Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: subculture

13 Molecular Analysis of Somaclonal Variation in Tissue Culture Derived Bananas Using MSAP and SSR Marker

Authors: Emma K. Sales, Nilda G. Butardo


The project was undertaken to determine the effects of modified tissue culture protocols e.g. age of culture and hormone levels (2,4-D) in generating somaclonal variation. Moreover, the utility of molecular markers (SSR and MSAP) in sorting off types/somaclones were investigated. Results show that somaclonal variation is in effect due to prolonged subculture and high 2,4-D concentration. The resultant variation was observed to be due to high level of methylation events specifically cytosine methylation either at the internal or external cytosine and was identified by methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Simple sequence repeats (SSR) on the other hand, was able to associate a marker to a trait of interest. These therefore, show that molecular markers can be an important tool in sorting out variation/mutants at an early stage.

Keywords: methylation, MSAP, somaclones, SSR, subculture, 2, 4-D

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12 Corporate Culture and Subcultures: Corporate Culture Analysis in a Company without a Public Relations Department

Authors: Sibel Kurt


In this study, with the use of Goffee and Jones’s corporate culture classification and the scale of this classification, there aimed to analyze a company’s corporate culture which does not have a public relations or communication department. First of all, the type of corporate culture in the company had been determined. Then it questioned if there are subcultures which formed according to demographics or the department of work. In the survey questionnaire, there are 53 questions total. 6 of these questions are about demographics, and 47 of them are about corporate culture. 152 personnel of the company had answered the survey, and the data have been evaluated according to frequency, descriptive, and compare means tests. The type of corporate culture of the company was determined as the 'communal' from the typology of Goffee and Jones in the positive form. There are no subcultures in the company which bases on the demographics, but only one subculture has determined according to the department of work. As a result, the absence of public relations department, personnel’s low level of awareness about corporate culture, and the lack of information between management and employees has been revealed.

Keywords: corporate culture, subculture, public relations, organizational communication

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11 Micropropagation and in vitro Conservation via Slow Growth Techniques of Prunus webbii (Spach) Vierh: An Endangered Plant Species in Albania

Authors: Valbona Sota, Efigjeni Kongjika


Wild almond is a woody species, which is difficult to propagate either generatively by seed or by vegetative methods (grafting or cuttings) and also considered as Endangered (EN) in Albania based on IUCN criteria. As a wild relative of cultivated fruit trees, this species represents a source of genetic variability and can be very important in breeding programs and cultivation. For this reason, it would be of interest to use an effective method of in vitro mid-term conservation, which involves strategies to slow plant growth through physicochemical alterations of in vitro growth conditions. Multiplication of wild almond was carried out using zygotic embryos, as primary explants, with the purpose to develop a successful propagation protocol. Results showed that zygotic embryos can proliferate through direct or indirect organogenesis. During subculture, stage was obtained a great number of new plantlets identical to mother plants derived from the zygotic embryos. All in vitro plantlets obtained from subcultures underwent in vitro conservation by minimal growth in low temperature (4ºC) and darkness. The efficiency of this technique was evaluated for 3, 6, and 10 months of conservation period. Maintenance in these conditions reduced micro cuttings growth. Survival and regeneration rates for each period were evaluated and resulted that the maximal time of conservation without subculture on 4ºC was 10 months, but survival and regeneration rates were significantly reduced, specifically 15.6% and 7.6%. An optimal period of conservation in these conditions can be considered the 5-6 months storage, which can lead to 60-50% of survival and regeneration rates. This protocol may be beneficial for mass propagation, mid-term conservation, and for genetic manipulation of wild almond.

Keywords: micropropagation, minimal growth, storage, wild almond

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10 From CBGB to F21: The Ramone's Band T-Shirt and Its Representations in the Mainstream Culture

Authors: Cláudia Pereira, Lívia Boeschenstein


This article aims to present an analysis of rock band t-shirts as an element that claims a certain identity in modern-contemporary culture. This work focuses on the study of t-shirts that display the name, related elements and the logo of punk band The Ramones, because of its strong presence in the collective mind along the last decades. As we shall see, it is possible to observe a phenomenon of symbolic transition from the original cultural place of that object. At first, it was a piece of cloth that had been part of a specific subculture and then it became just a generic item diluted by the mainstream. This symbolic transitional phenomenon is significant in many ways and will be discussed furthermore. For the analysis, we begin with a brief introduction to the history of the band, followed by the study about the vintage rock band T-shirts and their meanings. From there, we will turn to a historical contextualization of band T-shirts as a subcultural item and to its redefinition after the appropriation made by the mainstream. To guide this reasoning, it will be used theories about the styles, subcultures and youth culture and about material culture from an anthropological perspective. In addition, we shall see the theories and concepts of social representations in order to understand the ways of using the Ramones’s T-shirt as a representative element of a fashionable style. This T-shirt, after being resignified by the standardization and the massive consumption, no longer symbolizes the punk movement, its behavioral motivations and original policies. Also has little to do with the rage the working class suburbs of London or New York. It seems to be a mute and vague sign of a restricted rebellion, foreseen and framed establishing a stylistic contrast to the designer clothes and good behavior predicted by establishment. It's an item that composes a specific style available on the market, but at the same time is accepted by the mainstream and provides a subcultural association that has some prestige in society. Another perspective is that of resignification loop. As the same way that punk resignified the conventional goods for their own social standards, fashion resignifies what was said to be an object of a subculture and absorbs in their own mass culture standards. Therefore, outsiders to the punk phenomenon wearing Ramones’s T-shirts can be perceived negatively by subcultural members, but at the same time are well received by those who are partially unaware or completely out of subcultural context. For the general public, the stamp of the Ramones’s logo happens to be appreciated as a diffuse allusion to a punk style, since its original meaning has being entirely neutralized.

Keywords: social representations, subcultures, material culture, punk

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9 Single Cell Sorter Driven by Resonance Vibration of Cell Culture Substrate

Authors: Misa Nakao, Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura


The Research Goal: With the growing demand for regenerative medicine, an effective mass cell culture process is required. In a repetitive subculture process for proliferating cells, preparing single cell suspension which does not contain any cell aggregates is highly required because cell aggregates often raise various undesirable phenomena, e.g., apoptosis and decrease of cell proliferation. Since cell aggregates often occur in cell suspension during conventional subculture processes, this study proposes a single cell sorter driven by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The Method and the Result: The single cell sorter is simply composed of a cell culture substrate and a glass pipe vertically placed against the cell culture substrate with a certain gap corresponding to a cell diameter. The cell culture substrate is made of biocompatible stainless steel with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the bottom side. Applying AC voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic disk, an out-of-plane resonance vibration with a single nodal circle of the cell culture substrate can be excited at 5.5 kHz. By doing so, acoustic radiation force is emitted, and then cell suspension containing only single cells is pumped into the pipe and collected. This single cell sorter is effective to collect single cells selectively in spite of its quite simple structure. We collected C2C12 myoblast cell suspension by the single cell sorter with the vibration amplitude of 12 µmp-p and evaluated the ratio of single cells in number against the entire cells in the suspension. Additionally, we cultured the collected cells for 72 hrs and measured the number of cells after the cultivation in order to evaluate their proliferation. As a control sample, we also collected cell suspension by conventional pipetting, and evaluated the ratio of single cells and the number of cells after the 72-hour cultivation. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter was 98.2%. This ratio was 9.6% higher than that collected by conventional pipetting (statistically significant). Moreover, the number of cells cultured for 72 hrs after the collection by the single cell sorter yielded statistically more cells than that collected by pipetting, resulting in a 13.6% increase in proliferated cells. These results suggest that the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter driven by the resonance vibration hardly contains cell aggregates whose diameter is larger than the gap between the cell culture substrate and the pipe. Consequently, the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter maintains high cell proliferation. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a single cell sorter capable of sorting and pumping single cells by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The experimental results show the single cell sorter collects single cell suspension which hardly contains cell aggregates. Furthermore, the collected cells show higher proliferation than that of cells collected by conventional pipetting. This means the resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate can benefit us with the increase in efficiency of mass cell culture process for clinical applications.

Keywords: acoustic radiation force, cell proliferation, regenerative medicine, resonance vibration, single cell sorter

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8 Internet Memes as Meaning-Making Tools within Subcultures: A Case Study of Lolita Fashion

Authors: Victoria Esteves


Online memes have not only impacted different aspects of culture, but they have also left their mark on particular subcultures, where memes have reflected issues and debates surrounding specific spheres of interest. This is the first study that outlines how memes can address cultural intersections within the Lolita fashion community, which are much more specific and which fall outside of the broad focus of politics and/or social commentary. This is done by looking at the way online memes are used in this particular subculture as a form of meaning-making and group identity reinforcement, demonstrating not only the adaptability of online memes to specific cultural groups but also how subcultures tailor these digital objects to discuss both community-centered topics and more broad societal aspects. As part of an online ethnography, this study focuses on qualitative content analysis by taking a look at some of the meme communication that has permeated Lolita fashion communities. Examples of memes used in this context are picked apart in order to understand this specific layered phenomenon of communication, as well as to gain insights into how memes can operate as visual shorthand for the remix of meaning-making. There are existing parallels between internet culture and cultural behaviors surrounding Lolita fashion: not only is the latter strongly influenced by the former (due to its highly globalized dispersion and lack of physical shops, Lolita fashion is almost entirely reliant on the internet for its existence), both also emphasize curatorial roles through a careful collaborative process of documenting significant aspects of their culture (e.g., Know Your Meme and Lolibrary). Further similarities appear when looking at ideas of inclusion and exclusion that permeate both cultures, where memes and language are used in order to both solidify group identity and to police those who do not ascribe to these cultural tropes correctly, creating a feedback loop that reinforces subcultural ideals. Memes function as excellent forms of communication within the Lolita community because they reinforce its coded ideas and allows a kind of participation that echoes other cultural groups that are online-heavy such as fandoms. Furthermore, whilst the international Lolita community was mostly self-contained within its LiveJournal birthplace, it has become increasingly dispersed through an array of different social media groups that have fragmented this subculture significantly. The use of memes is key in maintaining a sense of connection throughout this now fragmentary experience of fashion. Memes are also used in the Lolita fashion community to bridge the gap between Lolita fashion related community issues and wider global topics; these reflect not only an ability to make use of a broader online language to address specific issues of the community (which in turn provide a very community-specific engagement with remix practices) but also memes’ ability to be tailored to accommodate overlapping cultural and political concerns and discussions between subcultures and broader societal groups. Ultimately, online memes provide the necessary elasticity to allow their adaption and adoption by subcultural groups, who in turn use memes to extend their meaning-making processes.

Keywords: internet culture, Lolita fashion, memes, online community, remix

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7 Multiple Shoot Induction and Plant Regeneration of Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) Tissue Culture

Authors: Titin Handayani, Endang Yuniastuti


Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) is a potential plant contain mainly oil seeds that can be used as a source of alternative bioenergy and medicine. The main problem of kepuh cultivation is the limited supply of seed plants. Seeds development were very easy, but to produce fruit have to wait for approximately 5 years. The objective of this research was to obtain kepuh plants through direct in vitro regeneration. Hypocotyls and shoot tips explants were excised from sterile germinated seedlings and placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that shoots induction from the apical and axillary buds on MS medium + 1.5 and 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 and 1 mg/L IAA was growth very slowly. Increasing of BAP concentrations was increased shoot formation. The first subcultures were increased the rate of shoots growth on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L IAA. The second of shoots subculture on MS medium + 1.5 to 2 mg/L BAP + 0.5 mg/L IAA was increased the number of shoots up to 4.8 in average. The best medium of shoots elongation were MS + 1 mgL-1 kinetin + 5 mg/L GA3. The highest percentage of roots (65%) occurred on MS medium with 5 mg/L IBA which average number of roots was 3.1. High percentages of survival and plants of normal appearance were obtained after five weeks of acclimatization.

Keywords: Kepuh, Sterculia foetida L, shoot multiplication, rooting, acclimatization, bioenergy, medicine

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6 Effect of Different Media and Mannitol Concentrations on Growth and Development of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. under Slow Growth Conditions

Authors: J. Linjikao, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd


In vitro conservation of orchid germplasm provides an effective technique for ex situ conservation of orchid diversity. In this study, an efficient protocol for in vitro conservation of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. plantlet under slow growth conditions was investigated. Plantlets were cultured on different strength of Vacin and Went medium (½VW and ¼VW) supplemented with different concentrations of mannitol (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%), sucrose (0 and 3%) and 50 g/L potato extract, 150 mL/L coconut water. The cultures were incubated at 25±2 °C and maintained under 20 µmol/m2s light intensity for 24 weeks without subculture. At the end of preservation period, the plantlets were subcultured to fresh medium for growth recovery. The results found that the highest leaf number per plantlet could be observed on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol while the highest root number per plantlet was found on ½VW added with 3% sucrose without adding mannitol after 24 weeks of in vitro storage. The results showed that the maximum number of leaves (5.8 leaves) and roots (5.0 roots) of preserved plantlets were produced on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol. Therefore, ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol was the best minimum growth conditions for medium-term storage of V. lissochiloides plantlets.

Keywords: preservation, vandopsis, germplasm, in vitro

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5 Exploring the Subculture of New Graduate Nurses’ Everyday Experience in Mental Health Nursing: An Ethnography

Authors: Mary-Ellen Hooper, Anthony Paul O'Brien, Graeme Browne


Background: It has been proposed that negative experiences in mental health nursing increase the risk of attrition for newly graduated nurses. The risk of nurse attrition is of particular concern with current nurse shortages worldwide continuing to rise. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the qualitative experiences of new graduate nurses as they enter mental health services in their first year of clinical practice. Method: An ethnographic research design was utilized in order to explore the sub-cultural experiences of new graduate nurses. Which included 31 separate episodes of field observation (62 hours) and (n=24) semi-structured interviews. A total number of 26 new graduates and recently graduated nurses participated in this study – 14 new graduate nurses and 12 recently graduate nurses. Data collection was conducted across 6 separate Australian, NSW, mental health units from April until September 2017. Results: A major theme emerging from the research is the new graduate nurses experience of communication in their nursing role, particularly within the context of the multidisciplinary team, and the barriers to sharing information related to care. This presentation describes the thematic structure of the major theme 'communication' in the context of the everyday experience of the New Graduate mental health nurse's participation in their chosen nursing discipline. The participants described diminished communication as a negative experience affecting their envisioned notion of holistic care, which they had associated with the role of the mental health nurse. Conclusion: The relationship between nurses and members of the multidisciplinary team plays a key role in the communication of patient care, patient-centeredness and inter-professional collaboration, potentially affecting the role of the mental health nurse, satisfaction of new graduate nurses, and patient care.

Keywords: culture, mental health nursing, multidisciplinary team, new graduate nurse

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4 Personal Development of School-Children on Lessons Physical Culture

Authors: Rogaleva Liudmila, Malkin Valery


Physical culture lessons are considered not only to be a means of physical development of students, but a matter of their personal development. Physical culture lessons can enable to develop such qualities of students as activity and initiation, readiness to cooperate, self-confidence, ability to define and reach targets, readiness to overcome difficulties and assess their abilities (and disadvantages) properly in any precise situation as well to be responsible for their own decision. The solution of this problem is possible under the circumstance if the students aware themselves as the subject of the activity that are able to develop their possibilities. The research was aimed to learn the matters that enable female teenagers of senior forms to become strong personalities attending physical culture lessons. There were two stages of the research. At the first stage we define the interests and demands of the girls. According the results of research we changed the programme of physical culture lessons. We took into consideration values of youth subculture: youth music, preferences to sport-dancing physical activities, demand of self-determination, revealing their individualities, needs of cooperative work. At the second stage we worked out motivating technology of course. This technology was aimed to create sush conditions under which students could show themselves as the subjects of activity and self-development. The active participation sport-dance festivals during 2-3 years creates the conditions for their self-realization. 78% students of the experimental groups considered their main motives to were: the interest, developing of their abilities, the satisfaction of the achievements of targets. Control groups 67% of the students claimed the success school good marks. The girls said that due to festivals they became self-confident (94%), responsible (86%), ability to cooperate (73%), aspiration for reaching the target (68%), self-exactingness (57 %). The main factors that provide successful performance were called: efforts to reach the target (87%), mutual support and mutual understanding (77%). The research on values showed that in the experimental groups we can find increase of importance of such values as: social initiative (active life) 83%, friends (75%), self-control (73%), effectiveness in deeds (58%).

Keywords: physical culture, subject, personal development, self-determination

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3 Introducing Information and Communication Technologies in Prison: A Proposal in Favor of Social Reintegration

Authors: Carmen Rocio Fernandez Diaz


This paper focuses on the relevance of information and communication technologies (hereinafter referred as ‘ICTs’) as an essential part of the day-to-day life of all societies nowadays, as they offer the scenario where an immense number of behaviors are performed that previously took place in the physical world. In this context, areas of reality that have remained outside the so-called ‘information society’ are hardly imaginable. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify a means that continue to be behind this reality, and it is the penitentiary area regarding inmates rights, as security aspects in prison have already be improved by new technologies. Introducing ICTs in prisons is still a matter subject to great rejections. The study of comparative penitentiary systems worldwide shows that most of them use ICTs only regarding educational aspects of life in prison and that communications with the outside world are generally based on traditional ways. These are only two examples of the huge range of activities where ICTs can carry positive results within the prison. Those positive results have to do with the social reintegration of persons serving a prison sentence. Deprivation of liberty entails contact with the prison subculture and the harmful effects of it, causing in cases of long-term sentences the so-called phenomenon of ‘prisonization’. This negative effect of imprisonment could be reduced if ICTs were used inside prisons in the different areas where they can have an impact, and which are treated in this research, as (1) access to information and culture, (2) basic and advanced training, (3) employment, (4) communication with the outside world, (5) treatment or (6) leisure and entertainment. The content of all of these areas could be improved if ICTs were introduced in prison, as it is shown by the experience of some prisons of Belgium, United Kingdom or The United States. However, rejections to introducing ICTs in prisons obey to the fact that it could carry also risks concerning security and the commission of new offences. Considering these risks, the scope of this paper is to offer a real proposal to introduce ICTs in prison, trying to avoid those risks. This enterprise would be done to take advantage of the possibilities that ICTs offer to all inmates in order to start to build a life outside which is far from delinquency, but mainly to those inmates who are close to release. Reforming prisons in this sense is considered by the author of this paper an opportunity to offer inmates a progressive resettlement to live in freedom with a higher possibility to obey the law and to escape from recidivism. The value that new technologies would add to education, employment, communications or treatment to a person deprived of liberty constitutes a way of humanization of prisons in the 21st century.

Keywords: deprivation of freedom, information and communication technologies, imprisonment, social reintegration

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2 Measuring Organizational Resiliency for Flood Response in Thailand

Authors: Sudha Arlikatti, Laura Siebeneck, Simon A. Andrew


The objective of this research is to measure organizational resiliency through five attributes namely, rapidity, redundancy, resourcefulness, and robustness and to provide recommendations for resiliency building in flood risk communities. The research was conducted in Thailand following the severe floods of 2011 triggered by Tropical Storm Nock-ten. The floods lasted over eight months starting in June 2011 affecting 65 of the country’s 76 provinces and over 12 million people. Funding from a US National Science Foundation grant was used to collect ephemeral data in rural (Ayutthaya), suburban (Pathum Thani), and urban (Bangkok) provinces of Thailand. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in Thai with 44 contacts from public, private, and non-profit organizations including universities, schools, automobile companies, vendors, tourist agencies, monks from temples, faith based organizations, and government agencies. Multiple triangulations were used to analyze the data by identifying selective themes from the qualitative data, validated with quantitative data and news media reports. This helped to obtain a more comprehensive view of how organizations in different geographic settings varied in their understanding of what enhanced or hindered their resilience and consequently their speed and capacities to respond. The findings suggest that the urban province of Bangkok scored highest in resourcefulness, rapidity of response, robustness, and ability to rebound. This is not surprising considering that it is the country’s capital and the seat of government, economic, military and tourism sectors. However, contrary to expectations all 44 respondents noted that the rural province of Ayutthaya was the fastest to recover amongst the three. Its organizations scored high on redundancy and rapidity of response due to the strength of social networks, a flood disaster sub-culture due to annual flooding, and the help provided by monks from and faith based organizations. Organizations in the suburban community of Pathum Thani scored lowest on rapidity of response and resourcefulness due to limited and ambiguous warnings, lack of prior flood experience and controversies that government flood protection works like sandbagging favored the capital city of Bangkok over them. Such a micro-level examination of organizational resilience in rural, suburban and urban areas in a country through mixed methods studies has its merits in getting a nuanced understanding of the importance of disaster subcultures and religious norms for resilience. This can help refocus attention on the strengths of social networks and social capital, for flood mitigation.

Keywords: disaster subculture, flood response, organizational resilience, Thailand floods, religious beliefs and response, social capital and disasters

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1 Thermosensitive Hydrogel Development for Its Possible Application in Cardiac Cell Therapy

Authors: Lina Paola Orozco Marin, Yuliet Montoya Osorio, John Bustamante Osorno


Ischemic events can culminate in acute myocardial infarction by irreversible cardiac lesions that cannot be restored due to the limited regenerative capacity of the heart. Cell therapy seeks to replace these injured or necrotic cells by transplanting healthy and functional cells. The therapeutic alternatives proposed by tissue engineering and cardiovascular regenerative medicine are the use of biomaterials to mimic the native extracellular medium, which is full of proteins, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. The selected biomaterials must provide structural support to the encapsulated cells to avoid their migration and death in the host tissue. In this context, the present research work focused on developing a natural thermosensitive hydrogel, its physical and chemical characterization, and the determination of its biocompatibility in vitro. The hydrogel was developed by mixing hydrolyzed bovine and porcine collagen at 2% w/v, chitosan at 2.5% w/v, and beta-glycerolphosphate at 8.5% w/w and 10.5% w/w in magnetic stirring at 4°C. Once obtained, the thermosensitivity and gelation time were determined, incubating the samples at 37°C and evaluating them through the inverted tube method. The morphological characterization of the hydrogels was carried out through scanning electron microscopy. Chemical characterization was carried out employing infrared spectroscopy. The biocompatibility was determined using the MTT cytotoxicity test according to the ISO 10993-5 standard for the hydrogel’s precursors using the fetal human ventricular cardiomyocytes cell line RL-14. The RL-14 cells were also seeded on the top of the hydrogels, and the supernatants were subculture at different periods to their observation under a bright field microscope. Four types of thermosensitive hydrogels were obtained, which differ in their composition and concentration, called A1 (chitosan/bovine collagen/beta-glycerolphosphate 8.5%w/w), A2 (chitosan/porcine collagen/beta-glycerolphosphate 8.5%), B1 (chitosan/bovine collagen/beta-glycerolphosphate 10.5%) and B2 (chitosan/porcine collagen/beta-glycerolphosphate 10.5%). A1 and A2 had a gelation time of 40 minutes, and B1 and B2 had a gelation time of 30 minutes at 37°C. Electron micrographs revealed a three-dimensional internal structure with interconnected pores for the four types of hydrogels. This facilitates the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and the exit of metabolites, allowing to preserve a microenvironment suitable for cell proliferation. In the infrared spectra, it was possible to observe the interaction that occurs between the amides of polymeric compounds with the phosphate groups of beta-glycerolphosphate. Finally, the biocompatibility tests indicated that cells in contact with the hydrogel or with each of its precursors are not affected in their proliferation capacity for a period of 16 days. These results show the potential of the hydrogel to increase the cell survival rate in the cardiac cell therapies under investigation. Moreover, the results lay the foundations for its characterization and biological evaluation in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Keywords: cardiac cell therapy, cardiac ischemia, natural polymers, thermosensitive hydrogel

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