Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: polyvinylpyrrolidone

21 Optical Properties of Tetrahydrofuran Clathrate Hydrates at Terahertz Frequencies

Authors: Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Yun-Ho Ahn, Huen Lee


Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to observe the THF clathrate hydrate system with dosage of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with three different average molecular weights (10,000 g/mol, 40,000 g/mol, 360,000 g/mol). Distinct footprints of phase transition in the THz region (0.4 - 2.2 THz) were analyzed and absorption coefficients and complex refractive indices are obtained and compared in the temperature range of 253 K to 288 K. Along with the optical properties, ring breathing and stretching modes for different molecular weights of PVP in THF hydrate are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: clathrate hydrate, terahertz, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), THz-TDS, inhibitor

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20 The Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Optical Properties of (PVP-PEG) Blend

Authors: Hussein Hakim, Zainab Al-Ramadhan, Ahmed Hashim


Polymer nano composites of polyvinylpyrrolidone and poly-ethylene glycol with different concentrations of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nano particles have been prepared by solution cast method. The optical characterizations have been done by analyzing the absorption (A) spectra in the 300–800 nm spectral region. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with the increasing of Al2O3 nano particles content. The optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) are changing with increasing aluminum oxide nano particle concentrations.

Keywords: nanocomposites, polyvinylpyrrolidone, optical constants, polymers, blend

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19 Phase Transition of Aqueous Ternary (THF + Polyvinylpyrrolidone + H2O) System as Revealed by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

Authors: Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Yun-Ho Ahn, Huen Lee


Determination of the behavior of clathrate hydrate with inhibitor in the THz region will provide useful information about hydrate plug control in the upstream of the oil and gas industry. In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) revealed the inhibition of the THF clathrate hydrate system with dosage of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with three different molecular weights. Distinct footprints of phase transition in the THz region (0.4–2.2 THz) were analyzed and absorption coefficients and real part of refractive indices are obtained in the temperature range of 253 K to 288 K. Along with the optical properties, ring breathing and stretching modes for different molecular weights of PVP in THF hydrate are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: clathrate hydrate, terahertz spectroscopy, tetrahydrofuran, inhibitor

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18 Increase of the Nanofiber Degradation Rate Using PCL-PEO and PCL-PVP as a Shell in the Electrospun Core-Shell Nanofibers Using the Needleless Blades

Authors: Matej Buzgo, Erico Himawan, Ksenija JašIna, Aiva Simaite


Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient technology for producing nanofibers for biomedical applications. One of the most common polymers used for the preparation of nanofibers for regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications is polycaprolactone (PCL). PCL is a biocompatible and bioabsorbable material that can be used to stimulate the regeneration of various tissues. It is also a common material used for the development of drug delivery systems by blending the polymer with small active molecules. However, for many drug delivery applications, e.g. cancer immunotherapy, PCL biodegradation rate that may exceed 9 months is too long, and faster nanofiber dissolution is needed. In this paper, we investigate the dissolution and small molecule release rates of PCL blends with two hydrophilic polymers: polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). We show that adding hydrophilic polymer to the PCL reduces the water contact angle, increases the dissolution rate, and strengthens the interactions between the hydrophilic drug and polymer matrix that further sustain its release. Finally using this method, we were also able to increase the nanofiber degradation rate when PCL-PEO and PCL-PVP were used as a shell in the electrospun core-shell nanofibers and spread up the release of active proteins from their core. Electrospinning can be used for the preparation of the core-shell nanofibers, where active ingredients are encapsulated in the core and their release rate is regulated by the shell. However, such fibers are usually prepared by coaxial electrospinning that is an extremely low-throughput technique. An alternative is emulsion electrospinning that could be upscaled using needleless blades. In this work, we investigate the possibility of using emulsion electrospinning for encapsulation and sustained release of the growth factors for the development of the organotypic skin models. The core-shell nanofibers were prepared using the optimized formulation and the release rate of proteins from the fibers was investigated for 2 weeks – typical cell culture conditions.

Keywords: electrospinning, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)

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17 Fabrication of Titanium Diboride-Based High Emissive Paint Coating Using Economical Dip Coating Method for High Temperature Applications

Authors: Atasi Dan, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Bikramjit Basu


A cost-effective titanium diboride (TiB2) paint coating has been developed on stainless steel substrate using commercially available polyvinylpyrrolidone as a binder by convenient dip-coating technique. The emittance of the coating has been explored by tailoring various process parameters to obtain highest thermal radiation. The optimized coating has achieved a high thermal emittance of 0.85. In addition, the coating exhibited an excellent thermal stability while heat-treated at 500 °C in air. Along with the emittance, the structural and physical properties of the As-deposited and heat-treated coatings have been investigated systematically. The high temperature annealing has not affected the emittance, chemical composition and morphology of the coating significantly. Hence, the fabricated paint coating is expected to open up new possibilities for using it as a low-cost, thermally stable emitter in high temperature applications.

Keywords: titanium diboride, emittance, paint coating, thermal stability

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16 Fabrication of Titania and Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning Process

Authors: R. F. Louh, Cathy Chou, Victor Wang, Howard Yan


The aim of this study is to manufacture titania and reduced graphene oxide (TiO2/rGO) composite nanofibers via electrospinning (ESP) of precursor fluid consisted of titania sol containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) and GO solution. The GO nanoparticles were derived from Hummers’ method. A metal grid ring was used to provide the bias voltage to reach higher ESP yield and nonwoven fabric with dense network of TiO2/GO composite nanofibers. The ESP product was heat treated at 500°C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere to acquire TiO2/rGO nanofibers by thermal reduction of GO and phase transformation into anatase TiO2. The TiO2/rGO nanofibers made from various volume fractions of GO solution by ESP were analyzed by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, BET and FTIR. Such TiO2/rGO fibers having photocatalytic property, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity can be used for photovoltaics and chemical sensing applications.

Keywords: electrospinning process, titanium oxide, thermally reduced graphene oxide, composite nanofibers

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15 Influence of Surfactant on Supercooling Degree of Aqueous Titania Nanofluids in Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Hoda Aslani, Mohammad Moghiman, Mohammad Aslani


Considering the demand to reduce global warming potential and importance of solidification in various applications, there is an increasing interest in energy storage systems to find the efficient phase change materials. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental study and comparison on the potential of titania nanofluids with and without surfactant for cooling energy storage systems. A designed cooling generation device based on compression refrigeration cycle is used to explore nanofluids solidification characteristics. In this work, titania nanoparticles of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 wt.% are dispersed in deionized water as base fluid. Measurement of phase change parameters of nanofluids illustrates that the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant to titania nanofluids advances the onset nucleation time and leads to lower solidification time. Also, the experimental results show that only adding 0.02 wt.% titania nanoparticles, especially in the case of nanofluids with a surfactant, can evidently reduce the supercooling degree by nearly 70%. Hence, it is concluded that there is a great energy saving potential in the energy storage systems using titania nanofluid with PVP.

Keywords: cooling energy storage, nanofluid, PVP, solidification, titania

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14 Preparation Non-Woven Nanofiber Structures for Uniform and Rapid Drug Releasing Applications Using an Electrospinning Process

Authors: Cho-Liang Chung


Uniform and rapid drug release are important for trauma dressing application. Low glass transition polymer system and non-woven nanofiber structures as the designs conduct rapid-release characteristics. In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polysulfone, and polystyrene were dissolved in dimethylformamide to form precursor solution. These solutions were blended with vitamin C to form the electrospinning solutions. The non-woven nanofibers structures were successfully prepared using an electrospinning process. The following instruments were used to analyze the characteristics of non-woven nanofibers structures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers. 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of nanofibers. FE-SEM was used to explore the morphology of non-woven structures. XRD was used to identify crystal structures in the non-woven structures. The evolution of morphology of non-woven structures was changed dramatically in different durations, because of the moisture absorption and decreasing glass transition temperature; the non-woven nanofiber structures can be applied to uniform and rapid drug release for trauma dressing application.

Keywords: nanofibers, non-woven, electrospinning process, rapid drug releasing

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13 Influence of Processing Parameters on the Reliability of Sieving as a Particle Size Distribution Measurements

Authors: Eseldin Keleb


In the pharmaceutical industry particle size distribution is an important parameter for the characterization of pharmaceutical powders. The powder flowability, reactivity and compatibility, which have a decisive impact on the final product, are determined by particle size and size distribution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of processing parameters on the particle size distribution measurements. Different Size fractions of α-lactose monohydrate and 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared by wet granulation and were used for the preparation of samples. The influence of sieve load (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 g), processing time (5, 10, and 15 min), sample size ratios (high percentage of small and large particles), type of disturbances (vibration and shaking) and process reproducibility have been investigated. Results obtained showed that a sieve load of 50 g produce the best separation, a further increase in sample weight resulted in incomplete separation even after the extension of the processing time for 15 min. Performing sieving using vibration was rapider and more efficient than shaking. Meanwhile between day reproducibility showed that particle size distribution measurements are reproducible. However, for samples containing 70% fines or 70% large particles, which processed at optimized parameters, the incomplete separation was always observed. These results indicated that sieving reliability is highly influenced by the particle size distribution of the sample and care must be taken for samples with particle size distribution skewness.

Keywords: sieving, reliability, particle size distribution, processing parameters

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12 Preparation of Silicon-Based Oxide Hollow Nanofibers Using Single-Nozzle Electrospinning

Authors: Juiwen Liang, Choliang Chung


In this study, the silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure were prepared using single-nozzle electrospinning and heat treatment. Firstly, precursor solution was prepared: the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) dissolved in ethanol and to make sure the concentration of solution in appropriate using single-nozzle electrospinning to produce the nanofibers. Secondly, control morphology of the electrostatic spinning nanofibers was conducted, and design the temperature profile to created hollow nanofibers, exploring the morphology and properties of nanofibers. The characterized of nanofibers, following instruments were used: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers, and 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of fibers. FE-SEM and TEM were used to explore the morphology and diameter of nanofibers and hollow nanofiber. The excitation and emission spectra explored by PL. Finally, XRD was used for identified crystallization of ceramic nanofibers. Using electrospinning technique followed by subsequent heat treatment, we have successfully prepared silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure. Thus, the microstructure and morphology of electrostatic spinning silicon-base oxide hollow nanofibers were explored. Major characteristics of the nanofiber in terms of crystalline, optical properties and crystal structure were identified.

Keywords: electrospinning, single-nozzle, hollow, nanofibers

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11 Nanosilver Containing Biodegradable Bionanocomposites for Antimicrobial Application: Design, Preparation and Study

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Shorena Tskhadadze, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava


Surgical device-associated infection and biofilm formation are some of the major problems in biomedicine for today. The losing protection ability of conventional antimicrobial-drugs leads to the challenges in the current antibiotic therapy, the most serious of which is antibiotic resistance. Our strategy to overcome the biofilm formation consists in coating devices with polymeric film containing nanosilver(AgNPs) as a bactericidal agent. Such bionanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials. For this purpose, we have developed a new generation of AgNPs containing polymeric composites in which amino acid based biodegradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) were served as both matrices and AgNPs stabilizers. The AgNPs were formed by photochemical (daylight) reduction of AgNO3 in ethanol solution. The formation of AgNPs was monitored by coloring the solution in brownish-red and appearance of the absorption maximum at 420-430 nm in UV spectrum. Comparative studies of PEAs with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as particle stabilizers were carried out. It was found that PVP is better stabilizer in terms of particles yield and stability. Therefore, in subsequent experiments blends of PEAs and PVP were used as stabilizers for fabricating AgNPs. As expected, PVP increased the stabilizing effect and this apparently observed in the UV spectrum of the samples after 7 h daylight irradiation: for pure PVP λmax = 430 nm, D = 2.03, for pure PEA λmax= 420 nm, D = 0.65, and for the blend of PVP and PEA λmax = 435 nm, D = 1.88. Further study of the obtained nanobiocomposites is in progress now.

Keywords: biodegradation, bionanocompositions, polymer, nanosilver

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10 Formulation of Highly Dosed Drugs Using Different Granulation Techniques: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ezeddin Kolaib


Paracetamol tablets and cimetidine tablets were prepared by single-step granulation/tabletting and by compression after high shear granulation. The addition of PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) was essential for single-step granulation/tabletting of formulation containing high concentrations of paracetamol or cimetidine. Paracetamol tablets without and with PVP obtained by single-step granulation/tabletting exhibited a significantly higher tensile strength, a significantly lower disintegration time, a lower friability and a faster dissolution compared to those prepared by compression after high shear granulation. Cimetidine tablets with PVP obtained by single-step granulation/tabletting exhibited a significantly lower tensile strength, a significantly lower disintegration time and a faster dissolution compared to those prepared by compression after high shear granulation. Single-step granulation/tabletting allowed to produce tablets containing up to 80% paracetamol or cimetidine with a dissolution profile complying with the USP requirements. For pure paracetamol or pure cimetidine the addition of crospovidone as a disintegrant was required to obtain a dissolution profile that complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements. Long term and accelerated stability studies of paracetamol tablets produced by single-step granulation/tabletting over a period of one year showed no significant influence on the tablet tensile strength, friability and dissolution. Although a significant increase of the disintegration time was observed, it remained below 10 min. These results indicated that single-step granulation/tabletting could be an efficient technique for the production of highly dosed drugs such as paracetamol and cimetidine.

Keywords: single-step granulation/tabletting, twin screw extrusion, high shear granulation, high dosage drugs, paracetamol, cimetidine

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9 Rapid and Easy Fabrication of Collagen-Based Biocomposite Scaffolds for 3D Cell Culture

Authors: Esra Turker, Umit Hakan Yildiz, Ahu Arslan Yildiz


The key of regenerative medicine is mimicking natural three dimensional (3D) microenvironment of tissues by utilizing appropriate biomaterials. In this study, a synthetic biodegradable polymer; poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLLCL) and a natural polymer; collagen was used to mimic the biochemical structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), and by means of electrospinning technique the real physical structure of ECM has mimicked. PLLCL/Collagen biocomposite scaffolds enables cell attachment, proliferation and nutrient transport through fabrication of micro to nanometer scale nanofibers. Biocomposite materials are commonly preferred due to limitations of physical and biocompatible properties of natural and synthetic materials. Combination of both materials improves the strength, degradation and biocompatibility of scaffold. Literature studies have shown that collagen is mostly solved with heavy chemicals, which is not suitable for cell culturing. To overcome this problem, a new approach has been developed in this study where polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as co-electrospinning agent. PVP is preferred due to its water solubility, so PLLCL/collagen biocomposite scaffold can be easily and rapidly produced. Hydrolytic and enzymatic biodegradation as well as mechanical strength of scaffolds were examined in vitro. Cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology characterization studies have been performed as well. Further, on-chip drug screening analysis has been performed over 3D tumor models. Overall, the developed biocomposite scaffold was used for 3D tumor model formation and obtained results confirmed that developed model could be used for drug screening studies to predict clinical efficacy of a drug.

Keywords: biomaterials, 3D cell culture, drug screening, electrospinning, lab-on-a-chip, tissue engineering

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8 Comparison of Bismuth-Based Nanoparticles as Radiosensitization Agents for Radiotherapy

Authors: Merfat Algethami, Anton Blencowe, Bryce Feltis, Stephen Best, Moshi Geso


Nano-materials with high atomic number atoms have been demonstrated to enhance the effective radiation dose and thus potentially could improve therapeutic efficacy in radiotherapy. The optimal nanoparticulate agents require high X-ray absorption coefficients, low toxicity, and should be cost effective. The focus of our research is the development of a nanoparticle therapeutic agent that can be used in radiotherapy to provide optimal enhancement of the radiation effects on the target. In this study, we used bismuth (Bi) nanoparticles coated with starch and bismuth sulphide nanoparticles (Bi2S3) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). These NPs are of low toxicity and are one of the least expensive heavy metal-based nanoparticles. The aims of this study were to synthesise Bi2S3 and Bi NPs, and examine their cytotoxicity to human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). The dose enhancing effects of NPs on A549 cells were examined at both KV and MV energies. The preliminary results revealed that bismuth based nanoparticles show increased radio-sensitisation of cells, displaying dose enhancement with KV X-ray energies and to a lesser degree for the MV energies. We also observed that Bi NPs generated a greater dose enhancement effect than Bi2S3 NPs in irradiated A549 cells. The maximum Dose Enhancement Factor (DEF) was obtained at lower energy KV range when cells treated with Bi NPs (1.5) compared to the DEF of 1.2 when cells treated with Bi2S3NPs. Less radiation dose enhancement was observed when using high energy MV beam with higher DEF value of Bi NPs treatment (1.26) as compared to 1.06 DEF value with Bi2S3 NPs. The greater dose enhancement was achieved at KV energy range, due the effect of the photoelectric effect which is the dominant process of interaction of X-ray. The cytotoxic effect of Bi NPs on enhancing the X-ray dose was higher due to the higher amount of elemental Bismuth present in Bi NPs compared to Bi2S3 NPs. The results suggest that Bismuth based NPs can be considered as valuable dose enhancing agents when used in clinical applications.

Keywords: A549 lung cancer cells, Bi2S3 nanoparticles, dose enhancement effect, radio-sensitising agents

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7 Synthesis of Ultra-Small Platinum, Palladium and Gold Nanoparticles by Electrochemically Active Biofilms and Their Enhanced Catalytic Activities

Authors: Elaf Ahmed, Shahid Rasul, Ohoud Alharbi, Peng Wang


Ultra-Small Nanoparticles of metals (USNPs) have attracted the attention from the perspective of both basic and developmental science in a wide range of fields. These NPs exhibit electrical, optical, magnetic, and catalytic phenomena. In addition, they are considered effective catalysts because of their enormously large surface area. Many chemical methods of synthesising USNPs are reported. However, the drawback of these methods is the use of different capping agents and ligands in the process of the production such as Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Thiol and Ethylene Glycol. In this research ultra-small nanoparticles of gold, palladium and platinum metal have been successfully produced using electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) after optimising the pH of the media. The production of ultra-small nanoparticles has been conducted in a reactor using a simple two steps method. Initially biofilm was grown on the surface of a carbon paper for 7 days using Shewanella Loihica bacteria. Then, biofilm was employed to synthesise platinum, palladium and gold nanoparticles in water using sodium lactate as electron donor without using any toxic chemicals at mild operating conditions. Electrochemically active biofilm oxidise the electron donor and produces electrons in the solution. Since these electrons are a strong reducing agent, they can reduce metal precursors quite effectively and quickly. The As-synthesized ultra-small nanoparticles have a size range between (2-7nm) and showed excellent catalytic activity on the degradation of methyl orange. The growth of metal USNPs is strongly related to the condition of the EAB. Where using low pH for the synthesis was not successful due to the fact that it might affect and destroy the bacterial cells. However, increasing the pH to 7 and 9, led to the successful formation of USNPs. By changing the pH value, we noticed a change in the size range of the produced NPs. The EAB seems to act as a Nano factory for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by offering a green, sustainable and toxic free synthetic route without the use of any capping agents or ligands and depending only on their respiration pathway.

Keywords: electrochemically active biofilm, electron donor, shewanella loihica, ultra-small nanoparticles

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6 Luminescent Dye-Doped Polymer Nanofibers Produced by Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Monica Enculescu, A. Evanghelidis, I. Enculescu


Among the numerous methods for obtaining polymer nanofibers, the electrospinning technique distinguishes itself due to the more growing interest induced by its proved utility leading to developing and improving of the method and the appearance of novel materials. In particular, production of polymeric nanofibers in which different dopants are introduced was intensively studied in the last years because of the increased interest for the obtaining of functional electrospun nanofibers. Electrospinning is a facile method of obtaining polymer nanofibers with diameters from tens of nanometers to micrometrical sizes that are cheap, flexible, scalable, functional and biocompatible. Besides the multiple applications in medicine, polymeric nanofibers obtained by electrospinning permit manipulation of light at nanometric dimensions when doped with organic dyes or different nanoparticles. It is a simple technique that uses an electrical field to draw fine polymer nanofibers from solutions and does not require complicated devices or high temperatures. Different morphologies of the electrospun nanofibers can be obtained for the same polymeric host when different parameters of the electrospinning process are used. Consequently, we can obtain tuneable optical properties of the electrospun nanofibers (e.g. changing the wavelength of the emission peak) by varying the parameters of the fabrication method. We focus on obtaining doped polymer nanofibers with enhanced optical properties using the electrospinning technique. The aim of the paper is to produce dye-doped polymer nanofibers’ mats incorporating uniformly dispersed dyes. Transmission and fluorescence of the fibers will be evaluated by spectroscopy methods. The morphological properties of the electrospun dye-doped polymer fibers will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We will tailor the luminescent properties of the material by doping the polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone or polymethylmetacrilate) with different dyes (coumarins, rhodamines and sulforhodamines). The tailoring will be made taking into consideration the possibility of changing the luminescent properties of electrospun polymeric nanofibers that are doped with different dyes by using different parameters for the electrospinning technique (electric voltage, distance between electrodes, flow rate of the solution, etc.). Furthermore, we can evaluated the influence of the concentration of the dyes on the emissive properties of dye-doped polymer nanofibers using different concentrations. The advantages offered by the electrospinning technique when producing polymeric fibers are given by the simplicity of the method, the tunability of the morphology allowed by the possibility of controlling all the process parameters (temperature, viscosity of polymeric solution, applied voltage, distance between electrodes, etc.), and by the absence of necessity of using harsh and supplementary chemicals such as the ones used in the traditional nanofabrication techniques. Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the financial support received through IFA CEA Project No. C5-08/2016.

Keywords: electrospinning, luminescence, polymer nanofibers, scanning electron microscopy

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5 Conservative and Surgical Treatment of Antiresorptive Drug-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw with Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Bone Surgery under Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine Irrigation: A Case Series of 13 Treated Sites

Authors: Esra Yuce, Isil D. S. Yamaner, Murude Yazan


Aims and objective: Antiresorptive agents including bisphosphonates and denosumab as strong suppressors of osteoclasts are the most commonly used antiresorptive medications for the treatment of osteoporosis which counteract the negative quantitative alteration of trabecular and cortical bone by inhibition of bone turnover. Oral bisphosphonate therapy for the treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or Paget's disease is associated with the low-grade risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw, while higher-grade risk is associated with receiving intravenous bisphosphonates therapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases. On the other hand, there has been a remarkable increase in incidences of antiresorptive related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) in oral bisphosphonate users. This clinical presentation will evaluate the healing outcomes via piezoelectric bone surgery under the irrigation of PVP-I solution irrigation in patients received bisphosphonate therapy. Material-Method: The study involved 8 female and 5 male patients that have been treated for ARONJ. Among 13 necrotic sites, 9 were in the mandible and 4 were in the maxilla. All of these 13 patients treated with surgical debridement via piezoelectric bone surgery under irrigation by solution with 3% PVP-I concentration in combination with long-term antibiotic therapy and 5 also underwent removal of mobile segments of bony sequestrum. All removable prosthesis in 8 patients were relined with soft liners during the healing periods in order to eliminate chronic minor traumas. Results: All patients were on oral bisphosphonate therapy for at least 2 years and 5 of which had received intravenous bisphosphonates up to 1 year before therapy with oral bisphosphonates was started. According to the AAOMS staging system, four cases were stage II, eight cases were stage I, and one case was stage III. The majority of lesions were identified at sites of dental prostheses (38%) and dental extractions (62%). All patients diagnosed with ARONJ stage I had used unadjusted removable prostheses. No recurrence of the symptoms was observed during the present follow-up (9–37 months). Conclusion: Despite their confirmed effectiveness, the prevention and treatment of osteonecrosis of the jaw secondary to oral bisphosphonate therapy remain major medical challenges. Treatment with piezoelectric bone surgery with irrigation of povidone-iodine solution was effective for management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Taking precautions for patients treated with oral bisphosphonates, especially also denture users, may allow for a reduction in the rate of developing osteonecrosis of the maxillofacial region.

Keywords: antiresorptive drug related osteonecrosis, bisphosphonate therapy, piezoelectric bone surgery, povidone iodine

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4 Branched Chain Amino Acid Kinesio PVP Gel Tape from Extract of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technology

Authors: Doni Dermawan


Modern sports competition as a consequence of the increase in the value of the business and entertainment in the field of sport has been demanding athletes to always have excellent physical endurance performance. Physical exercise is done in a long time, and intensive may pose a risk of muscle tissue damage caused by the increase of the enzyme creatine kinase. Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) is an essential amino acid that is composed of leucine, isoleucine, and valine which serves to maintain muscle tissue, keeping the immune system, and prevent further loss of coordination and muscle pain. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a kind of leguminous plants that are rich in Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) where every one gram of protein pea contains 82.7 mg of leucine; 56.3 mg isoleucine; and 56.0 mg of valine. This research aims to develop Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) from pea extract is applied in dosage forms Gel PVP Kinesio Tape technology using Ultrasound-assisted Extraction. The method used in the writing of this paper is the Cochrane Collaboration Review that includes literature studies, testing the quality of the study, the characteristics of the data collection, analysis, interpretation of results, and clinical trials as well as recommendations for further research. Extraction of BCAA in pea done using ultrasound-assisted extraction technology with optimization variables includes the type of solvent extraction (NaOH 0.1%), temperature (20-250C), time (15-30 minutes) power (80 watt) and ultrasonic frequency (35 KHz). The advantages of this extraction method are the level of penetration of the solvent into the membrane of the cell is high and can increase the transfer period so that the BCAA substance separation process more efficient. BCAA extraction results are then applied to the polymer PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) Gel powder composed of PVP K30 and K100 HPMC dissolved in 10 mL of water-methanol (1: 1) v / v. Preparations Kinesio Tape Gel PVP is the BCAA in the gel are absorbed into the muscle tissue, and joints through tensile force then provides stimulation to the muscle circulation with variable pressure so that the muscle can increase the biomechanical movement and prevent damage to the muscle enzyme creatine kinase. Analysis and evaluation of test preparation include interaction, thickness, weight uniformity, humidity, water vapor permeability, the levels of the active substance, content uniformity, percentage elongation, stability testing, release profile, permeation in vitro and in vivo skin irritation testing.

Keywords: branched chain amino acid, BCAA, Kinesio tape, pea, PVP gel, ultrasound-assisted extraction

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3 Fabrication of Electrospun Green Fluorescent Protein Nano-Fibers for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Yakup Ulusu, Faruk Ozel, Numan Eczacioglu, Abdurrahman Ozen, Sabriye Acikgoz


GFP discovered in the mid-1970s, has been used as a marker after replicated genetic study by scientists. In biotechnology, cell, molecular biology, the GFP gene is frequently used as a reporter of expression. In modified forms, it has been used to make biosensors. Many animals have been created that express GFP as an evidence that a gene can be expressed throughout a given organism. Proteins labeled with GFP identified locations are determined. And so, cell connections can be monitored, gene expression can be reported, protein-protein interactions can be observed and signals that create events can be detected. Additionally, monitoring GFP is noninvasive; it can be detected by under UV-light because of simply generating fluorescence. Moreover, GFP is a relatively small and inert molecule, that does not seem to treat any biological processes of interest. The synthesis of GFP has some steps like, to construct the plasmid system, transformation in E. coli, production and purification of protein. GFP carrying plasmid vector pBAD–GFPuv was digested using two different restriction endonuclease enzymes (NheI and Eco RI) and DNA fragment of GFP was gel purified before cloning. The GFP-encoding DNA fragment was ligated into pET28a plasmid using NheI and Eco RI restriction sites. The final plasmid was named pETGFP and DNA sequencing of this plasmid indicated that the hexa histidine-tagged GFP was correctly inserted. Histidine-tagged GFP was expressed in an Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 (pLysE) strain. The strain was transformed with pETGFP plasmid and grown on LuiraBertoni (LB) plates with kanamycin and chloramphenicol selection. E. coli cells were grown up to an optical density (OD 600) of 0.8 and induced by the addition of a final concentration of 1mM isopropyl-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and then grown for additional 4 h. The amino-terminal hexa-histidine-tag facilitated purification of the GFP by using a His Bind affinity chromatography resin (Novagen). Purity of GFP protein was analyzed by a 12 % sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The concentration of protein was determined by UV absorption at 280 nm (Varian Cary 50 Scan UV/VIS spectrophotometer). Synthesis of GFP-Polymer composite nanofibers was produced by using GFP solution (10mg/mL) and polymer precursor Polyvinylpyrrolidone, (PVP, Mw=1300000) as starting materials and template, respectively. For the fabrication of nanofibers with the different fiber diameter; a sol–gel solution comprising of 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80 g PVP (depending upon the desired fiber diameter) and 100 mg GFP in 10 mL water: ethanol (3:2) mixtures were prepared and then the solution was covered on collecting plate via electro spinning at 10 kV with a feed-rate of 0.25 mL h-1 using Spellman electro spinning system. Results show that GFP-based nano-fiber can be used plenty of biomedical applications such as bio-imaging, bio-mechanic, bio-material and tissue engineering.

Keywords: biomaterial, GFP, nano-fibers, protein expression

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2 Antimicrobial Nanocompositions Made of Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Polymers

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, Tamar Memanishvili, Manana Gurielidze, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava


Bacteria easily colonize the surfaces of tissues, surgical devices (implants, orthopedics, catheters, etc.), and instruments causing surgical device related infections. Therefore, the battle against bacteria and the prevention of surgical devices from biofilm formation is one of the main challenges of biomedicine today. Our strategy to the solution of this problem consists in using antimicrobial polymeric coatings as effective “shields” to protect surfaces from bacteria’s colonization and biofilm formation. As one of the most promising approaches look be the use of antimicrobial bioerodible polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We assume that the combination of an erodible polymer with a strong bactericide should put obstacles to bacteria to occupy the surface and to form biofilm. It has to be noted that this kind of nanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials to treat infected superficial wounds. Various synthetic and natural polymers were used for creating biocomposites containing AgNPs as both particles' stabilizers and matrices forming elastic films at surfaces. One of the most effective systems to fabricate AgNPs is an ethanol solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) with dissolved AgNO3–ethanol serves as a AgNO3 reductant and PVP as AgNPs stabilizer (through the interaction of nanoparticles with nitrogen atom of the amide group). Though PVP is biocompatible and film-forming polymer, it is not a good candidate to design either "biofilm shield" or wound dressing material because of a high solubility in water – though the solubility of PVP provides the desirable release of AgNPs from the matrix, but the coating is easily washable away from the surfaces. More promising as matrices look water insoluble but bioerodible polymers that can provide the release of AgNPs and form long-lasting coatings at the surfaces. For creating bioerodible water-insoluble antimicrobial coatings containing AgNPs, we selected amino acid based biodegradable polymers(AABBPs)–poly(ester amide)s, poly(ester urea)s, their copolymers containing amide and related groups capable to stabilize AgNPs. Among a huge variety of AABBPs reported we selected the polymers soluble in ethanol. For preparing AgNPs containing nanocompositions AABBPs and AgNO3 were dissolved in ethanol and subjected to photochemical reduction using daylight-irradiation. The formation of AgNPs was observed visually by coloring the solutions in brownish-red. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and dynamic light scattering(DLS). According to the UV and TEM data, the photochemical reduction resulted presumably in spherical AgNPs with rather high contribution of the particles below 10 nm that are known as responsible for the antimicrobial activity. DLS study showed that average size of nanoparticles formed after photo-reduction in ethanol solution ranged within 50 nm. The in vitro antimicrobial activity study of the new nanocomposite material is in progress now.

Keywords: nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles, polymer, biodegradable

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1 Magnetic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) as Novel Theranostic Nanocarriers: Enhanced Targeting and Noninvasive MRI Tracking

Authors: Achraf Al Faraj, Asma Sultana Shaik, Baraa Al Sayed


Specific and effective targeting of drug delivery systems (DDS) to cancerous sites remains a major challenge for a better diagnostic and therapy. Recently, SWCNTs with their unique physicochemical properties and the ability to cross the cell membrane show promising in the biomedical field. The purpose of this study was first to develop a biocompatible iron oxide tagged SWCNTs as diagnostic nanoprobes to allow their noninvasive detection using MRI and their preferential targeting in a breast cancer murine model by placing an optimized flexible magnet over the tumor site. Magnetic targeting was associated to specific antibody-conjugated SWCNTs active targeting. The therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin-conjugated SWCNTs was assessed, and the superiority of diffusion-weighted (DW-) MRI as sensitive imaging biomarker was investigated. Short Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized water soluble SWCNTs were first developed, tagged with iron oxide nanoparticles and conjugated with Endoglin/CD105 monoclonal antibodies. They were then conjugated with doxorubicin drugs. SWCNTs conjugates were extensively characterized using TEM, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS) zeta potential analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Their MR relaxivities (i.e. r1 and r2*) were measured at 4.7T and their iron content and metal impurities quantified using ICP-MS. SWCNTs biocompatibility and drug efficacy were then evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a set of immunological assays. Luciferase enhanced bioluminescence 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells (4T1-Luc2) were injected into the right inguinal mammary fat pad of Balb/c mice. Tumor bearing mice received either free doxorubicin (DOX) drug or SWCNTs with or without either DOX or iron oxide nanoparticles. A multi-pole 10x10mm high-energy flexible magnet was maintained over the tumor site during 2 hours post-injections and their properties and polarity were optimized to allow enhanced magnetic targeting of SWCNTs toward the primary tumor site. Tumor volume was quantified during the follow-up investigation study using a fast spin echo MRI sequence. In order to detect the homing of SWCNTs to the main tumor site, susceptibility-weighted multi-gradient echo (MGE) sequence was used to generate T2* maps. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements were also performed as a sensitive imaging biomarker providing early and better assessment of disease treatment. At several times post-SWCNT injection, histological analysis were performed on tumor extracts and iron-loaded SWCNT were quantified using ICP-MS in tumor sites, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lung. The optimized multi-poles magnet revealed an enhanced targeting of magnetic SWCNTs to the primary tumor site, which was found to be much higher than the active targeting achieved using antibody-conjugated SWCNTs. Iron-loading allowed their sensitive noninvasive tracking after intravenous administration using MRI. The active targeting of doxorubicin through magnetic antibody-conjugated SWCNTs nanoprobes was found to considerably decrease the primary tumor site and may have inhibited the development of metastasis in the tumor-bearing mice lung. ADC measurements in DW-MRI were found to significantly increase in a time-dependent manner after the injection of DOX-conjugated SWCNTs complexes.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotubes, nanomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging, cancer diagnosis and therapy

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