Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4818

Search results for: GaInAsSb active layer

4818 Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaInAsSb/GaSb Laser Structure: Impact of Annealing Time

Authors: Soufiene Ilahi, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

GaInAsSb grown on GaSb substrate is an interesting material employed as an active layer in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating in mid-infrared emission. This material presents some advantages like highs optical absorption coefficient and good thermal conductivity, which is very desirable for VCSEL application. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of thermal annealing on optical properties and thermal conductivity of GaInAsSb/GaSb. The studies are carried out by means of the photo thermal deflection spectroscopy technique (PDS). In fact, optical absorption spectrum and thermal conductivity have been determined by a comparison between the experimental and theoretical phases of the PDS signal. We have found that thermal conductivity increased significantly to 13 W/m.K for GaInAsSb annealed during 60 min. In addition, we have found that bandgap energy is blue-shifted around 30 meV. The amplitudes signal of PDS reveals multiple reflections as a function of annealing time, which reflect the high crystalline quality of the layer.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, bandgap energy of GaInAsSb, GaInAsSb active layer, optical absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
4817 Comparison of the Performance of GaInAsSb and GaSb Cells under Different Temperature Blackbody Radiations

Authors: Liangliang Tang, Chang Xu, Xingying Chen

Abstract:

GaInAsSb cells probably show better performance than GaSb cells in low-temperature thermophotovoltaic systems due to lower bandgap; however, few experiments proved this phenomenon so far. In this paper, numerical simulation is used to evaluate GaInAsSb and GaSb cells with similar structures under different radiation temperatures. We found that GaInAsSb cells with n-type emitters show slightly higher output power densities compared with that of GaSb cells with n-type emitters below 1,550 K-blackbody radiation, and the power density of the later cells will suppress the formers above this temperature point. During the temperature range of 1,000~2,000 K, the efficiencies of GaSb cells are about twice of GaInAsSb cells if perfect filters are used to prevent the emission of the non-absorbed long wavelength photons. Several parameters that affect the GaInAsSb cell were analyzed, such as doping profiles, thicknesses of GaInAsSb epitaxial layer and surface recombination velocity. The non-p junctions, i.e., n-type emitters are better for GaInAsSb cell fabrication, which is similar to that of GaSb cells.

Keywords: thermophotovoltaic cell, GaSb, GaInAsSb, diffused emitters

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
4816 Active Control of Multiferroic Composite Shells Using 1-3 Piezoelectric Composites

Authors: S. C. Kattimani

Abstract:

This article deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart multiferroic or magneto-electro-elastic doubly curved shells. The kinematics of deformations of the multiferroic doubly curved shell is described by a layer-wise shear deformation theory. A three-dimensional finite element model of multiferroic shells has been developed taking into account the electro-elastic and magneto-elastic couplings. A simple velocity feedback control law is employed to incorporate the active damping. Influence of layer stacking sequence and boundary conditions on the response of the multiferroic doubly curved shell has been studied. In addition, for the different orientation of the fibers of the constraining layer, the performance of the ACLD treatment has been studied.

Keywords: active constrained layer damping (ACLD), doubly curved shells, magneto-electro-elastic, multiferroic composite, smart structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
4815 Luminescent and Conductive Cathode Buffer Layer for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Swati Bishnoi, D. Haranath, Vinay Gupta

Abstract:

In this work, we demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) could be improved significantly by using ZnO doped with Aluminum (Al) and Europium (Eu) as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The ZnO:Al,Eu nanoparticle layer has broadband absorption in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm) region. The Al doping contributes to the enhancement in the conductivity whereas Eu doping significantly improves emission in the visible region. Moreover, this emission overlaps with the absorption range of polymer poly [N -9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) significantly and results in an enhanced absorption by the active layer and hence high photocurrent. An increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.8% has been obtained for ZnO: Al,Eu CBL as compared to 5.9% for pristine ZnO, in the inverted device configuration ITO/CBL/active layer/MoOx/Al. The active layer comprises of a blend of PCDTBT donor and [6-6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. In the reference device pristine ZnO has been used as CBL, whereas in the other one ZnO:Al,Eu has been used as CBL. The role of the luminescent CBL layer is to down-shift the UV light into visible range which overlaps with the absorption of PCDTBT polymer, resulting in an energy transfer from ZnO:Al,Eu to PCDTBT polymer and the absorption by active layer is enhanced as revealed by transient spectroscopy. This enhancement resulted in an increase in the short circuit current which contributes in an increased PCE in the device employing ZnO: Al,Eu CBL. Thus, the luminescent ZnO: Al, Eu nanoparticle CBL has great potential in organic solar cells.

Keywords: cathode buffer layer, energy transfer, organic solar cell, power conversion efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
4814 Powerful Laser Diode Matrixes for Active Vision Systems

Authors: Dzmitry M. Kabanau, Vladimir V. Kabanov, Yahor V. Lebiadok, Denis V. Shabrov, Pavel V. Shpak, Gevork T. Mikaelyan, Alexandr P. Bunichev

Abstract:

This article is deal with the experimental investigations of the laser diode matrixes (LDM) based on the AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures (lasing wavelength 790-880 nm) to find optimal LDM parameters for active vision systems. In particular, the dependence of LDM radiation pulse power on the pulse duration and LDA active layer heating as well as the LDM radiation divergence are discussed.

Keywords: active vision systems, laser diode matrixes, thermal properties, radiation divergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
4813 Polymer Solar Cells Synthesized with Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Aruna P. Wanninayake

Abstract:

Copper Oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nano particles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nano particles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA/cm2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA/cm2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nano particles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nano particles.

Keywords: copper oxide nanoparticle, UV-visible spectroscopy, polymer solar cells, P3HT/PCBM

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
4812 Different Cathode Buffer Layers in Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Radia Kamel

Abstract:

Considerable progress has been made in the development of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on a blend of p-type and n-type organic semiconductors. To optimize the interfacial properties between the active layer and the electrode, a cathode buffer layer (CBL) is introduced. This layer can reduce the leakage current, increasing the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor while improving the OSC stability. In this work, the performance of PM6:Y6 OSC with 1-Chloronaphthalene as an additive is examined. To accomplish this, three CBLs PNDIT-F3N-Br, ZrAcac, and PDINO, are compared using the conventional configuration. The device with PNDIT-F3N-Br as CBL exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency of 16.04%. The results demonstrate that modifying the cathode buffer layer is crucial for achieving high-performance OSCs.

Keywords: bulk heterojunction, cathode buffer layer, efficiency, organic solar cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
4811 Electrochemical Layer by Layer Assembly

Authors: Mao Li, Yuguang Ma, Katsuhiko Ariga

Abstract:

The performance of functional materials is governed by their ability to interact with surrounding environments in a well-defined and controlled manner. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly is one of the most widely used technologies for coating both planar and particulate substrates in a diverse range of fields, including optics, energy, catalysis, separations, and biomedicine. Herein, we introduce electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer assembly as a novel fabrication methodology for preparing layered thin films. This assembly method not only determines the process properties (such as the time, scalability, and manual intervention) but also directly control the physicochemical properties of the films (such as the thickness, homogeneity, and inter- and intra-layer film organization), with both sets of properties linked to application-specific performance.

Keywords: layer by layer assembly, electropolymerization, carbazole, optical thin film, electronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4810 Study of Heat Conduction in Multicore Chips

Authors: K. N. Seetharamu, Naveen Teggi, Kiranakumar Dhavalagi, Narayana Kamath

Abstract:

A method of temperature calculations is developed to study the conditions leading to hot spot occurrence on multicore chips. A physical model which has salient features of multicore chips is incorporated for the analysis. The model consists of active and background cell laid out in a checkered pattern, and this pattern repeats itself in each fine grain active cells. The die has three layers i) body ii) buried oxide layer iii) wiring layer, stacked one above the other with heat source placed at the interface between wiring and buried oxide layer. With this model we propose analytical method to calculate the target hotspot temperature, heat flow to top and bottom layers of the die and thermal resistance components at each granularity level, assuming appropriate values of die dimensions and parameters. Finally we attempt to find an easier method for the calculation of the target hotspot temperature using graph.

Keywords: checkered pattern, granularity level, heat conduction, multicore chips, target hotspot temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
4809 Control Flow around NACA 4415 Airfoil Using Slot and Injection

Authors: Imine Zakaria, Meftah Sidi Mohamed El Amine

Abstract:

One of the most vital aerodynamic organs of a flying machine is the wing, which allows it to fly in the air efficiently. The flow around the wing is very sensitive to changes in the angle of attack. Beyond a value, there is a phenomenon of the boundary layer separation on the upper surface, which causes instability and total degradation of aerodynamic performance called a stall. However, controlling flow around an airfoil has become a researcher concern in the aeronautics field. There are two techniques for controlling flow around a wing to improve its aerodynamic performance: passive and active controls. Blowing and suction are among the active techniques that control the boundary layer separation around an airfoil. Their objective is to give energy to the air particles in the boundary layer separation zones and to create vortex structures that will homogenize the velocity near the wall and allow control. Blowing and suction have long been used as flow control actuators around obstacles. In 1904 Prandtl applied a permanent blowing to a cylinder to delay the boundary layer separation. In the present study, several numerical investigations have been developed to predict a turbulent flow around an aerodynamic profile. CFD code was used for several angles of attack in order to validate the present work with that of the literature in the case of a clean profile. The variation of the lift coefficient CL with the momentum coefficient

Keywords: CFD, control flow, lift, slot

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
4808 Improved Ohmic Contact by Li Doping in Electron Transport Layers

Authors: G. Sivakumar, T. Pratyusha, D. Gupta, W. Shen

Abstract:

To get ohmic contact between the cathode and organic semiconductor, transport layers are introduced between the active layer and the electrodes. Generally zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are used as electron transport layer. When electron transport layer is doped with lithium, the resultant film exhibited superior electronic properties, which enables faster electron transport. Doping is accomplished by heat treatment of films with Lithium salts. Li-doped films. We fabricated organic solar cell using PTB7(poly(3-hexylthiopene-2,5- diyl):PCBM(phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) and found that the solar cells prepared using Li doped films had better performance in terms of efficiency when compared to the undoped transport layers.

Keywords: electron transport layer, higher efficiency, lithium doping, ohmic contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
4807 Polymer Advancement with Poly(High Internal Phase Emulsion) Poly(S/DVB) Modified via Layer-by-Layer for CO2 Adsorption

Authors: Saifon Chongthub

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to synthesize adsorbent foam for CO2 adsorption. The polymer was prepared from poly High Internal Phase Emulsion (PolyHIPE) using styrene as monomer and divinylbenzene as comonomer. Its morphology was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). To further increased CO2 adsorption of the prepared polyHIPE, the layer by layer (LbL) technique was applied, which alternated polyelectrolyte injection between layers of Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and Poly(diallyldimetyl-ammonium chloride)(PDADMAC) as primary layer, and layers of PSS and polyetyleneimine (PEI) as secondary layer.

Keywords: high internal phase emulsion, polyHIPE, surface modification, layer by layer technique, CO2 adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
4806 Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
4805 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
4804 Development of Single Layer of WO3 on Large Spatial Resolution by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Zh. Hai, H. Xu, C. Xue

Abstract:

Unique and distinctive properties could be obtained on such two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor as tungsten trioxide (WO3) when the reduction from multi-layer to one fundamental layer thickness takes place. This transition without damaging single-layer on a large spatial resolution remained elusive until the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized. Here we report the ALD-enabled atomic-layer-precision development of a single layer WO3 with thickness of 0.77±0.07 nm on a large spatial resolution by using (tBuN)2W(NMe2)2 as tungsten precursor and H2O as oxygen precursor, without affecting the underlying SiO2/Si substrate. Versatility of ALD is in tuning recipe in order to achieve the complete WO3 with desired number of WO3 layers including monolayer. Governed by self-limiting surface reactions, the ALD-enabled approach is versatile, scalable and applicable for a broader range of 2D semiconductors and various device applications.

Keywords: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), tungsten oxide, WO₃, two-dimensional semiconductors, single fundamental layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
4803 Semiconductor Nanofilm Based Schottky-Barrier Solar Cells

Authors: Mariyappan Shanmugam, Bin Yu

Abstract:

Schottky-barrier solar cells are demonstrated employing 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 semiconductor nanofilms as photo-active material candidates synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Large area MoS2 and WS2 nanofilms are stacked by layer transfer process to achieve thicker photo-active material studied by atomic force microscopy showing a thickness in the range of ~200 nm. Two major vibrational active modes associated with 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 are studied by Raman spectroscopic technique to estimate the quality of the nanofilms. Schottky-barrier solar cells employed MoS2 and WS2 active materials exhibited photoconversion efficiency of 1.8 % and 1.7 % respectively. Fermi-level pinning at metal/semiconductor interface, electronic transport and possible recombination mechanisms are studied in the Schottky-barrier solar cells.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, solar cell, Schottky barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
4802 Design of Ternary Coatings System to Minimize the Residual Solvent in Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Jyoti Sharma, Raj Kumar Arya

Abstract:

The coatings of homogeneous ternary solution of Poly(styrene)(PS)-Poly(ethyleneglycol)-6000(PEG) Chlorobenzene (CLB) of two different concentrations (5.05%-4.98%-89.97% and 10.05%-5.12%-84.82%) were studied and dried under quiescent conditions. Residual solvent percentage and coatings thickness were calculated by gravimetric weight loss data. Residual solvent remained lower in case of the single thick layer as compared to layer-by-layer assembly technique. The Results suggests the effectiveness of the single thick layer for minimizing the residual solvent. A single thick layer had an initial coating thickness of 1098 µm and the final thickness of 106 µm which is lower as compared to the dried coatings of nearly the same final thickness by layer-by-layer assembly technique.

Keywords: films, layer-by-layer assembly, polymeric coatings, ternary system

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
4801 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factor Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shield

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh, Daeseong Jo

Abstract:

The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields of three-layers or more is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme was implemented on the new 'three-layer' shield configuration. The results of such manipulation for water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence with the introduced changes.

Keywords: build-up factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, radiation protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
4800 Active Learning: Increase Learning through Engagement

Authors: Jihan Albayati, Kim Abdullah

Abstract:

This poster focuses on the significance of active learning strategies and their usage in the ESL classroom. Active learning is a big shift from traditional lecturing to active student engagement which can enhance and enrich student learning; therefore, engaging students is the core of this approach. Students learn more when they participate in the process of learning such as discussions, debates, analysis, synthesis, or any form of activity that requires student involvement. In order to achieve active learning, teachers can use different instructional strategies that are conducive to learning and the selection of these strategies depends on student learning outcomes. Active learning techniques must be carefully designed and integrated into the classroom to increase critical thinking and student participation. This poster provides a concise definition of active learning and its importance, instructional strategies, active learning techniques and their impact on student engagement. Also, it demonstrates the differences between passive and active learners.

Keywords: active learning, learner engagement, student-centered, teaching strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
4799 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
4798 Dual-Layer Microporous Layer of Gas Diffusion Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells under Various RH Conditions

Authors: Grigoria Athanasaki, Veerarajan Vimala, A. M. Kannan, Louis Cindrella

Abstract:

Energy usage has been increased throughout the years, leading to severe environmental impacts. Since the majority of the energy is currently produced from fossil fuels, there is a global need for clean energy solutions. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) offer a very promising solution for transportation applications because of their solid configuration and low temperature operations, which allows them to start quickly. One of the main components of PEMFCs is the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL), which manages water and gas transport and shows direct influence on the fuel cell performance. In this work, a novel dual-layer GDL with gradient porosity was prepared, using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as pore former, to improve the gas diffusion and water management in the system. The microporous layer (MPL) of the fabricated GDL consists of carbon powder PUREBLACK, sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant, 34% wt. PTFE and the gradient porosity was created by applying one layer using 30% wt. PEG on the carbon substrate, followed by a second layer without using any pore former. The total carbon loading of the microporous layer is ~ 3 mg.cm-2. For the assembly of the catalyst layer, Nafion membrane (Ion Power, Nafion Membrane NR211) and Pt/C electrocatalyst (46.1% wt.) were used. The catalyst ink was deposited on the membrane via microspraying technique. The Pt loading is ~ 0.4 mg.cm-2, and the active area is 5 cm2. The sample was ex-situ characterized via wetting angle measurement, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Pore Size Distribution (PSD) to evaluate its characteristics. Furthermore, for the performance evaluation in-situ characterization via Fuel Cell Testing using H2/O2 and H2/air as reactants, under 50, 60, 80, and 100% relative humidity (RH), took place. The results were compared to a single layer GDL, fabricated with the same carbon powder and loading as the dual layer GDL, and a commercially available GDL with MPL (AvCarb2120). The findings reveal high hydrophobic properties of the microporous layer of the GDL for both PUREBLACK based samples, while the commercial GDL demonstrates hydrophilic behavior. The dual layer GDL shows high and stable fuel cell performance under all the RH conditions, whereas the single layer manifests a drop in performance at high RH in both oxygen and air, caused by catalyst flooding. The commercial GDL shows very low and unstable performance, possibly because of its hydrophilic character and thinner microporous layer. In conclusion, the dual layer GDL with PEG appears to have improved gas diffusion and water management in the fuel cell system. Due to its increasing porosity from the catalyst layer to the carbon substrate, it allows easier access of the reactant gases from the flow channels to the catalyst layer, and more efficient water removal from the catalyst layer, leading to higher performance and stability.

Keywords: gas diffusion layer, microporous layer, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, relative humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
4797 Inter-Filling of CaO and MgO Mixed Layer in Surface Behavior of Al-Mg Alloys Containing Al2Ca

Authors: Seong-Ho Ha, Young-Ok Yoon, Shae K. Kim

Abstract:

Oxide layer of normal Al-Mg alloy can be characterized by upper MgO and lower MgAl2O4 spinel. The formation of the MgO outmost layer occurs by the surface segregation of Mg in the initial oxidation. After then, the oxidation is proceeded with the formation of MgA12O4 spinel beneath the MgO. Growth of the oxide layer is accelerated by constant formation of MgA12O4 spinel. On the other hand, the oxidation resistance of Al-Mg alloys can be significantly improved simply by Mg+Al2Ca master alloy use as the Mg alloying element and such an improvement is attributed to the CaO/MgO mixed layer. Al-Mg alloy containing Al2Ca shows CaO as the upper layer and MgO as the lower one without MgA12O4 spinel. Such a dense oxide film acts as a protective layer. However, the CaO/MgO scale has the outmost MgO, partly, after a long time exposure to a harsh oxidation condition. The aim of this study is to investigate the inter-filling behaviour of CaO and MgO mixed layer in oxidation resistance mechanism of Al-Mg alloys containing Al2Ca. The process of outmost MgO layer formation will be clarified.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy, Al2Ca, oxidation, MgO

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
4796 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factors Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shields

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh

Abstract:

The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. A simple suggested formalism for the scheme based on the Kalos’ formula is introduced, based on which the implementation of the testing technique is carried out. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme (with the suggested formalism) was implemented on the new “three-layer” shield configuration. The results of such manipulation on water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor value. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the overall performance of the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence even with the introduced changes. The introduced layer-splitting testing technique shows the capability to be implemented in test the iterative scheme with a wide range of formalisms.

Keywords: buildup factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, layer-splitting tecnique

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
4795 Application Layer Distributed Denial of Service Attack Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Songyuan Sui, Chen Zhu

Abstract:

Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are regarded as one of the most network threats nowadays. The attackers dominate a large portion of network traffic from multiple nodes to launch the DDoS attacks. With the improvement of a large number of defense methods for the network layer and the increasing popularity of many application scenarios focusing on the application layer, defense against application-layer DDoS attacks is becoming more and more important. This paper presented a literature review about machine learning-based DDoS detection on three popular application scenarios. It illustrated the fact that application-layer DDoS attacks detection is important but overlooked to some extent. We also performed an experimental analysis of five machine learning models for application-layer DDoS detection specifically. These results indicated that application layer servers could use typical machine learning models with fewer resources cost and better performance to detect application-layer DDoS attacks automatically.

Keywords: anomaly detection, application layer, distributed denial of service, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
4794 An Impregnated Active Layer Mode of Solution Combustion Synthesis as a Tool for the Solution Combustion Mechanism Investigation

Authors: Zhanna Yermekova, Sergey Roslyakov

Abstract:

Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is the unique method which multiple times has proved itself as an effective and efficient approach for the versatile synthesis of a variety of materials. It has significant advantages such as relatively simple handling process, high rates of product synthesis, mixing of the precursors on a molecular level, and fabrication of the nanoproducts as a result. Nowadays, an overwhelming majority of solution combustion investigations performed through the volume combustion synthesis (VCS) where the entire liquid precursor is heated until the combustion self-initiates throughout the volume. Less amount of the experiments devoted to the steady-state self-propagating mode of SCS. Under the beforementioned regime, the precursor solution is dried until the gel-like media, and later on, the gel substance is locally ignited. In such a case, a combustion wave propagates in a self-sustaining mode as in conventional solid combustion synthesis. Even less attention is given to the impregnated active layer (IAL) mode of solution combustion. An IAL approach to the synthesis is implying that the solution combustion of the precursors should be initiated on the surface of the third chemical or inside the third substance. This work is aiming to emphasize an underestimated role of the impregnated active layer mode of the solution combustion synthesis for the fundamental studies of the combustion mechanisms. It also serves the purpose of popularizing the technical terms and clarifying the difference between them. In order to do so, the solution combustion synthesis of γ-FeNi (PDF#47-1417) alloy has been accomplished within short (seconds) one-step reaction of metal precursors with hexamethylenetetramine (HTMA) fuel. An idea of the special role of the Ni in a process of alloy formation was suggested and confirmed with the particularly organized set of experiments. The first set of experiments were conducted in a conventional steady-state self-propagating mode of SCS. An alloy was synthesized as a single monophasic product. In two other experiments, the synthesis was divided into two independent processes which are possible under the IAL mode of solution combustion. The sequence of the process was changed according to the equations which are describing an Experiment A and B below: Experiment A: Step 1. Fe(NO₃)₃*9H₂O + HMTA = FeO + gas products; Step 2. FeO + Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA = Ni + FeO + gas products; Experiment B: Step 1. Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA = Ni + gas products; Step 2. Ni + Fe(NO₃)₃*9H₂O + HMTA = Fe₃Ni₂+ traces (Ni + FeO). Based on the IAL experiment results, one can see that combustion of the Fe(NO₃)₃9H₂O on the surface of the Ni is leading to the alloy formation while presence of the already formed FeO does not affect the Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA reaction in any way and Ni is the main product of the synthesis.

Keywords: alloy, hexamethylenetetramine, impregnated active layer mode, mechanism, solution combustion synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
4793 Studying the Effect of Silicon Substrate Intrinsic Carrier Concentration on Performance of ZnO/Si Solar Cells

Authors: Syed Sadique Anwer Askari, Mukul Kumar Das

Abstract:

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) solar cells have drawn great attention due to the enhanced efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this study, ZnO thin film is used as the active layer, hole blocking layer, antireflection coating (ARC) as well as transparent conductive oxide. To improve the conductivity of ZnO, top layer of ZnO is doped with aluminum, for top contact. Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon substrate plays an important role in enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ZnO/Si solar cell. With the increase of intrinsic carrier concentration PCE decreased due to increase in dark current in solar cell. At 80nm ZnO and 160µm Silicon substrate thickness, power conversion efficiency of 26.45% and 21.64% is achieved with intrinsic carrier concentration of 1x109/cm3, 1.4x1010/cm3 respectively.

Keywords: hetero-junction solar cell, solar cell, substrate intrinsic carrier concentration, ZnO/Si

Procedia PDF Downloads 515
4792 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

Keywords: phase formation, binary systems, interfacial reaction, diffusion, compound layers, growth kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 488
4791 Strength Analysis of RCC Dams Subject to the Layer-by-Layer Construction Method

Authors: Archil Motsonelidze, Vitaly Dvalishvili

Abstract:

Existing roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams indicate that the layer-by-layer construction method gives considerable economies as compared with the conventional methods. RCC dams have also gained acceptance in the regions of high seismic activity. Earthquake resistance analysis of RCC gravity dams based on nonlinear finite element technique is presented. An elastic-plastic approach is used to describe the material of a dam while it is under static conditions (period of construction). Seismic force, as an acceleration equivalent to that produced by a real earthquake, is supposed to act when the dam is completed. The materials of the dam and foundation may be nonhomogeneous and anisotropic. The “dam-foundation” system is idealized as a plain strain problem.

Keywords: finite element method, layer-by-layer construction, RCC dams, strength analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
4790 Stress Distribution in Axisymmetric Indentation of an Elastic Layer-Substrate Body

Authors: Kotaro Miura, Makoto Sakamoto, Yuji Tanabe

Abstract:

We focus on internal stress and displacement of an elastic axisymmetric contact problem for indentation of a layer-substrate body. An elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded to an elastic semi-infinite substrate. The elastic layer is smoothly indented with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter. The analytical and exact solutions were obtained by solving an infinite system of simultaneous equations using the method to express a normal contact stress at the upper surface of the elastic layer as an appropriate series. This paper presented the numerical results of internal stress and displacement distributions for hard-coating system with constant values of Poisson’s ratio and the thickness of elastic layer.

Keywords: indentation, contact problem, stress distribution, coating materials, layer-substrate body

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
4789 Governance Token Distributions of Layer-One.X

Authors: P. Wongthongtham, K. Coutinho, A. MacCarthy

Abstract:

Layer-One.X (L1X) blockchain provides the infrastructure layer, and decentralised applications can be created on the L1X infrastructure. L1X tokenomics are important and require a proportional balance between token distribution, nurturing user activity and engagement, and financial incentives. In this paper, we present research in progress on L1X tokenomics describing key concepts and implementations, including token velocity and value, incentive scheme, and broad distribution. Particularly the economic design of the native token of the L1X blockchain, called HeartBit (HB), is presented.

Keywords: tokenisation, layer one blockchain, interoperability, token distribution, L1X blockchain

Procedia PDF Downloads 3