Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2583

Search results for: optical absorption

2583 Nonlinear Absorption and Scattering in Wide Band Gap Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles Colloid and Their Effects on the Optical Limiting

Authors: Hoda Aleali, Nastran Mansour, Maryam Mirzaie

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the optical nonlinearities of Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanostructures dispersed in the Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under exposure to 532 nm, 15 nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser irradiation. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the obtained nanocrystal samples. The band gap energy of colloid is determined by analyzing the UV–Vis absorption spectra of the Ag2S NPs using the band theory of semiconductors. Z-scan technique is used to characterize the optical nonlinear properties of the Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs). Large enhancement of two photon absorption effect is observed with increase in concentration of the Ag2S nanoparticles using open Z-scan measurements in the ns laser regime. The values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients are determined based on the local nonlinear responses including two photon absorption. The observed aperture dependence of the Ag2S NP limiting performance indicates that the nonlinear scattering plays an important role in the limiting action of the sample.The concentration dependence of the optical liming is also investigated. Our results demonstrate that the optical limiting threshold decreases with increasing the silver sulfide NPs in DMSO.

Keywords: nanoscale materials, silver sulfide nanoparticles, nonlinear absorption, nonlinear scattering, optical limiting

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2582 Optical Fiber Data Throughput in a Quantum Communication System

Authors: Arash Kosari, Ali Araghi

Abstract:

A mathematical model for an optical-fiber communication channel is developed which results in an expression that calculates the throughput and loss of the corresponding link. The data are assumed to be transmitted by using of separate photons with different polarizations. The derived model also shows the dependency of data throughput with length of the channel and depolarization factor. It is observed that absorption of photons affects the throughput in a more intensive way in comparison with that of depolarization. Apart from that, the probability of depolarization and the absorption of radiated photons are obtained.

Keywords: absorption, data throughput, depolarization, optical fiber

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2581 Effect of Manganese Doping Percentage on Optical Band Gap and Conductivity of Copper Sulphide Nano-Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Method

Authors: P. C. Okafor, A. J. Ekpunobi

Abstract:

Mn doped copper sulphide (CuS:Mn) nano-films were deposited on indiums coated tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using electrodeposition method. Electrodeposition was carried out using bath of PH = 3 at room temperature. Other depositions parameters such as deposition time (DT) are kept constant while Mn doping was varied from 3% to 23%. Absorption spectra of CuS:Mn films was obtained by using JENWAY 6405 UV-VIS -spectrophotometer. Optical band gap (E_g ), optical conductivity (σo) and electrical conductivity (σe) of CuS:Mn films were determined using absorption spectra and appropriate formula. The effect of Mn doping % on these properties were investigated. Results show that film thickness (t) for the 13.27 nm to 18.49 nm; absorption coefficient (α) from 0.90 x 1011 to 1.50 x 1011 optical band gap from 2.29eV to 2.35 eV; optical conductivity from 1.70 x 1013 and electrical conductivity from 160 millions to 154 millions. Possible applications of such films for solar cells fabrication and optoelectronic devices applications were also discussed.

Keywords: copper sulphide (CuS), Manganese (Mn) doping, electrodeposition, optical band gap, optical conductivity, electrical conductivity

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2580 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

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2579 Quantum Confinement in LEEH Capped CdS Nanocrystalline

Authors: Mihir Hota, Namita Jena, S. N. Sahu

Abstract:

LEEH (L-cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride) capped CdS semiconductor nanocrystals are grown at 800C using a simple chemical route. Photoluminescence (PL), Optical absorption (UV) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have been carried out to evaluate the structural and optical properties of the nanocrystal. Optical absorption studies have been carried out to optimize the sample. XRD and TEM analysis shows that the nanocrystal belongs to FCC structure having average size of 3nm while a bandgap of 2.84eV is estimated from Photoluminescence analysis. The nanocrystal emits bluish light when excited with 355nm LASER.

Keywords: cadmium sulphide, nanostructures, luminescence, optical properties

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2578 Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaInAsSb/GaSb Laser Structure: Impact of Annealing Time

Authors: Soufiene Ilahi, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

GaInAsSb grown on GaSb substrate is an interesting material employed as an active layer in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared emission. This material presents some advantages like highs optical absorption coefficient and good thermal conductivity, which is very desirable for VCSEL application. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of thermal annealing on optical properties and thermal conductivity of GaInAsSb/GaSb. The studies are carried out by means of the photo thermal deflection spectroscopy technique (PDS). In fact, optical absorption spectrum and thermal conductivity have been determined by a comparison between the experimental and theoretical phases of the PDS signal. We have found that thermal conductivity increased significantly to 13 W/m.K for GaInAsSb annealed during 60 min. In addition, we have found that bandgap energy is blue-shifted around 30 meV. The amplitudes signal of PDS reveals multiple reflections as a function of annealing time, which reflect the high crystalline quality of the layer.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, bandgap energy of GaInAsSb, GaInAsSb active layer, optical absorption

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2577 An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient

Authors: Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof, Khairunnisa Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Safuan Abdul Rashid

Abstract:

Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.

Keywords: macronutrients absorption, optical spectroscopy, soil, absorption

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2576 Excitonic Refractive Index Change in High Purity GaAs Modulator at Room Temperature for Optical Fiber Communication Network

Authors: Durga Prasad Sapkota, Madhu Sudan Kayastha, Koichi Wakita

Abstract:

In this paper, we have compared and analyzed the electron absorption properties between with and without excitonic effect bulk in high purity GaAs spatial light modulator for an optical fiber communication network. The electroabsorption properties such as absorption spectra, change in absorption spectra, change in refractive index and extinction ratio have been calculated. We have also compared the result of absorption spectra and change in absorption spectra with the experimental results and found close agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: exciton, refractive index change, extinction ratio, GaAs

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2575 Theoretical Investigations on Optical Properties of GaFeMnN Quaternary Compound

Authors: H. A. Bentounes, A. Abbad, W. Benstaali

Abstract:

Using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory and local spin density approximation, we investigate optical properties of GaFeMnN quaternary compound. Results show that optical properties confirm that GaFeMnN can be a good candidate in the design of thin film solar cells in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum, and a good sensor in the infrared

Keywords: GaN, optical absorption, semi-metallic, dielectric function

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2574 Particle Dust Layer Density and the Optical Wavelength Absorption Relationship in Photovoltaic Module

Authors: M. Mesrouk, A. Hadj Arab

Abstract:

This work allows highlight the effect of dust on the absorption of the optical spectrum on the photovoltaic module, the effect of the particles dust presence on the photovoltaic modules have been a microscopic scale studied with COMSOL Multi-physic software simulation. In this paper, we have supposed the dust layer as a diffraction network repetitive optical structure characterized by the spacing between particle which represented by 'd' and the simulated structure (air-dust particle-glass). In this study we can observe the relationship between the wavelength and the particle spacing, the simulation shows us that the maximum wavelength transmission value corresponding, λ0 = 400nm, which represent the spacing value between the particles dust, d = 400 nm. In fact, we can observe that while increase dust layer density the wavelength transmission value decrease, there is a relationship between the density and wavelength value which can be absorbed in a dusty photovoltaic panel.

Keywords: dust effect, photovoltaic module, spectral absorption, wavelength transmission

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2573 Electronic, Magnetic and Optic Properties in Halide Perovskites CsPbX3 (X= F, Cl, I)

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, T. Lantri, Souidi Amel, W.Bensaali, A. Zitouni, Z. Aziz

Abstract:

We performed first-principle calculations, the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method is used to calculate structural, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of cubic halide perovskites CsPbX3 (X= F,I). We employed for this study the GGA approach and for exchange is modeled using the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential to predicting the accurate band gap of these materials. The optical properties (namely: the real and imaginary parts of dielectric functions, optical conductivities and absorption coefficient absorption make this halide perovskites promising materials for solar cells applications.

Keywords: halide perovskites, mBJ, solar cells, FP-LAPW, optoelectronic properties, absorption coefficient

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2572 Strong Down-Conversion Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A. Mardhiah

Abstract:

Studies on Samarium doped glasses possess lot of interest due to their potential applications for high-density optical memory, optical communication device, the design of laser and color display etc. Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The results of physical properties are found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultra violet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm and 706 nm respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, down-conversion, emission

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2571 Green, Yellow, Orange and Red Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A . Mardhiah

Abstract:

Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The result of physical properties is found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultraviolet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, and 706 nm, respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, emission, optical, physical

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2570 Electronic and Optical Properties of Orthorhombic NdMnO3 with the Modified Becke-Johnson Potential

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, T. Lantri, A. Abbad, W. Benstaali, A. Zitouni, S. Cherid

Abstract:

We investigate the electronic structure, magnetic and optical properties of the orthorhombic NdMnO3 through density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations using both generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U approaches, the exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by an orbital independent modified Becke Johnson (MBJ). The predicted band gaps using the MBJ exchange approximation show a significant improvement over previous theoretical work with the common GGA and GGA+U very closer to the experimental results. Band gap dependent optical parameters like dielectric constant, index of refraction, absorption coefficient, reflectivity and conductivity are calculated and analyzed. We find that when using MBJ we have obtained better results for band gap of NdMnO3 than in the case of GGA and GGA+U. The values of band gap founded in this work by MBJ are in a very good agreement with corresponding experimental values compared to other calculations. This comprehensive theoretical study of the optoelectronic properties predicts that this material can be effectively used in optical devices.

Keywords: DFT, optical properties, absorption coefficient, strong correlation, MBJ, orthorhombic NdMnO3, optoelectronic

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2569 The Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Optical Properties of (PVP-PEG) Blend

Authors: Hussein Hakim, Zainab Al-Ramadhan, Ahmed Hashim

Abstract:

Polymer nano composites of polyvinylpyrrolidone and poly-ethylene glycol with different concentrations of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nano particles have been prepared by solution cast method. The optical characterizations have been done by analyzing the absorption (A) spectra in the 300–800 nm spectral region. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with the increasing of Al2O3 nano particles content. The optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) are changing with increasing aluminum oxide nano particle concentrations.

Keywords: nanocomposites, polyvinylpyrrolidone, optical constants, polymers, blend

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2568 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

Abstract:

Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: 1H-CaAlSi, absorption, bulk, optical, thin film

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2567 Physicochemical and Optical Characterization of Rutile TiO2 Thin Films Grown by APCVD Technique

Authors: Dalila Hocine, Mohammed Said Belkaid, Abderahmane Moussi

Abstract:

In this study, pure rutile TiO2 thin films were directly synthesized on silicon substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (APCVD) using TiCl4 as precursor. We studied the physicochemical properties and the optical properties of the produced coatings by means of standard characterization techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry. The absorption peaks at 423 cm-1 and 610 cm-1 were observed for the rutile TiO2 thin films, by FTIR measurements. The absorption peak at 739 cm-1 due to the vibration of the Ti-O bonds, was also detected. UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry is employed for measuring the optical band gap from the measurements of the TiO2 films reflectance. The optical band gap was then extracted from the reflectance data for the TiO2 sample. It was estimated to be 3.05 eV which agrees with the band gap of commercial rutile TiO2 sample.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, physicochemical properties, APCVD, FTIR, band gap

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2566 Structural and Optical Properties of Pr3+ Doped ZnO and PVA:Zn98Pr2O Nanocomposites Free Standing Film

Authors: Pandiyarajan Thangaraj, Mangalaraja Ramalinga Viswanathan, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Héctor D. Mansilla, José Ruiz, David Contreras

Abstract:

We report a systematic study of structural and optical properties of Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures and PVA:Zn98Pr2O polymer matrix nanocomposites free standing films are performed. These particles are synthesized through simple wet chemical route and solution casting technique at room temperature, respectively. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction method, confirms that the prepared pure ZnO and Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures are in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the microstrain is increased upon doping. TEM analysis reveals that the prepared materials are in the sheet-like nature. Absorption spectra show free excitonic absorption band at 370 nm and red shift for the Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures. The PVA:Zn98Pr2O composite film exhibits both free excitonic and PVA absorption bands at 282 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectral studies confirm the presence of A1 (TO) and E1 (TO) modes of Zn-O bond vibration and the formation of polymer composite materials.

Keywords: Pr doped ZnO, polymer nanocomposites, optical properties, free standing film

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2565 Optical Parametric Oscillators Lidar Sounding of Trace Atmospheric Gases in the 3-4 µm Spectral Range

Authors: Olga V. Kharchenko

Abstract:

Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 µm is studied in this work. A technique based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases.

Keywords: atmosphere, lidar sounding, DIAL, DOAS, trace gases, nonlinear crystal

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2564 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: dielectric constants, optical band gap (eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid

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2563 Photoluminescence and Spectroscopic Studies of Tm3+ Ions Doped Lead Tungsten Tellurite Glasses for Visible Red and Near-Ir Laser Applications

Authors: M. Venkateswarlu, Srinivasa Rao Allam, S. K. Mahamuda, K. Swapna, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

Lead Tungsten Tellurite (LTT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Tm3+ ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay spectral studies to know the feasibility of using these glasses as luminescent devices in visible Red and NIR regions. By using optical absorption spectral data, the energy band gaps for all the glasses were evaluated and were found to be in the range of 2.34-2.59 eV; which is very useful for the construction of optical devices. Judd-Ofelt (J-O)theory has been applied to the optical absorption spectral profiles to calculate the J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) and consecutively used to evaluate various radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (AR), radiative lifetimes (τ_R) and branching ratios (β_R) for the prominent luminescent levels. The luminescence spectra for all the LTT glass samples have shown two intense peaks in bright red and Near Infrared regions at 650 nm (1G4→3F4) and 800 nm (3H4→3H6) respectively for which effective bandwidths (〖Δλ〗_P), experimental branching ratios (β_exp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ_se) are evaluated. The decay profiles for all the glasses were also recorded to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared LTT glasses by coupling the radiative and experimental lifetimes. From the measured emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 0.5 mol% of Tm3+ ions doped LTT glass is most suitable for generating bright visible red and NIR lasers to operate at 650 and 800 nm respectively.

Keywords: glasses, JO parameters, optical materials, thullium

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2562 Computational Study on the Crystal Structure, Electronic and Optical Properties of Perovskites a2bx6 for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Harmel Meriem

Abstract:

The optoelectronic properties and high power conversion efficiency make lead halide perovskites ideal material for solar cell applications. However, the toxic nature of lead and the instability of organic cation are the two key challenges in the emerging perovskite solar cells. To overcome these challenges, we present our study about finding potential alternatives to lead in the form of A2BX6 perovskite using the first principles DFT-based calculations. The highly accurate modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) and hybrid functional (HSE06) have been used to investigate the Main Document Click here to view linked References to optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of A2PdBr6 (A = K, Rb, and Cs) perovskite. The results indicate that different A-cations in A2PdBr6 can significantly alter their electronic and optical properties. Calculated band structures indicate semiconducting nature, with band gap values of 1.84, 1.53, and 1.54 eV for K2PdBr6, Rb2PdBr6, and Cs2PdBr6, respectively. We find strong optical absorption in the visible region with small effective masses for A2PdBr6. The ideal band gap and optimum light absorption suggest Rb2PdBr6 and Cs2PdBr6 potential candidates for the light absorption layer in perovskite solar cells. Additionally.

Keywords: soler cell, double perovskite, optoelectronic properties, ab-inotio study

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2561 Measure the Gas to Dust Ratio Towards Bright Sources in the Galactic Bulge

Authors: Jun Yang, Norbert Schulz, Claude Canizares

Abstract:

Knowing the dust content in the interstellar matter is necessary to understand the composition and evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). The metal composition of the ISM enables us to study the cooling and heating processes that dominate the star formation rates in our Galaxy. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) Spectrometer provides a unique opportunity to measure element dust compositions through X-ray edge absorption structure. We measure gas to dust optical depth ratios towards 9 bright Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the Galactic Bulge with the highest precision so far. Well calibrated and pile-up free optical depths are measured with the HETG spectrometer with respect to broadband hydrogen equivalent absorption in bright LMXBs: 4U 1636-53, Ser X-1, GX 3+1, 4U 1728-34, 4U 1705-44, GX 340+0, GX 13+1, GX 5-1, and GX 349+2. From the optical depths results, we deduce gas to dust ratios for various silicates in the ISM and present our results for the Si K edge in different lines of sight towards the Galactic Bulge.

Keywords: low-mass X-ray binaries, interstellar medium, gas to dust ratio, spectrometer

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2560 Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of Indium Sulfide Films Deposited under Different Deposition Conditions by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: S. B. Bansode, V. G. Wagh, R. S. Kapadnis, S. S. Kale, M. Pathan Habib

Abstract:

Indium sulfide films have been deposited using chemical bath deposition onto glass and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The influences of different deposition parameters viz. substrate and pH have been studied. The films were characterized by different techniques with respect to their crystal structure, surface morphology and compositional property by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and optical absorption. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that amorphous nature of the films. The scanning electron microscopy of as deposited indium sulfide film on ITO coated glass substrate shows random orientation of grains where as those on glass substrates show dumbbell shape. Optical absorption study revealed that band gap varies from 2.29 to 2.79 eV for the deposited film.

Keywords: chemical bath deposition, optical properties, structural property, Indium sulfide

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2559 Deciphering Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Folic Acid for the Applications of Tissue Engineering and Biofuel Cell

Authors: Sharda Nara, Bansi Dhar Malhotra

Abstract:

Investigation of the vitamins as an electron transfer mediator could significantly assist in merging the area of tissue engineering and electronics required for the implantable therapeutic devices. The present study report that the molecules of folic acid released by Providencia rettgeri via fermentation route under the anoxic condition of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) exhibit characteristic electrochemical and optical properties, as indicated by absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and cyclic voltammetry studies. The absorption spectroscopy has depicted an absorption peak at 263 nm with a small bulge around 293 nm on day two of bacterial culture, whereas an additional peak was observed at 365 nm on the twentieth day. Furthermore, the PL spectra has indicated that the maximum emission occurred at various wavelengths 420, 425, 440, and 445 nm when excited by 310, 325, 350, and 365 nm. The change of emission spectra with varying excitation wavelength might be indicating the presence of tunable optical bands in the folic acid molecules co-related with the redox activity of the molecules. The results of cyclic voltammetry studies revealed that the oxidation and reduction occurred at 0.25V and 0.12V, respectively, indicating the electrochemical behavior of the folic acid. This could be inferred that the released folic acid molecules in a MFC might undergo inter as well as intra molecular electron transfer forming different intermediate states while transferring electrons to the electrode surface. Synchronization of electrochemical and optical properties of folic acid molecules could be potentially promising for the designing of electroactive scaffold and biocompatible conductive surface for the applications of tissue engineering and biofuel cells, respectively.

Keywords: biofuel cell, electroactivity, folic acid, tissue engineering

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2558 Characterization of Mg/Sc System for X-Ray Spectroscopy in the Water Window Range

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Mohammed H. Modi, Rajnish Dhawan, Philippe Jonnard

Abstract:

Periodic multilayer mirrors have potential application as optical components in X-ray microscopy, particularly working in the water window region. The water window range, located between the absorption edges of carbon (285 eV) and oxygen (530eV), along with the presence of nitrogen K absorption edge (395 eV), makes it a powerful method for imaging biological samples due to the natural optical contrast between water and carbon. We characterized bilayer, trilayer, quadrilayer, and multilayer systems of Mg/Sc with ZrC thin layers introduced as a barrier layer and capping layer prepared by ion beam sputtering. The introduction of ZrC as a barrier layer is expected to improve the structure of the Mg/Sc system. The ZrC capping layer also prevents the stack from oxidation. The structural analysis of the Mg/Sc systems was carried out by using grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXRR) to obtain non-destructively a first description of the structural parameters, thickness, roughness, and density of the layers. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity measurements in the vicinity of Sc L-absorption edge were performed to investigate and quantify the atomic distribution of deposited layers. Near absorption edge, the atomic scattering factor of an element changes sharply depending on its chemical environment inside the structure.

Keywords: buried interfaces, resonant soft X-ray reflectivity, X-ray optics, X-ray reflectivity

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2557 New Method for Determining the Distribution of Birefringence and Linear Dichroism in Polymer Materials Based on Polarization-Holographic Grating

Authors: Barbara Kilosanidze, George Kakauridze, Levan Nadareishvili, Yuri Mshvenieradze

Abstract:

A new method for determining the distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism in optical polymer materials is presented. The method is based on the use of polarization-holographic diffraction grating that forms an orthogonal circular basis in the process of diffraction of probing laser beam on the grating. The intensities ratio of the orders of diffraction on this grating enables the value of birefringence and linear dichroism in the sample to be determined. The distribution of birefringence in the sample is determined by scanning with a circularly polarized beam with a wavelength far from the absorption band of the material. If the scanning is carried out by probing beam with the wavelength near to a maximum of the absorption band of the chromophore then the distribution of linear dichroism can be determined. An appropriate theoretical model of this method is presented. A laboratory setup was created for the proposed method. An optical scheme of the laboratory setup is presented. The results of measurement in polymer films with two-dimensional gradient distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism are discussed.

Keywords: birefringence, linear dichroism, graded oriented polymers, optical polymers, optical anisotropy, polarization-holographic grating

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2556 Radiation Stability of Pigment ZnO Modified by Nanopowders

Authors: Chundong Li, V. V. Neshchimenko, M. M. Mikhailov

Abstract:

The effect of the modification of ZnO powders by ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles with a concentration of 1-30 wt % is investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra within the wavelength range 200 to 2500 nm before and after 100 keV proton and electron irradiation. It has been established that the introduction of nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3 enhances the optical stability of the pigments under proton irradiation, but reduces it under electron irradiation. Modifying with TiO2, SiO2, CeO2, Y2O3 nanopowders leads to decrease radiation stability in both types of irradiation. Samples modified by 5 wt. % of ZrO2 nanoparticles have the highest stability of optical properties after proton exposure. The degradation of optical properties under electron irradiation is not high for this concentration of nanoparticles. A decrease in the absorption of pigments modified with nanoparticles proton exposure is determined by a decrease in the intensity of bands located in the UV and visible regions. After electron exposure the absorption bands have in the whole spectrum range.

Keywords: irradiation, nanopowders, radiation stability, zinc oxide

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2555 Effect of the Deposition Time of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Si Grown on Porous Alumina Film on Glass Substrate by Plasma Processing Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: F. Laatar, S. Ktifa, H. Ezzaouia

Abstract:

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) method is used to deposit hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films (nc-Si: H) on Porous Anodic Alumina Films (PAF) on glass substrate at different deposition duration. Influence of the deposition time on the physical properties of nc-Si: H grown on PAF was investigated through an extensive correlation between micro-structural and optical properties of these films. In this paper, we present an extensive study of the morphological, structural and optical properties of these films by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques and a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. It was found that the changes in DT can modify the films thickness, the surface roughness and eventually improve the optical properties of the composite. Optical properties (optical thicknesses, refractive indexes (n), absorption coefficients (α), extinction coefficients (k), and the values of the optical transitions EG) of this kind of samples were obtained using the data of the transmittance T and reflectance R spectra’s recorded by the UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer. We used Cauchy and Wemple–DiDomenico models for the analysis of the dispersion of the refractive index and the determination of the optical properties of these films.

Keywords: hydragenated nanocrystalline silicon, plasma processing chemical vapor deposition, X-ray diffraction, optical properties

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2554 Peculiarities of Absorption near the Edge of the Fundamental Band of Irradiated InAs-InP Solid Solutions

Authors: Nodar Kekelidze, David Kekelidze, Elza Khutsishvili, Bela Kvirkvelia

Abstract:

The semiconductor devices are irreplaceable elements for investigations in Space (artificial Earth satellite, interplanetary space craft, probes, rockets) and for investigation of elementary particles on accelerators, for atomic power stations, nuclear reactors, robots operating on heavily radiation contaminated territories (Chernobyl, Fukushima). Unfortunately, the most important parameters of semiconductors dramatically worsen under irradiation. So creation of radiation-resistant semiconductor materials for opto and microelectronic devices is actual problem, as well as investigation of complicated processes developed in irradiated solid states. Homogeneous single crystals of InP-InAs solid solutions were grown with zone melting method. There has been studied the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy near fundamental absorption edge. This dependence changes dramatically with irradiation. The experiments were performed on InP, InAs and InP-InAs solid solutions before and after irradiation with electrons and fast neutrons. The investigations of optical properties were carried out on infrared spectrophotometer in temperature range of 10K-300K and 1mkm-50mkm spectral area. Radiation fluencies of fast neutrons was equal to 2·1018neutron/cm2 and electrons with 3MeV, 50MeV up to fluxes of 6·1017electron/cm2. Under irradiation, there has been revealed the exponential type of the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy with energy deficiency. The indicated phenomenon takes place at high and low temperatures as well at impurity different concentration and practically in all cases of irradiation by various energy electrons and fast neutrons. We have developed the common mechanism of this phenomenon for unirradiated materials and implemented the quantitative calculations of distinctive parameter; this is in a satisfactory agreement with experimental data. For the irradiated crystals picture get complicated. In the work, the corresponding analysis is carried out. It has been shown, that in the case of InP, irradiated with electrons (Ф=1·1017el/cm2), the curve of optical absorption is shifted to lower energies. This is caused by appearance of the tails of density of states in forbidden band due to local fluctuations of ionized impurity (defect) concentration. Situation is more complicated in the case of InAs and for solid solutions with composition near to InAs when besides noticeable phenomenon there takes place Burstein effect caused by increase of electrons concentration as a result of irradiation. We have shown, that in certain conditions it is possible the prevalence of Burstein effect. This causes the opposite effect: the shift of the optical absorption edge to higher energies. So in given solid solutions there take place two different opposite directed processes. By selection of solid solutions composition and doping impurity we obtained such InP-InAs, solid solution in which under radiation mutual compensation of optical absorption curves displacement occurs. Obtained result let create on the base of InP-InAs, solid solution radiation-resistant optical materials. Conclusion: It was established the nature of optical absorption near fundamental edge in semiconductor materials and it was created radiation-resistant optical material.

Keywords: InAs-InP, electrons concentration, irradiation, solid solutions

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