Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15075

Search results for: size effect

15075 Effect of Aggregate Size on Mechanical Behavior of Passively Confined Concrete Subjected to 3D Loading

Authors: Ibrahim Ajani Tijani, C. W. Lim


Limited studies have examined the effect of size on the mechanical behavior of confined concrete subjected to 3-dimensional (3D) test. With the novel 3D testing system to produce passive confinement, concrete cubes were tested to examine the effect of size on stress-strain behavior of the specimens. The effect of size on 3D stress-strain relationship was scrutinized and compared to the stress-strain relationship available in the literature. It was observed that the ultimate stress and the corresponding strain was related to the confining rigidity and size. The size shows a significant effect on the intersection stress and a new model was proposed for the intersection stress based on the conceptual design of the confining plates.

Keywords: concrete, aggregate size, size effect, 3D compression, passive confinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
15074 Approximate Confidence Interval for Effect Size Base on Bootstrap Resampling Method

Authors: S. Phanyaem


This paper presents the confidence intervals for the effect size base on bootstrap resampling method. The meta-analytic confidence interval for effect size is proposed that are easy to compute. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of the proposed confidence intervals with the existing confidence intervals. The best confidence interval method will have a coverage probability close to 0.95. Simulation results have shown that our proposed confidence intervals perform well in terms of coverage probability and expected length.

Keywords: effect size, confidence interval, bootstrap method, resampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
15073 Size Effect on Shear Strength of Slender Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Subhan Ahmad, Pradeep Bhargava, Ajay Chourasia


Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement leads to loss of property and life since a very little or no warning occurs before failure as in case of flexural failure. Shear strength of reinforced concrete beams decreases as its depth increases. This phenomenon is generally called as the size effect. In this paper, a comparative analysis is performed to estimate the performance of shear strength models in capturing the size effect of reinforced concrete beams made with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete. Four shear strength models that account for the size effect in shear are selected from the literature and applied on the datasets of slender reinforced concrete beams. Beams prepared with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete are considered for the analysis. Results showed that all the four models captured the size effect in shear effectively and produced conservative estimates of the shear strength for beams made with normal strength conventional concrete. These models yielded unconservative estimates for high strength conventional concrete beams with larger effective depths ( > 450 mm). Model of Bazant and Kim (1984) captured the size effect precisely and produced conservative estimates of shear strength of self-compacting concrete beams at all the effective depths. Also, shear strength models considered in this study produced unconservative estimates of shear strength for recycled aggregate concrete beams at all effective depths.

Keywords: reinforced concrete beams; shear strength; prediction models; size effect

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15072 Synthesis and Functionalization of Gold Nanostars for ROS Production

Authors: H. D. Duong, J. I. Rhee


In this work, gold nanoparticles in star shape (called gold nanostars, GNS) were synthesized and coated by N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide hydrochloride (PA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) for functionalizing their surface by amine and carboxyl groups and then investigated for ROS production. The GNS with big size and multi-tips seem to be superior in singlet oxygen production as compared with that of small GNS and less tips. However, the functioned GNS in small size could also enhance efficiency of singlet oxygen production about double as compared with that of the intact GNS. In combination with methylene blue (MB+), the functioned GNS could enhance the singlet oxygen production of MB+ after 1h of LED750 irradiation and no difference between small size and big size in this reaction was observed. In combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), only GNS coated PA could enhance the singlet oxygen production of ALA and the small size of GNS coated PA was a little higher effect than that of the bigger size. However, GNS coated MPA with small size had strong effect on hydroxyl radical production of ALA.

Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, gold nanostars, methylene blue, ROS production

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15071 Effect of Filler Size and Shape on Positive Temperature Coefficient Effect

Authors: Eric Asare, Jamie Evans, Mark Newton, Emiliano Bilotti


Two types of filler shapes (sphere and flakes) and three different sizes are employed to study the size effect on PTC. The composite is prepared using a mini-extruder with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as the matrix. A computer modelling is used to fit the experimental results. The percolation threshold decreases with decreasing filler size and this was observed for both the spherical particles as well as the flakes. This was caused by the decrease in interparticle distance with decreasing filler size. The 100 µm particles showed a larger PTC intensity compared to the 5 µm particles for the metal coated glass sphere and flake. The small particles have a large surface area and agglomeration and this makes it difficult for the conductive network to e disturbed. Increasing the filler content decreased the PTC intensity and this is due to an increase in the conductive network within the polymer matrix hence more energy is needed to disrupt the network.

Keywords: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect, conductive polymer composite (CPC), electrical conductivity

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15070 Effect of Particle Size on Alkali-Activation of Slag

Authors: E. Petrakis, V. Karmali, K. Komnitsas


In this study grinding experiments were performed in a laboratory ball mill using Polish ferronickel slag in order to study the effect of the particle size on alkali activation and the properties of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs). In this regard, the particle size distribution and the specific surface area of the grinding products in relation to grinding time were assessed. The experimental results show that products with high compressive strength, e.g. higher than 60 MPa, can be produced when the slag median size decreased from 39.9 μm to 11.9 μm. Also, finer fractions are characterized by higher reactivity and result in the production of AAMs with lower porosity and better mechanical properties.

Keywords: alkali activation, compressive strength, grinding time, particle size distribution, slag, structural integrity

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15069 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test

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15068 Effect of Shape and Size of Concrete Specimen and Strength of Concrete Mixture in the Absence and Presence of Fiber

Authors: Sultan Husein Bayqra, Ali Mardani Aghabaglou, Zia Ahmad Faqiri, Hassane Amidou Ouedraogo


In this study, the effect of shape and size of the concrete specimen on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concrete mixtures in the absence and presence of steel fiber was investigated. For this aim, ten different concrete mixtures having w/c ratio of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 with and without fiber were prepared. In the mixtures containing steel fibers having aspect ratio (L/D) of 64 were used by 1% of the total mixture volume. In all concrete mixtures, CEM I 42,5R type Portland cement and crushed Lime-stone aggregates having different aggregate size fractions were used. The combined aggregate was obtained by mixing %40 0-5 mm, %30 5-12 mm and %30 12-22 mm aggregate size fraction. The slump values of concrete mixtures were kept constant as 17 ± 2 cm. To provide the desired slump value, a polycarboxylate ether-based high range water reducing admixture was used. In order to investigate the effect of size and shape of concrete specimen on strength properties 10 cm, 15 cm cubic specimens and 10×20 cm, 15×30 cm cylindrical specimens were prepared for each mixture. The specimens were cured under standard conditions until testing days. The 7- and 28-day compressive and splitting tensile strengths of mixtures were determined. The results obtained from the experimental study showed that the strength ratio between the cylinder and the cube specimens increased with the increase of the strength of the concrete. Regardless of the fiber utilization and specimen shape, strength values of concrete mixtures were increased by decreasing specimen size. However, the mentioned behaviour was not observed for the case that the mixtures having high W/C ratio and containing fiber. The compressive strength of cube specimens containing fiber was less affected by the size of the specimen compared to that of cube specimens containing no fibers.

Keywords: compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, fiber reinforced concrete, size effect, shape effect

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15067 Geo-Additive Modeling of Family Size in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwayemisi O. Alaba, John O. Olaomi


The 2013 Nigerian Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) data was used to investigate the determinants of family size in Nigeria using the geo-additive model. The fixed effect of categorical covariates were modelled using the diffuse prior, P-spline with second-order random walk for the nonlinear effect of continuous variable, spatial effects followed Markov random field priors while the exchangeable normal priors were used for the random effects of the community and household. The Negative Binomial distribution was used to handle overdispersion of the dependent variable. Inference was fully Bayesian approach. Results showed a declining effect of secondary and higher education of mother, Yoruba tribe, Christianity, family planning, mother giving birth by caesarean section and having a partner who has secondary education on family size. Big family size is positively associated with age at first birth, number of daughters in a household, being gainfully employed, married and living with partner, community and household effects.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, family size, geo-additive model, negative binomial

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15066 Effect of Mesh Size on the Supersonic Viscous Flow Parameters around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Haoui Rabah


The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the flow parameters and detached shock position. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the mesh size is significant on the shear stress and velocity profile. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, blunt body

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15065 Effect of Specimen Thickness on Probability Distribution of Grown Crack Size in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


The fatigue crack growth is stochastic because of the fatigue behavior having an uncertainty and a randomness. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the probability distribution of a grown crack size at a specific fatigue crack propagation life for maintenance of structure as well as reliability estimation. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the grown crack size at a specified fatigue life in a rolled magnesium alloy under different specimen thickness conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are carried out in laboratory air under three conditions of specimen thickness using AZ31 to investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior. The goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of a grown crack size under different specimen thickness conditions is performed by Anderson-Darling test. The effect of a specimen thickness on variability of a grown crack size is also investigated.

Keywords: crack size, fatigue crack propagation, magnesium alloys, probability distribution, specimen thickness

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15064 Size Distribution Effect of InAs/InP Self–Organized Quantum Dots on Optical Properties

Authors: Abdelkader Nouri, M’hamed Bouslama, Faouzi Saidi, Hassan Maaref, Michel Gendry


Self-organized InAs quantum dots (QDs) have been grown on 3,1% InP (110) lattice mismatched substrate by Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy (SSMBE). Stranski-Krastanov mode growth has been used to create self-assembled 3D islands on InAs wetting layer (WL). The optical quality depending on the temperature and power is evaluated. In addition, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images shows inhomogeneous island dots size distribution due to temperature coalescence. The quantum size effect was clearly observed through the spectra photoluminescence (PL) shape.

Keywords: AFM, InAs QDs, PL, SSMBE

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15063 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh


Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, intervention

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15062 Modeling of Radiofrequency Nerve Lesioning in Inhomogeneous Media

Authors: Nour Ismail, Sahar El Kardawy, Bassant Badwy


Radiofrequency (RF) lesioning of nerves have been commonly used to alleviate chronic pain, where RF current preventing transmission of pain signals through the nerve by heating the nerve causing the pain. There are some factors that affect the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size, one of these factors is the inhomogeneities in the tissue medium. Our objective is to calculate the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size in a nonhomogenous medium surrounding the RF electrode. A two 3-D finite element models are used to compare the temperature distribution in the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous medium. Also the effect of temperature-dependent electric conductivity on maximum temperature and lesion size is observed. Results show that the presence of a nonhomogeneous medium around the RF electrode has a valuable effect on the temperature distribution and lesion size. The dependency of electric conductivity on tissue temperature increased lesion size.

Keywords: finite element model, nerve lesioning, pain relief, radiofrequency lesion

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15061 Effect of Building Construction Sizes on Project Delivery Methods in Nigeria

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Mohammad Sani


The performance of project delivery methods has been an issue of concern to various stakeholders in the construction industry. The contracting system of project delivery is the traditional system used in the delivery of most public projects in Nigeria. The direct labor system is used most times as an alternative to the traditional system. There were so many complain about the performance of contracting system and the suitability of direct labor as an alternative to the delivery of public projects. Therefore, this paper is aimed at investigating the effect of project size on the project delivery methods in the completed public buildings. Questionnaires were self-administered to managerial staff in the study area and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings reveals that contracting system was choosing for large size building construction project delivery with higher frequency (F) of 40 (76.9%) against direct labor with 12 (23.1%). While the small size project, the result revealed a frequency (F) of 26 (50%) for contracting system and direct labor system respectively. Base on the research findings, the contracting system, was recommended for all sizes of building construction project delivery while direct labor system can only use as an alternative for small size building construction projects delivery.

Keywords: construction size, contracting system, direct labour, effect

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15060 Study on the Impact of Size and Position of the Shear Field in Determining the Shear Modulus of Glulam Beam Using Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang


The shear modulus of a timber beam can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. The shear field test method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test. The current code of practice advises using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. The size and the position of the constructing square might influence the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the size and the position effect of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system has been employed to determine the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. Six glue laminated beams were produced and tested. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of the size effect and the position effect of the square. The results have shown that the size of the square has a noticeable influence on the value of shear modulus, while, the position of the square within the area with the constant shear force does not affect the measured mean shear modulus.

Keywords: shear field test method, structural-sized test, shear modulus of Glulam beam, photogrammetry approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
15059 The Effect of Magnetite Particle Size on Methane Production by Fresh and Degassed Anaerobic Sludge

Authors: E. Al-Essa, R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham


Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-supplementation (7 mM) on methane production from digested sludge undergoing two different microbial growth phases, namely fresh sludge (exponential growth phase) and degassed sludge (endogenous decay phase). Three different particle sizes were assessed: small (50 - 150 nm), medium (168 – 490 nm) and large (800 nm - 4.5 µm) particles. Results show that, in the case of the fresh sludge, magnetite significantly enhanced the methane production rate (up to 32%) and reduced the lag phase (by 15% - 41%) as compared to the control, regardless of the particle size used. However, the cumulative methane produced at the end of the incubation was comparable in all treatment and control bottles. In the case of the degassed sludge, only the medium-sized magnetite particles increased significantly the methane production rate (12% higher) as compared to the control. Small and large particles had little effect on the methane production rate but did result in an extended lag phase which led to significantly lower cumulative methane production at the end of the incubation period. These results suggest that magnetite produces a clear and positive effect on methane production only when an active and balanced microbial community is present in the anaerobic digester. It is concluded that, (i) the effect of magnetite particle size on increasing the methane production rate and reducing lag phase duration is strongly influenced by the initial metabolic state of the microbial consortium, and (ii) the particle size would positively affect the methane production if it is provided within the nanometer size range.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, iron oxide, methanogenesis, nanoparticle

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15058 The Study on Treatment Technology of Fused Carbonized Blast Furnace Slag

Authors: Jiaxu Huang


The melt carbonized blast furnace slag containing TiC was produced by carbothermal reduction of high titanium blast furnace slag. The treatment technology of melt carbonized blast furnace slag with TiC as raw material was studied, including the influence of different cooling methods, crushing atmosphere and sieving particle size on the target product TiC in the slag. The results show that air-cooling and water-cooling have little effect on TiC content of molten carbide blast furnace slag, and have great effect on crystal structure and grain size. TiC content in slag is different when carbide blast furnace slag is crushed in argon atmosphere and air atmosphere. After screening, the difference of TiC content of carbide blast furnace slag with different particle size distribution is obvious. The average TiC content of 100-400 mesh carbide blast furnace slag is 14%. And the average TiC content of carbide blast furnace slag with particle size less than 400 mesh is 10.5%.

Keywords: crushing atmosphere, cooling methods, sieving particle size, TiC

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15057 Influence of the Compression Force and Powder Particle Size on Some Physical Properties of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Tablets

Authors: Djemaa Megdoud, Messaoud Boudaa, Fatima Ouamrane, Salem Benamara


In recent years, the compression of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit powders (DP) to obtain date tablets (DT) has been suggested as a promising form of valorization of non commercial valuable date fruit (DF) varieties. To further improve and characterize DT, the present study aims to investigate the influence of the DP particle size and compression force on some physical properties of DT. The results show that independently of particle size, the hardness (y) of tablets increases with the increase of the compression force (x) following a logarithmic law (y = a ln (bx) where a and b are the constants of model). Further, a full factorial design (FFD) at two levels, applied to investigate the erosion %, reveals that the effects of time and particle size are the same in absolute value and they are beyond the effect of the compression. Regarding the disintegration time, the obtained results also by means of a FFD show that the effect of the compression force exceeds 4 times that of the DP particle size. As final stage, the color parameters in the CIELab system of DT immediately after their obtaining are differently influenced by the size of the initial powder.

Keywords: powder, tablets, date (Phoenix dactylifera L.), hardness, erosion, disintegration time, color

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
15056 The Effect of Non-Normality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

Authors: Z. Jannoo, B. W. Yap, N. Auchoybur, M. A. Lazim


The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are non-normal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and non-normality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model with one endogenous and four exogenous variables. Each latent variable has three indicators. For normal distributions, CB-SEM estimates were found to be inaccurate for small sample size while PLS-SEM could produce the path estimates. Meanwhile, for a larger sample size, CB-SEM estimates have lower variability compared to PLS-SEM. Under non-normality, CB-SEM path estimates were inaccurate for small sample size. However, CB-SEM estimates are more accurate than those of PLS-SEM for sample size of 50 and above. The PLS-SEM estimates are not accurate unless sample size is very large.

Keywords: CB-SEM, Monte Carlo simulation, normality conditions, non-normality, PLS-SEM

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15055 Investigating the Role of Combined Length Scale Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Ni/Cu Multilayer Structures

Authors: Naresh Radaliyagoda, Nigel M. Jennett, Rong Lan, David Parfitt


A series of length scale engineered multilayer material with temperature robust mechanical properties has been suggested. A range of polycrystalline copper sub-layers with the thickness varying from 1 to 25μm and buried in between two nickel layers was produced using electrodeposition dual bath technique. The structure of the multilayers was characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope. The interface effect on the hardness and elastic modulus was tested using Nano-indentation. Results of the grain size and layer thickness measurements, and indentation hardness have been compared. It is found that there is a combined length scale effect that improves mechanical properties in Ni/Cu multilayer structures.

Keywords: nano-indentation, size effect, multilayers, electrodeposition

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15054 Assessment of the Two-Way Relationship between Capital Structure and Operation Performance of Listed Companies on Vietnam’s Stock

Authors: Uyen Tran Tu


The decision on capital structure is one of the most important and sophisticated decisions in financial management in order to improve firm performance. This article would study the two-way impact between capital structure and firm performance. The study use EVIEWS 6.0 software to determine a two-way relationship between the capital structure and firm performance based on two-stage regression (2SLS - Two-Stage Least Squares). The findings are: capital structure has the opposite effect on the business efficiency and vice versa, factors that effect on business efficiency include Size and Opportunities. Factors effects on the capital structure are size; liquidity. These factors also affect the ratio of capital structure (total debt/ total asset) of companies. In particular, liquidity has the opposite effect; and the size of the business has the same impact. The results of the study are in line with the theory and empirical studies presented, and the results of the study are unchanged for all three years 2015-2017.

Keywords: capital structure, firm performance, factors, two-way relationship

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15053 Determination Power and Sample Size Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Dependent Death Rate of Age Model (ZINBD): Regression Analysis Mortality Acquired Immune Deficiency De ciency Syndrome (AIDS)

Authors: Mohd Asrul Affendi Bin Abdullah


Sample size calculation is especially important for zero inflated models because a large sample size is required to detect a significant effect with this model. This paper verify how to present percentage of power approximation for categorical and then extended to zero inflated models. Wald test was chosen to determine power sample size of AIDS death rate because it is frequently used due to its approachability and its natural for several major recent contribution in sample size calculation for this test. Power calculation can be conducted when covariates are used in the modeling ‘excessing zero’ data and assist categorical covariate. Analysis of AIDS death rate study is used for this paper. Aims of this study to determine the power of sample size (N = 945) categorical death rate based on parameter estimate in the simulation of the study.

Keywords: power sample size, Wald test, standardize rate, ZINBDR

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15052 Effect of Tool Size and Cavity Depth on Response Characteristics during Electric Discharge Machining on Superalloy Metal - An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Sudhanshu Kumar


Electrical discharge machining, also known as EDM, process is one of the most applicable machining process for removal of material in hard to machine materials like superalloy metals. EDM process utilizes electrical energy into sparks to erode the metals in presence of dielectric medium. In the present investigation, superalloy, Inconel 718 has been selected as workpiece and electrolytic copper as tool electrode. Attempt has been made to understand the effect of size of tool with varying cavity depth during drilling of hole through EDM process. In order to systematic investigate, tool size in terms of tool diameter and cavity depth along with other important electrical parameters namely, peak current, pulse-on time and servo voltage have been varied at three different values and the experiments has been designed using fractional factorial (Taguchi) method. Each experiment has been repeated twice under the same condition in order to understand the variability within the experiments. The effect of variations in parameters has been evaluated in terms of material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface roughness. Results revel that change in tool diameter during machining affects the response characteristics significantly. Larger tool diameter yielded 13% more material removal rate than smaller tool diameter. Analysis of the effect of variation in cavity depth is notable. There is no significant effect of cavity depth on material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface quality. This indicates that number of experiments can be performed to analyze other parameters effect even at smaller depth of cavity which can reduce the cost and time of experiments. Further, statistical analysis has been carried out to identify the interaction effect between parameters.

Keywords: EDM, Inconel 718, material removal rate, roughness, tool wear, tool size

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15051 The Effect of Initial Sample Size and Increment in Simulation Samples on a Sequential Selection Approach

Authors: Mohammad H. Almomani


In this paper, we argue the effect of the initial sample size, and the increment in simulation samples on the performance of a sequential approach that used in selecting the top m designs when the number of alternative designs is very large. The sequential approach consists of two stages. In the first stage the ordinal optimization is used to select a subset that overlaps with the set of actual best k% designs with high probability. Then in the second stage the optimal computing budget is used to select the top m designs from the selected subset. We apply the selection approach on a generic example under some parameter settings, with a different choice of initial sample size and the increment in simulation samples, to explore the impacts on the performance of this approach. The results show that the choice of initial sample size and the increment in simulation samples does affect the performance of a selection approach.

Keywords: Large Scale Problems, Optimal Computing Budget Allocation, ordinal optimization, simulation optimization

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15050 Effect of Inclusions on the Shape and Size of Crack Tip Plastic Zones by Element Free Galerkin Method

Authors: A. Jameel, G. A. Harmain, Y. Anand, J. H. Masoodi, F. A. Najar


The present study investigates the effect of inclusions on the shape and size of crack tip plastic zones in engineering materials subjected to static loads by employing the element free Galerkin method (EFGM). The modeling of the discontinuities produced by cracks and inclusions becomes independent of the grid chosen for analysis. The standard displacement approximation is modified by adding additional enrichment functions, which introduce the effects of different discontinuities into the formulation. The level set method has been used to represent different discontinuities present in the domain. The effect of inclusions on the extent of crack tip plastic zones is investigated by solving some numerical problems by the EFGM.

Keywords: EFGM, stress intensity factors, crack tip plastic zones, inclusions

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15049 Rim Size Optimization Using Mathematical Modelling

Authors: M. Tan, N. N. Wan, N. Ramli, N. H. Hassan


Car drivers would always like to have custom wheel on their car for two reasons; to improve their car's aesthetic beauty and to improve their car handling. As the size of the rims or wheels played an important role in influencing the way of car handles around turns, this paper aims to present the optimality of rim size that drivers should have known while changing their rim. There are three factors that drivers should have considered while changing their rim: rim size, its weight and material of which they are made. Using mathematical analysis, this paper will focus on only one factor, which is rim size. Factors that are considered in calculating the optimum rim size are the vehicle rim radius, tire height and weight, and aspect ratio. This paper has found that there are limitations in percentage change in rim size from the original tire size. Failure to have the right offset size may cause problems in maneuvering the vehicle.

Keywords: mathematical analysis, optimum wheel size, percentage change, custom wheel

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15048 The Effect of Teaching Science Strategies Curriculum and Evaluating on Developing the Efficiency of Academic Self in Science and the Teaching Motivation for the Student Teachers of the Primary Years

Authors: Amani M. Al-Hussan


The current study aimed to explore the effects of science teaching strategies course (CURR422) on developing academic self efficacy and motivation towards teaching it in female primary classroom teachers in College of Education in Princess Nora Bint AbdulRahman University. The study sample consisted (48) female student teachers. To achieve the study aims, the researcher designed two instruments: Academic Self Efficacy Scale & Motivation towards Teaching Science Scale while maintaining the validity and reliability of these instruments.. Several statistical procedures were conducted i.e. Independent Sample T-test, Eta Square, Cohen D effect size. The results reveal that there were statistically significant differences between means of pre and post test for the sample in favor of post test. For academic self efficacy scale, Eta square was 0.99 and the effect size was 27.26. While for the motivation towards teaching science scale, Eta was 0.99 and the effect size was 51.72. These results indicated high effects of independent variable on the dependent variable.

Keywords: academic self efficiency, achievement, motivation, primary classroom teacher, science teaching strategies course, evaluation

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15047 Effect of Motor Imagery of Truncal Exercises on Trunk Function and Balance in Early Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Elsa Reethu, S. Karthik Babu, N. Syed


Background: Studies in the past focused on the additional benefits of action observation in improving upper and lower limb functions and improving activities of daily living when administered along with conventional therapy. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of literature proving the effects of motor imagery of truncal exercise in improving trunk control in patients with stroke. Aims/purpose: To study the effect of motor imagery of truncal exercises on trunk function and balance in early stroke. Methods: A total of 24 patients were included in the study. 12 were included in the experimental group and 12 were included in control group Trunk function was measured using Trunk Control Test (TCT), Trunk Impairment Scale Verheyden (TIS Verheyden) and Trunk Impairment Scale Fujiwara (TIS Fujiwara). The balance was assessed using Brunel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Tinetti POMA. For the experimental group, each session was for 30 minutes of physical exercises and 15 minutes of motor imagery, once a day, six times a week for 3 weeks and prior to the exercise session, patients viewed a video tape of all the trunk exercises to be performed for 15minutes. The control group practiced the trunk exercises alone for the same duration. Measurements were taken before, after and 4 weeks after intervention. Results: The effect of treatment in motor imagery group showed better improvement when compared with control group when measured after 3 weeks on values of static sitting balance, dynamic balance, total TIS (Verheyden) score, BBA, Tinetti balance and gait with a large effect size of 0.86, 1.99, 1.69, 1.06, 1.63 and 0.97 respectively. The moderate effect size was seen in values of TIS Fujiwara (0.58) and small effect size was seen on TCT (0.12) and TIS coordination component (0.13).at the end of 4 weeks after intervention, the large effect size was identified on values of dynamic balance (2.06), total TIS score (1.59) and Tinetti balance (1.24). The moderate effect size was observed on BBA (0.62) and Tinetti gait (0.72). Conclusion: Trunk motor imagery is effective in improving trunk function and balance in patients with stroke and has a carryover effect in the aspects of mobility. The therapy gain that was observed during the time of discharge was seen to be maintained at the follow-up levels.

Keywords: stroke, trunk rehabilitation, trunk function, balance, motor imagery

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15046 The Determinants of Financing to Deposit Ratio of Islamic Bank in Malaysia

Authors: Achsania Hendratmi, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Nisful Laila


The research aimed to know the influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Return on Assets (ROA) and Size of the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR) Islamic Banks in Malaysia by using eleven Islamic Banks in Indonesia and fifteen Islamic Banks in Malaysia in the period 2012 to 2016 as samples. The research used a quantitative approach method, and the analysis technique used multiple linear regression. Based on the result of t-test (partial), CAR, ROA and size significantly affect of FDR. While the results of f-test (simultaneous) showed that CAR, ROA and Size significant effect on FDR.

Keywords: capital adequacy ratio, financing to deposit ratio, return on assets, size

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