaysia samples. P. maculata co-occurred with P. canaliculata in 5 localities, but samples from 3 localities contained only P. canaliculata. This study is the first to confirm the presence of two of the most invasive species of Pomacea in Peninsular Malaysia using a genomic approach. P. canaliculata appears to be the more widespread species. Despite statistical differences, both quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics demonstrate much interspecific overlap and intraspecific variability; thus morphology alone cannot reliably verify species identity. Molecular techniques for distinguishing between these two highly invasive Pomacea species are needed to understand their specific ecological niches and develop effective protocols for their management.

Keywords: Pomacea canaliculata, Pomacea maculata, invasive species, phylog enetic analysis, geometric morphometric analysis

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31 Genomic Surveillance of Bacillus Anthracis in South Africa Revealed a Unique Genetic Cluster of B- Clade Strains

Authors: Kgaugelo Lekota, Ayesha Hassim, Henriette Van Heerden

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Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax that is composed of three genetic groups, namely A, B, and C. Clade-A is distributed world-wide, while sub-clades B has been identified in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. KNP is one of the endemic anthrax regions in South Africa with distinctive genetic diversity. Genomic surveillance of KNP B. anthracis strains was employed on the historical culture collection isolates (n=67) dated from the 1990’s to 2015 using a whole genome sequencing approach. Whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and pan-genomics analysis were used to define the B. anthracis genetic population structure. This study showed that KNP has heterologous B. anthracis strains grouping in the A-clade with more prominent ABr.005/006 (Ancient A) SNP lineage. The 2012 and 2015 anthrax isolates are dispersed amongst minor sub-clades that prevail in non-stabilized genetic evolution strains. This was augmented with non-parsimony informative SNPs of the B. anthracis strains across minor sub-clades of the Ancient A clade. Pan-genomics of B. anthracis showed a clear distinction between A and B-clade genomes with 11 374 predicted clusters of protein coding genes. Unique accessory genes of B-clade genomes that included biosynthetic cell wall genes and multidrug resistant of Fosfomycin. South Africa consists of diverse B. anthracis strains with unique defined SNPs. The sequenced B. anthracis strains in this study will serve as a means to further trace the dissemination of B. anthracis outbreaks globally and especially in South Africa.

Keywords: bacillus anthracis, whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms, pangenomics, kruger national park

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30 Clostridium Difficile in Western Australian Native Animals: Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology

Authors: Karla Cautivo, Thomas Riley, Daniel Knight

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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalised humans. C. difficile colonises the gastrointestinal tract, causes disease in a variety of animal species and can persist as a spore in diverse environments. Genetic overlap between C. difficile strains from human, animal and environmental sources suggests CDI has a zoonotic or foodborne aetiology. In Australia, C. difficile PCR ribotype RT014 (MLST clade 1) and several ST11 (MLST clade 5) RTs are found commonly in livestock. The high prevalence and diversity of ST11 strains in Australian production animals indicates Australia might be the ancestral home for this lineage. This project describes for the first time the ecology of C. difficile in Australian native animals, providing insights into the prevalence, molecular epidemiology and evolution of C. difficile in this unique environment and a possible role in CDI in humans and animals in Australia. Faecal samples were collected from wild/captive reptiles (n=37), mammals (n=104) and birds (n=102) in Western Australia in 2020/21. Anaerobic enrichment culture was performed, and C. difficile isolates were characterised by PCR ribotyping and toxin gene profiling. Seventy isolates of C. difficile were recovered (prevalence of C. difficile in faecal samples 28%, n=68/243); 27 unique RTs were identified, 5 were novel. The prevalence of C. difficile was similar for reptiles and mammals, 46% (n=17/37) and 43%(n=45/104), respectively, but significantly lower in birds (7.8%, n=8/102; p<0.00001 for both reptiles and mammals). Of the 57 isolates available for typing, RT237 (clade 5) and RT002 (clade 2) were the most prevalent, 15.8% (n=9/57) and 14% (n=8/57), respectively. The high prevalence of C. difficile in reptiles and mammals, particularly clade 5 strains, supported by previous studies of C. difficile in Australian soils, suggest that Australia might be the ancestral home of MLST clade 5.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile, zoonosis, molecular epidemiology, ecology and evolution

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29 Genotyping and Phylogeny of Phaeomoniella Genus Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases in Algeria

Authors: A. Berraf-Tebbal, Z. Bouznad, , A.J.L. Phillips

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Phaeomoniella is a fungus genus in the mitosporic ascomycota which includes Phaeomoniella chlamydospora specie associated with two declining diseases on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) namely Petri disease and esca. Recent studies have shown that several Phaeomoniella species also cause disease on many other woody crops, such as forest trees and woody ornamentals. Two new species, Phaeomoniella zymoides and Phaeomoniella pinifoliorum H.B. Lee, J.Y. Park, R.C. Summerbell et H.S. Jung, were isolated from the needle surface of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. in Korea. The identification of species in Phaeomoniella genus can be a difficult task if based solely on morphological and cultural characters. In this respect, the application of molecular methods, particularly PCR-based techniques, may provide an important contribution. MSP-PCR (microsatellite primed-PCR) fingerprinting has proven useful in the molecular typing of fungal strains. The high discriminatory potential of this method is particularly useful when dealing with closely related or cryptic species. In the present study, the application of PCR fingerprinting was performed using the micro satellite primer M13 for the purpose of species identification and strain typing of 84 Phaeomoniella -like isolates collected from grapevines with typical symptoms of dieback. The bands produced by MSP-PCR profiles divided the strains into 3 clusters and 5 singletons with a reproducibility level of 80%. Representative isolates from each group and, when possible, isolates from Eutypa dieback and esca symptoms were selected for sequencing of the ITS region. The ITS sequences for the 16 isolates selected from the MSP-PCR profiles were combined and aligned with sequences of 18 isolates retrieved from GenBank, representing a selection of all known Phaeomoniella species. DNA sequences were compared with those available in GenBank using Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum-parsimony (MP) analyses. The phylogenetic trees of the ITS region revealed that the Phaeomoniella isolates clustered with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora reference sequences with a bootstrap support of 100 %. The complexity of the pathosystems vine-trunk diseases shows clearly the need to identify unambiguously the fungal component in order to allow a better understanding of the etiology of these diseases and justify the establishment of control strategies against these fungal agents.

Keywords: Genotyping, MSP-PCR, ITS, phylogeny, trunk diseases

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