Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: M. Pathan Habib

108 First Record of Eotragus noyei from the Middle Siwalik Dhok Pathan Formation of Pakistan

Authors: Abdul M. Khan, Hafiza I. Naz, Ayesha Iqbal, Muhammad Akhtar

Abstract:

The fossil remains described in this study have been recovered during fieldwork by the authors from the Dhok Pathan Formation of Middle Siwaliks Pakistan in December, 2015. The sample comprises maxillary and mandibular fragments along with isolated upper and lower teeth. The morphometric analysis of the specimens led us to recognize the sample as belonging to Eotragus noyei, which has been considered as the smallest and the oldest bovid in the Siwaliks. Eotragus noyei is characterized by brachydont teeth, finely rugose enamel, more inclined buccal walls of the molars and small lingual cingula. The inclination of the metaconal area has caused rotation of the metastyle in relation to the antero-posterior tooth axis and thus situated more lingually. The protocone in second upper premolar is well developed and situated posteriorly and also has an anterior lingual constriction. The metaconule in the third upper molar is smaller than the protocone. The dentition in Eotragus noyei is smaller in size as compared to Eotragus sansaniensis and Eotragus lampangensis. In Eotragus noyei the buccal walls in molars are more inclined while in Eotragus sansaniensis they are less inclined. The genus Eotragus has been reported previously in the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan; however, the recognition of the present sample as Eotragus noyei has extended the range of this species from Lower to the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan.

Keywords: Boselaphini, Chakwal, Dhok Pathan, late miocene

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107 Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of Indium Sulfide Films Deposited under Different Deposition Conditions by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: S. B. Bansode, V. G. Wagh, R. S. Kapadnis, S. S. Kale, M. Pathan Habib

Abstract:

Indium sulfide films have been deposited using chemical bath deposition onto glass and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The influences of different deposition parameters viz. substrate and pH have been studied. The films were characterized by different techniques with respect to their crystal structure, surface morphology and compositional property by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and optical absorption. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that amorphous nature of the films. The scanning electron microscopy of as deposited indium sulfide film on ITO coated glass substrate shows random orientation of grains where as those on glass substrates show dumbbell shape. Optical absorption study revealed that band gap varies from 2.29 to 2.79 eV for the deposited film.

Keywords: chemical bath deposition, optical properties, structural property, Indium sulfide

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106 Description of Anthracotheriidae Remains from the Middle and Upper Siwaliks of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Abdul M. Khan, Ayesha Iqbal

Abstract:

In this paper, new dental remains of Merycopotamus (Anthracotheriidae) are described. The specimens were collected during field work by the authors from the well dated fossiliferous locality 'Hasnot' belonging to the Dhok Pathan Formation, and from 'Tatrot' village belonging to Tatrot Formation of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. The stratigraphic age of the Neogene deposits around Hasnot is 7 - 5 Ma; whereas the age of the Tatrot Formation is from 3.4 - 2.6 Ma. The newly discovered material when compared with the previous records of the genus Merycopotamus from the Siwaliks led us to identify all the three reported species of this genus from the Siwaliks of Pakistan. As the sample comprises only the dental remains so the identification of the specimens is solely based upon the morpho-metric analysis. The occlusal pattern of the upper molar in Merycopotamus dissimilis is different from Merycopotamus medioximus and Merycopotamus nanus in having a mesostyle fully divided, forming two prominent cusps, while mesostyle in M. medioximus is partly divided and small lateral crests are present on the mesostyle. A continuous loop like mesostyle is present in Merycopotamus nanus. The entoconid fold is present in Merycopotamus dissimilis on the lower molars whereas it is absent in Merycopotamus medioximus and Merycopotamus nanus. The hypoconulid in M. dissimilis is relatively simple but a loop like hypoconulid is present in M. medioximus and M. nanus. The results of the present findings are in line with the previous records of the genus Merycopotamus, with M. nanus, M. medioximus and M. dissimilis in the Late Miocene – Early Pliocene Dhok Pathan Formation, and M. dissimilis in the Late Pliocene Tatrot sediments of Pakistan.

Keywords: Dhok Pathan, late miocene, merycopotamus, pliocene, Tatrot

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105 Mechanism of Performance of Soil-Cement Columns under Shallow Foundations in Liquefiable Soil

Authors: Zaheer Ahmed Almani, Agha Faisal Habib Pathan, Aneel Kumar Hindu

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of ground reinforcement with stiff soil-cement columns on liquefiable ground and on the shallow foundation of structure were investigated. The modelling and analysis of shallow foundation of the structure founded on the composite reinforced ground were carried out with finite difference FLAC commercial software. The results showed that stiff columns were not effective to the redistribute the shear stresses in the composite ground, thus, were not effective to reduce shear stress and shear strain on the soil between the columns. The excessive pore pressure increase which is dependent on volumetric strain (contractive) tendency of loose sand upon shearing, was not reduced to a significant level that liquefaction potential could be remediated. Thus, mechanism of performance with reduction of pore pressure and consequent liquefaction was not predicted in numerical analysis. Nonetheless, the columns were effective to resist the load of structure in compression and reduced the liquefaction-induced large settlements of structure to tolerable limits when provided adjacent and beneath the pad of shallow foundation.

Keywords: earthquake, liquefaction, mechanism, soil-cement columns

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104 Optimal Planning and Design of Hybrid Energy System for Taxila University

Authors: Habib Ur Rahman Habib

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources are being realized as suitable options in hybrid energy planning for on-grid and micro grid. In this paper, operation, planning and optimal design of on-grid distributed energy resources based hybrid system are investigated. The aim is to minimize the cost of the overall energy system keeping in view the environmental emission and minimum penetration of conventional energy resources. Seven grid connected different case studies including diesel only, diesel-renewable based, and renewable based only are designed to perform economic analysis, operational planning and emission. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to investigate the impact of different parameters on the performance of energy resources.

Keywords: data management, renewable energy, distributed energy, smart grid, micro-grid, modeling, energy planning, design optimization

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103 Some Remains of Fossil Artiodactyla: Evolutionary Status, Taxonomy and Biogeographical Distribution in Late Miocene of Pakistan

Authors: Khizar Samiullah Samiullah, Riffat Yasin, Khurrum Feroz, Omer Draz, Memmona Nazish

Abstract:

New fossil remains of artiodactyl have been recovered from three Late Miocene localities, Lava, Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon and Hasnoot. These localities belong to lower and middle Siwalik Hills of Pakistan, the Chinji and Dhok Pathan Formation respectively and are remarkably rich in fossils of artiodactyl. The fauna mainly comprises various families of order Artiodactyla; Cervidae, Equidea, Proboscidea, Giraffidea, Rhinocerotidae, Tragulidea, Suidae and Primates. In Chinji Formation Lava and Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon are located in district Chakwal while in Upper Dhok Pathan Formation the best fossils exposure site is Hasnoot which is located in District Jhelum, Punjab, Pakistan. Specimens described and discussed here include right and left maxilla, isolated upper premolars and molars which have been collected during extensive fieldwork. After morphological and comparative analysis the collection is attributed to Giraffokeryx, Giraffa, Listriodon, Dorcatherium, Selenoportax and Pachyportax. In this study evolutionary status, taxonomy and biogeographical distribution as well as the relationship of different Artiodactyls have been discussed comprehensively. The Palaeoenvironmental studies reveal the persistence of mosaics of diverse habitats ranging from tropical evergreen forest to subtropical ones, closed seasonal woodlands to wooded savannas during the deposition of these outcrops.

Keywords: Artiodactyla, fossil dentition, late Miocene, lower and middle Siwaliks

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102 Mobile Payment over NFC: The M-Check System Case

Authors: Karima Maazouz, Habib Benlahmer, Naceur Achtaich

Abstract:

The realization of mobile payments will make possible new and unforeseen ways of convenience and m-commerce. Mobile payment today benefit from technology and trends. NFC technology is creating a new era of contactless mobile payment. the “M-check” is a mobile payment system provides a new way facilitating transaction with high valued payment and enable new m-commerce. The objective of the paper is to propose a new solution for m-payment. The proposed combination of m-check system and NFC offers acceptable security for payment mobile, client’s satisfaction, and simplifies the process payment between clients and merchants.

Keywords: M-payment, NFC, M-check, M-commerce, security

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101 Biodiversity and Distribution of Tettigonioidea, Ensifera of Pakistan

Authors: Riffat Sultana Pathan, Waheed Ali Panhwar, Muhammad Saeed Wagan

Abstract:

Tettigonioidea are phytophagous insects damaging agricultural crops, forest, fruit orchards, berry shrubs, and grasses. The material was collected from different agricultural fields of rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize surrounding by different grasses. Beside this, forest, hilly areas, semi-desert and desert regions were also inspected time to time. All material was captured, killed and stored by using the standard entomological method. As a result of extensive survey fair numbers were captured from the different climatic zone of country. Seven sub-families of Tettigonioidea viz: Pseudophyllinae, Phaneropterinae, Conocephalinae, Tettigoniinae, Hexacentrinae, Mecopodinae and Decticinae came in collection. This fauna contributes 29 new records to Pakistan and 5 new species to science. Beside this, a brief description of each supra-generic category of Tettigonioidea along with photographs and synonymy is also documented. In addition to this, detailed list of host plants from Pakistan was also composed. This study provides important data for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of Tettigonioidea biodiversity conservation and grassland restoration in Pakistan.

Keywords: agriculture, conocephalinae, pest, phaneropterinae, tettigoniidae

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100 Fuzzy Gauge Capability (Cg and Cgk) through Buckley Approach

Authors: Seyed Habib A. Rahmati, Mohsen Sadegh Amalnick

Abstract:

Different terms of the statistical process control (SPC) has sketch in the fuzzy environment. However, measurement system analysis (MSA), as a main branch of the SPC, is rarely investigated in fuzzy area. This procedure assesses the suitability of the data to be used in later stages or decisions of the SPC. Therefore, this research focuses on some important measures of MSA and through a new method introduces the measures in fuzzy environment. In this method, which works based on Buckley approach, imprecision and vagueness nature of the real world measurement are considered simultaneously. To do so, fuzzy version of the gauge capability (Cg and Cgk) are introduced. The method is also explained through example clearly.

Keywords: measurement, SPC, MSA, gauge capability (Cg and Cgk)

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99 Location Quotient Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Seyed Habib A. Rahmati, Mohamad Hasan Sadeghpour, Parsa Fallah Sheikhlari

Abstract:

Location quotient (LQ) is a comparison technique that represents emphasized economic structure of single zone versus the standard area to identify specialty for every zone. In another words, the exact calculation of this metric can show the main core competencies and critical capabilities of an area to the decision makers. This research focus on the exact calculation of the LQ for an Iranian Province called Qazvin and within a case study introduces LQ of the capable industries of Qazvin. Finally, through different graphs and tables, it creates an opportunity to compare the recognized capabilities.

Keywords: location quotient, case study, province analysis, core competency

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98 A Two Phase VNS Algorithm for the Combined Production Routing Problem

Authors: Nejah Ben Mabrouk, Bassem Jarboui, Habib Chabchoub

Abstract:

Production and distribution planning is the most important part in supply chain management. In this paper, a NP-hard production-distribution problem for one product over a multi-period horizon is investigated. The aim is to minimize the sum of costs of three items: production setups, inventories and distribution, while determining, for each period, the amount produced, the inventory levels and the delivery trips. To solve this difficult problem, we propose a bi-phase approach based on a Variable Neighbourhood Search (VNS). This heuristic is tested on 90 randomly generated instances from the literature, with 20 periods and 50, 100, 200 customers. Computational results show that our approach outperforms existing solution procedures available in the literature

Keywords: logistic, production, distribution, variable neighbourhood search

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97 Prevelance of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistran

Authors: Kamal Khan Abro, Nasreen Memon, Attaullah Ansari, Mahpara Pirzada, Saima Pathan

Abstract:

Jacobabad district has a hot desert climate with very hot summers and insignificant winters. The highest recorded temperature is 53.8 °C (127.0 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is −4.9 °C (25.0 °F). Rainfall is short and mostly occurs in the monsoon season (July–September). Agriculture point of view Jacobabad district is very important district of Sindh Pakistan in which many types of crop and vegetables are cultivated annually such as Wheat, Rice, and Brassica, Cabbage, Spinach, Chili etc. which are badly attacked by many crops pest. Insects are very tiny, sensitive and most attractive mortal and most important collection of animal wildlife they play important role in biological control agent, biodiversity & agroecosystem. The brassica crop extremely infested by many different types of pest such as Aphids, Whitefly, Jassids, Thrips, Mealybug, scale insect pink worm, bollworm and borers Mealy bug, scale insect etc. These pests destroy many crops. The present study was carried out from Jacobabad district from January 2017 to April 2017.

Keywords: prevelance, green peach aphid, Jacobabad, Sindh Pakistan

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96 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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95 Spillage Prediction Using Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation with Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique

Authors: Ravi Soni, Irfan Pathan, Manish Pande

Abstract:

The current product development process needs simultaneous consideration of different physics. The performance of the product needs to be considered under both structural and fluid loads. Examples include ducts and valves where structural behavior affects fluid motion and vice versa. Simulation of fluid-structure interaction involves modeling interaction between moving components and the fluid flow. In these scenarios, it is difficult to calculate the damping provided by fluid flow because of dynamic motions of components and the transient nature of the flow. Abaqus Explicit offers general capabilities for modeling fluid-structure interaction with the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) method. The Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian technique has been used to simulate fluid spillage through fuel valves during dynamic closure events. The technique to simulate pressure drops across Eulerian domains has been developed using stagnation pressure. Also, the fluid flow is calculated considering material flow through elements at the outlet section of the valves. The methodology has been verified on Eaton products and shows a good correlation with the test results.

Keywords: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique, fluid structure interaction, spillage prediction, stagnation pressure

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94 Both Floristic Studies and Molecular Markers Are Necessary to Study of the Flora of a Region

Authors: Somayeh Akrami, Vali-Allah Mozaffarian, Habib Onsori

Abstract:

The studied region in this research, watershed Kuhkamar river, is about 112.66 square kilometers, it is located between 45º 48' 9" to 45º 2' 20" N and 38º 34' 15" to 38º 40' 28" E. The gained results of the studies on flora combinations, proved 287 plant species in 190 genera and 51 families. Asteracea with 49 and Lamiaceae with 27 plant species are the major plant families. Among collected species one interesting plant was found and determined as a new record Anemone narcissiflora L. for flora of Iran. This plant is known as a complex species that shows intraspecific speciation and is classified into about 12 subspecies and 10 varieties in world. To identify the infraspecies taxons of this species, in addition to morphological characteristics, the use of appropriate molecular markers for the better isolation of the individuals were needed.

Keywords: Anemone narcissiflora, floristic Study, kuhkamar, molecular marker

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93 Green Supply Chain Management: A Revolutionary and Robust Innovation in the Field of Efficient Environmental Development and Regulation

Authors: Jinesh Kumar Jain, Faishal Pathan

Abstract:

The concept of sustainable development and effective environmental regulation has led to the emergence of a new field of study and practise that is the Green Supply Chain Management. GSCM has become a subject of great importance for both the developed and developing countries to achieve the desired and much-awaited goals of the firm within the environmental and sustainable framework. Its merits are comprised of good financial pay off and competitiveness to the firms in a long lasting and sustainable manner. The purpose of the paper is to briefly review the recent literature of the GSCM and also determines the new direction area of this emerging field. A detailed study has helped to enlighten the minute details and develop the research direction of the study. The GSCM has gained popularity with both academic and practitioners. The items for the study were developed based on the extent literature. Here we found that the state of adoption of GSCM practices by Indian Firms was still in its infancy, the awareness of environmental sustainability was quite low among consumers and the regulatory frameworks were also lacking in terms promoting environmental sustainability. The present paper is an attempt to emphasize much attention on the above-mentioned issues and present a conclusive summary to make its use widespread and for reaching.

Keywords: environmental management, environmental performance, financial performance, green supply chain management

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92 Modeling of Hydrogen Production by Inductively Coupled Methane Plasma for Input Power Pin=700W

Authors: Abdelatif Gadoum, Djilali Benyoucef, Mouloudj Hadj, Alla Eddine Toubal Maamar, Mohamed Habib Allah Lahoual

Abstract:

Hydrogen occurs naturally in the form of chemical compounds, most often in water and hydrocarbons. The main objective of this study is 2D modeling of hydrogen production in inductively coupled plasma in methane at low pressure. In the present model, we include the motions and the collisions of both neutral and charged particles by considering 19 species (i.e in total ; neutrals, radicals, ions, and electrons), and more than 120 reactions (electron impact with methane, neutral-neutral, neutral-ions and surface reactions). The results show that the rate conversion of methane reach 90% and the hydrogen production is about 30%.

Keywords: hydrogen production, inductively coupled plasma, fluid model, methane plasma

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91 Transverse Testicular Ectopia: A Case Report with Review of Literature

Authors: Rida Ahmad, Areej S. Habib, Sohail A. Dogar, Saqib H. Qazi

Abstract:

Transverse testicular ectopia is a rare congenital disorder involving mal descent and mal-positioning of the testes, reported in the medical literature about 300 times. Many theories attempt to explain the failure of the testes to migrate to their correct location. While the age at presentation can vary; most cases present in early adolescents or late adulthood. It is often an incidental discovery made during an operative intervention, most commonly during hernia exploration. It can be isolated or present with a plethora of anomalies. We present the case of a 2-year-old male with transverse testicular ectopia who presented with vague abdominal pain. He was managed successfully with the Modified Ombredanne procedure and good outcome 6 months after the procedure.

Keywords: cryptorchidism, persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, transverse testicular ectopia, testicular mal-descent

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
90 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, T. S. Gunawan, M. Hasanuzzaman

Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM), leakage current

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89 Dynamic Modeling of Orthotropic Cracked Materials by X-FEM

Authors: S. Houcine Habib, B. Elkhalil Hachi, Mohamed Guesmi, Mohamed Haboussi

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In this paper, dynamic fracture behaviors of cracked orthotropic structure are modeled using extended finite element method (X-FEM). In this approach, the finite element method model is first created and then enriched by special orthotropic crack tip enrichments and Heaviside functions in the framework of partition of unity. The mixed mode stress intensity factor (SIF) is computed using the interaction integral technique based on J-integral in order to predict cracking behavior of the structure. The developments of these procedures are programmed and introduced in a self-software platform code. To assess the accuracy of the developed code, results obtained by the proposed method are compared with those of literature.

Keywords: X-FEM, composites, stress intensity factor, crack, dynamic orthotropic behavior

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88 The Link Between Knowledge Management, Organizational Learning and Collective Competence

Authors: Amira Khelil, Habib Affes

Abstract:

The XXIst century is characterized by promoting teamwork as one of the main drivers of firms` performance. Collective competence is becoming crucial in developing and maintaining a firm’s competitive advantage, as well as its contributions to organizational innovation. In other words, the improvement of collective competence for a firm is no longer a choice, but rather an obligation. Learning capabilities of a firm in the context of knowledge management are assumed to be the main drivers of collective competence. Although there are some efforts to consider these concepts together; they are mostly discussed separately in the management theory. Thus, this paper aims to offer a holistic approach for development collective competence on the basis of Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Capabilities. A theoretical model that defines a relationship between knowledge management, organizational learning and collective competence is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: collective competence, exploitation learning, exploration learning, knowledge management, organizational learning capabilities

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87 The Impact of Malicious Attacks on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Habib Gorine, Rabia Saleh

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Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks are the special type of wireless networks which share common security requirements with other networks such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and availability, which need to be addressed in order to secure data transfer through the network. Their routing protocols are vulnerable to various malicious attacks which could have a devastating consequence on data security. In this paper, three types of attacks such as selfish, gray hole, and black hole attacks have been applied to the two most important routing protocols in MANET named dynamic source routing and ad-hoc on demand distance vector in order to analyse and compare the impact of these attacks on the Network performance in terms of throughput, average delay, packet loss, and consumption of energy using NS2 simulator.

Keywords: MANET, wireless networks, routing protocols, malicious attacks, wireless networks simulation

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86 Ergonomic Design of Speed Control Humps/Dips

Authors: Emad Khorshid, Habib Awada

Abstract:

Newly developed Ergonomic speed control hump/Dip designs are conducted. The numerical simulation for the driver-vehicle-hump dynamic system will be performed using computer software. The design problem for which the speed hump or dip should provide: (1) discomfort feeling to the driver if speed is over the specified limit, and (2) normal/good comfort level to the driver (and or other passengers) if the speed is within the limit. For comparison reasons, different vehicles suspension systems (active, semi-active and non-active suspension) are used in the simulation. The measuring of the acceptable range of vibration will be referenced to the British standard BS6841, ISO 2631/1 and the new ISO 2631/5. All these standards are related to human health and comfort level in terms of acceptable range of whole body vibration exposure.

Keywords: speed hump, speed dip, ergonomic design, human health, vehicle modeling

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85 A Comparative Study of Afghan Traditional and Contemporary Courtyard Housing Regarding Affordable Planning and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to upgrade a pleasing, sustainable and safe shelter in the Afghan urban community. It also aims to maintain traditional housing, which is fitted to its environment, while attempting to upgrade it with new, traditional standards. The three main objectives of this study are to upgrade the traditional courtyard house to become safe and sustainable today and tomorrow; to fit the contemporary house environmentally and culturally, and to suppress or reduce the broad gap between traditional and contemporary housing. The paper tries to exhibit and analyze the sustainably best practices available in both traditional and contemporary courtyard housing in Afghanistan. For instance, the use of thick walls and Tawa-Khana (floor heating system) shows the best sustainable practice in that context.

Keywords: Afghan Traditional Courtyard Housing (ATCH), Afghan Contemporary Courtyard Housing (ACCH), suitability planning, affordable and thermal comfort

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84 An Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Strong Brand Questionnaire in Sport

Authors: Mona Rezaei, Habib Honari, Mehrzad Hamidi, Fatemeh Kiani

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Make strong brands has become a priority for many organizations in marketing. Brand is an important indicator of marketing status. Brand Strength is in kept customer, profit, brand development and gain competitive advantage and In fact it is a concept that was created from a consumer perspective. It is assumed that the creation of a strong brand is creating numerous marketing benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire the most strong sports brands in the consumer society. Questionnaire was conducted to a sample of 340 customers of sports brands. Psychometric parameters were determined by using appropriate statistical methods. The results of the factor analysis and Varimax rotation revealed five factors of strong brands. The results confirms that questionnaire structure have acceptable associated to the data and confirmed all indicators of the model. Reliability (859/0) was satisfactory. According to calculated psychometric indices, this questionnaire could be appropriate to assess the most strong sports brands.

Keywords: reliability, strong brand, sport brands, psychometric

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83 The Study of the Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Sport

Authors: Habib Honari

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The purpose of this study is an investigation of the factors affecting entrepreneurship in sport from the point of view of experts in this field. This study is a descriptive analytic one and was conducted as a survey and statistical sample consisted of 64 subjects including top managers and sport management professors at physical education organization. Data is collected by research designed questionnaire. Its reliability (α=.95) is obtained after its validity confirmation (by professors). In this article the most important factors affecting sport entrepreneurship, both as an interdisciplinary field in the world, are studied. Initially, infrastructures are identified for entrepreneurial opportunities in sports and related problems become known so that identifying factors for social, cultural, and economical development to entrepreneurs will be a smooth path, because sport entrepreneurship, given its effective roles in business development, welfare, health development, and participation in various aspects of society, can also play a crucial role in the development of the country. Finally, some solutions for developing entrepreneurial sport are introduced.

Keywords: sport entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial barriers, interdisciplinary

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82 Development and Optimization of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System of Ayurvedic Churna Formulation Using Eudragit L100 and Ethyl Cellulose as Coating Material

Authors: Anil Bhandari, Imran Khan Pathan, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to prepare time and pH dependent release tablets of Ayurvedic Churna formulation and evaluate their advantages as colon targeted drug delivery system. The Vidangadi Churna was selected for this study which contains Embelin and Gallic acid. Embelin is used in Helminthiasis as therapeutic agent. Embelin is insoluble in water and unstable in gastric environment so it was formulated in time and pH dependent tablets coated with combination of two polymers Eudragit L100 and ethyl cellulose. The 150mg of core tablet of dried extract and lactose were prepared by wet granulation method. The compression coating was used in the polymer concentration of 150mg for both the layer as upper and lower coating tablet was investigated. The results showed that no release was found in 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffers for initial 5 hours and about 98.97% of the drug was released in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer in total 17 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed first order kinetics as highest linearity (r2= 0.9943). The results of the present study have demonstrated that the time and pH dependent tablets system is a promising vehicle for preventing rapid hydrolysis in gastric environment and improving oral bioavailability of Embelin and Gallic acid for treatment of Helminthiasis.

Keywords: embelin, gallic acid, Vidangadi Churna, colon targeted drug delivery

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81 Synthesis and Characterization of Recycled Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites Containing Date Wood Fiber

Authors: Habib Shaban

Abstract:

Nanocomposites of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and date wood fiber were prepared after modification of the host matrix by reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride. Chemical and mechanical treatment of date wood flour (WF) was conducted to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose. Layered silicates (clay) were partially intercalated with date wood fiber, and the modified layered silicate was used as filler in the PP matrix via a melt-blending process. The tensile strength of composites prepared from wood fiber modified clay was greater than that of the iPP-clay and iPP-WF composites at a 6% filler concentration, whereas deterioration of mechanical properties was observed when clay and WF were used alone for reinforcement. The dispersion of the filler in the matrix significantly decreased after clay modification with cellulose at higher concentrations, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data.

Keywords: nanocomposites, isotactic polypropylene, date wood flour, intercalated, melt-blending

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80 The Utilization of Recycled Construction and Demolition Waste Aggregate in Asphaltic Concrete

Authors: Inas Kamel, Noor Z. Habib

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Utilizing construction and demolition wastes in hotmix asphalt (HMA) pavement construction can reduce the adverse environmental effect of its inadequate disposal and reduce the pressure of extracting and processing mineral aggregates (MA). This study aims to examine the viability of replacing MA by recycled construction and demolition waste aggregates (RCDWA) in the wearing course of asphaltic concrete (AC) pavements without compromising its loadbearing capacity. The Marshall Method was used to evaluate the performance of AC wearing course specimens by replacing MA by 10%, 20% and 30% RCDWA. Grade 60/70 bitumen was used in the range 3.0-5.5%, with 05% increments, to generate the optimum bitumen content (OBC). From the volumetric analysis and test property curves, the mixture containing 20% RCDWA was chosen as the preferred mix at 5.1% OBC. It possessed a 10% increase in Marshall Stability compared to the reference specimen, containing 100% MA, and a 6% increase in Marshall flow.

Keywords: aggregate, asphaltic concrete, Marshall method, optimum bitumen content, recycled construction and demolition waste

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79 Measuring Government’s Performance (Services) Oman Service Maturity Model (OSMM)

Authors: Angie Al Habib, Khalid Al Siyabi

Abstract:

To measure or asses any government’s efficiency we need to measure the performance of this government in regards to the quality of the service it provides. Using a technological platform in service provision became a trend and a public demand. It is also a public need to make sure these services are aligned to values and to the whole government’s strategy, vision and goals as well. Providing services using technology tools and channels can enhance the internal business process and also help establish many essential values to government services like transparency and excellence, since in order to establish e-services many standards and policies must be put in place to enable the handing over of decision making to a mature system oriented mechanism. There was no doubt that the Sultanate of Oman wanted to enhance its services and move it towards automation and establishes a smart government as well as links its services to life events. Measuring government efficiency is very essential in achieving social security and economic growth, since it can provide a clear dashboard of all projects and improvements. Based on this data we can improve the strategies and align the country goals to them.

Keywords: government, maturity, Oman, performance, service

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