Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 160

Search results for: visibility

160 End to End Supply Chain Visibility – A Dynamic Capability View

Authors: Mohammad Reza Nafar

Abstract:

In order to get a better understanding of supply chain visibility for creating strategic value, this paper uses a dynamic capability lens to reveal the nature of supply chain visibility. This paper identifies the importance of supply chain visibility in driving supply chain reconfigurability and consequently improving supply chain strategic performance. Empirical evidence shows that visibility has a direct impact on supply chain strategic performance. It also supports that visibility is important for enhancing supply chain reconfigurability, thus creating strategic value in supply chains. Supply chain visibility, therefore, enables firms to reconfigure their supply chain resources for a better competitive advantage. From the perspective of practitioners, the results display several insights into how managers should create strategic value from supply chain visibility. Prominently, managers or decision-makers need to take advantage of supply chain visibility in order to use and recombine resources in a value creation manner.

Keywords: supply chain visibility, strategic performance, competitive advantage, resource mobilization, information system

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
159 Validation of Visibility Data from Road Weather Information Systems by Comparing Three Data Resources: Case Study in Ohio

Authors: Fan Ye

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Adverse weather conditions, particularly those with low visibility, are critical to the driving tasks. However, the direct relationship between visibility distances and traffic flow/roadway safety is uncertain due to the limitation of visibility data availability. The recent growth of deployment of Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) makes segment-specific visibility information available which can be integrated with other Intelligent Transportation System, such as automated warning system and variable speed limit, to improve mobility and safety. Before applying the RWIS visibility measurements in traffic study and operations, it is critical to validate the data. Therefore, an attempt was made in the paper to examine the validity and viability of RWIS visibility data by comparing visibility measurements among RWIS, airport weather stations, and weather information recorded by police in crash reports, based on Ohio data. The results indicated that RWIS visibility measurements were significantly different from airport visibility data in Ohio, but no conclusion regarding the reliability of RWIS visibility could be drawn in the consideration of no verified ground truth in the comparisons. It was suggested that more objective methods are needed to validate the RWIS visibility measurements, such as continuous in-field measurements associated with various weather events using calibrated visibility sensors.

Keywords: RWIS, visibility distance, low visibility, adverse weather

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
158 Visibility as a Catalyst for Driving LGBT-Inclusive Growth in India: Rethinking the Diversity and Inclusion Model

Authors: Koel Chakraborty

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This paper critically examines the role of ‘disclosure and visibility’ of sexual minorities in a heteronormative organizational setting. The paper wishes to comment on the importance of promoting ‘visibility’ as an important catalyst in increasing the efficacy of outreach programs as part of diversity management practices as well as increasing the efficacy of teams. The aim of the research is to assess the pitfalls of not bringing ‘one’s authentic or whole self’ to work. In doing so, it will address whether Inclusive Leadership at the top propels employees to come out. The paper finally discusses and recommends strategies that could be helpful toward attaining and improving the visibility factor at a cross-functional level. This is a qualitative research with interviews and surveys conducted in inclusive workplace environments across various private sector companies in India.

Keywords: LGBT, diversity, organisation, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
157 The Impact of Supply Chain Relationship Quality on Cooperative Strategy and Visibility

Authors: Jung-Hsuan Hsu

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Due to intense competition within the industry, companies have increasingly recognized partnerships with other companies. In addition, with outsourcing and globalization of the supply chain, it leads to companies' increasing reliance on external resources. Consequently, supply chain network becomes complex, so that it reduces the visibility of the manufacturing process. Therefore, this study is going to focus on the impact of supply chain relationship quality (SCRQ) on cooperative strategy and visibility. Questionnaire survey is going to be conducted as research method, using the organic food industry as the research subject, and the sampling method is random sampling. Finally, the data analysis will use SPSS statistical software and AMOS software to analyze and verify the hypothesis. The expected results in this study is to evaluate the supply chain relationship quality between Taiwan's food manufacturing and their suppliers regarding whether it has a positive impact for the persistence, frequency and diversity of cooperative strategy, as well as the dimensions of supply chain relationship quality on visibility regarding whether it has a positive effect.

Keywords: supply chain relationship quality (SCRQ), cooperative strategy, visibility, competition

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
156 Visibility of the Borders of the Mandibular Canal: A Comparative in Vitro Study Using Digital Panoramic Radiography, Reformatted Panoramic Radiography and Cross Sectional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Keerthilatha Pai, Sakshi Kamra

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Objectives: Determining the position of the mandibular canal prior to implant placement and surgeries of the posterior mandible are important to avoid the nerve injury. The visibility of the mandibular canal varies according to the imaging modality. Although panoramic radiography is the most common, slowly cone beam computed tomography is replacing it. This study was conducted with an aim to determine and compare the visibility of superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiograph, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross-sectional images of cone beam computed tomography. Study design: digital panoramic, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross sectional CBCT images of 25 human mandibles were evaluated for the visibility of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal according to a 5 point scoring criteria. Also, the canal was evaluated as completely visible, partially visible and not visible. The mean scores and visibility percentage of all the imaging modalities were determined and compared. The interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the visualization of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were determined. Results: The superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were completely visible in 47% of the samples in digital panoramic, 63% in reformatted panoramic and 75.6% in CBCT cross-sectional images. The mandibular canal was invisible in 24% of samples in digital panoramic, 19% in reformatted panoramic and 2% in cross-sectional CBCT images. Maximum visibility was seen in Zone 5 and least visibility in Zone 1. On comparison of all the imaging modalities, CBCT cross-sectional images showed better visibility of superior border in Zones 2,3,4,6 and inferior border in Zones 2,3,4,6. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: CBCT cross-sectional images were much superior in the visualization of the mandibular canal in comparison to reformatted and digital panoramic radiographs. The inferior border was better visualized in comparison to the superior border in digital panoramic imaging. The mandibular canal was maximumly visible in posterior one-third region of the mandible and the visibility decreased towards the mental foramen.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular canal, reformatted panoramic radiograph, visualization

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155 The Importance of Downstream Supply Chain in Supply Chain Risk Management: Multi-Objective Optimization

Authors: Zohreh Khojasteh-Ghamari, Takashi Irohara

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One of the efficient ways in supply chain risk management is avoiding the interruption in Supply Chain (SC) before it occurs. Although the majority of the organizations focus on their first-tier suppliers to avoid risk in the SC, studies show that in only 60 percent of the disruption cases the reason is first tier suppliers. In the 40 percent of the SC disruptions, the reason is downstream SC, which is the second tier and lower. Due to the increasing complexity and interrelation of modern supply chains, the SC elements have become difficult to trace. Moreover, studies show that there is a vital need to better understand the integration of risk and visibility, especially in the context of multiple objectives. In this study, we propose a multi-objective programming model to avoid disruption in SC. The objective of this study is evaluating the effect of downstream SCV on managing supply chain risk. We propose a multi-objective mathematical programming model with the objective functions of minimizing the total cost and maximizing the downstream supply chain visibility (SCV). The decision variable is supplier selection. We assume there are several manufacturers and several candidate suppliers. For each manufacturer, our model proposes the best suppliers with the lowest cost and maximum visibility in downstream supply chain. We examine the applicability of the model by numerical examples. We also define several scenarios for datasets and observe the tendency. The results show that minimum visibility in downstream SC is needed to have a safe SC network.

Keywords: downstream supply chain, optimization, supply chain risk, supply chain visibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
154 Music of the Openings’ Japanese Animes as a Tool for People with Reduced Visibility: The Case of Shingeki No Kyojin (Attack on Titan)

Authors: María Del Carmen Baena Lupiáñez

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Music has been considered for decades as a tool to express emotions. In the case of people with some physical disabilities, they are able to develop what is known as echolocation. It means that the development of some of the senses to compensate the lack of one of them. For instance, it has been proved that people with reduced visibility have a more developed hearing capacity. In series or films, music is fundamental to contextualize the viewer in the story. Music becomes an indispensable element to make people with reduced visibility to understand the plot and to avoid ambiguities, in the absence of an audio description. Since the songs of Japanese animes have not been as studied as other soundtracks from this point of view to our knowledge, the three openings of the anime Shingeki no Kyojin have been chosen to carry out the experiment from which this study will start. It will test the perceptions of people with reduced visibility by reproducing the three opening songs of Shingeki no Kyojin and asking the users questions related to their thoughts about the anime, their feelings when listening to these songs and the possible story that this anime could be about. In fact, users could identify in general the plot of the story and their perceptions corresponded to what the songs should transmit, taking into account its chords and harmonies.

Keywords: anime, argumental contextualization, echolocations, emotions

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
153 Accessibility and Visibility through Space Syntax Analysis of the Linga Raj Temple in Odisha, India

Authors: S. Pramanik

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Since the early ages, the Hindu temples have been interpreted through various Vedic philosophies. These temples are visited by pilgrims which demonstrate the rituals and religious belief of communities, reflecting a variety of actions and behaviors. Darsana a direct seeing, is a part of the pilgrimage activity. During the process of Darsana, a devotee is prepared for entry in the temple to realize the cognizing Truth culminating in visualizing the idol of God, placed at the Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). For this, the pilgrim must pass through a sequential arrangement of spaces. During the process of progress, the pilgrims visualize the spaces differently from various points of views. The viewpoints create a variety of spatial patterns in the minds of pilgrims coherent to the Hindu philosophies. The space organization and its order are perceived by various techniques of spatial analysis. A temple, as examples of Kalinga stylistic variations, has been chosen for the study. This paper intends to demonstrate some visual patterns generated during the process of Darsana (visibility) and its accessibility by Point Isovist Studies and Visibility Graph Analysis from the entrance (Simha Dwara) to The Sanctum sanctorum (Garbhagriha).

Keywords: Hindu temple architecture, point isovist, space syntax analysis, visibility graph analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
152 Perceptual Image Coding by Exploiting Internal Generative Mechanism

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu

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In the perceptual image coding, the objective is to shape the coding distortion such that the amplitude of distortion does not exceed the error visibility threshold, or to remove perceptually redundant signals from the image. While most researches focus on color image coding, the perceptual-based quantizer developed for luminance signals are always directly applied to chrominance signals such that the color image compression methods are inefficient. In this paper, the internal generative mechanism is integrated into the design of a color image compression method. The internal generative mechanism working model based on the structure-based spatial masking is used to assess the subjective distortion visibility thresholds that are visually consistent to human eyes better. The estimation method of structure-based distortion visibility thresholds for color components is further presented in a locally adaptive way to design quantization process in the wavelet color image compression scheme. Since the lowest subband coefficient matrix of images in the wavelet domain preserves the local property of images in the spatial domain, the error visibility threshold inherent in each coefficient of the lowest subband for each color component is estimated by using the proposed spatial error visibility threshold assessment. The threshold inherent in each coefficient of other subbands for each color component is then estimated in a local adaptive fashion based on the distortion energy allocation. By considering that the error visibility thresholds are estimated using predicting and reconstructed signals of the color image, the coding scheme incorporated with locally adaptive perceptual color quantizer does not require side information. Experimental results show that the entropies of three color components obtained by using proposed IGM-based color image compression scheme are lower than that obtained by using the existing color image compression method at perceptually lossless visual quality.

Keywords: internal generative mechanism, structure-based spatial masking, visibility threshold, wavelet domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
151 A New Tool for Global Optimization Problems: Cuttlefish Algorithm

Authors: Adel Sabry Eesa, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani, Zeynep Orman

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This paper presents a new meta-heuristic bio-inspired optimization algorithm which is called Cuttlefish Algorithm (CFA). The algorithm mimics the mechanism of color changing behavior of the cuttlefish to solve numerical global optimization problems. The colors and patterns of the cuttlefish are produced by reflected light from three different layers of cells. The proposed algorithm considers mainly two processes: reflection and visibility. Reflection process simulates light reflection mechanism used by these layers, while visibility process simulates visibility of matching patterns of the cuttlefish. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested with some other popular bio-inspired optimization algorithms such as Genetic Algorithms (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bees Algorithm (BA) that have been previously proposed in the literature. Simulations and obtained results indicate that the proposed CFA is superior when compared with these algorithms.

Keywords: Cuttlefish Algorithm, bio-inspired algorithms, optimization, global optimization problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
150 4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea

Authors: Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz, Jonathan Adams, Felix Pedrotti

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This paper introduces the applicability of underwater photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological excavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was being attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early as the 1970s’ and today the production of traditional 3D models is becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.  Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and when underwater visibility is > 1m, reducing its implementation on most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions. Recent years have seen significant development of better digital photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology, ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5, GoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age (3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions (< 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.

Keywords: 4D modelling, Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project, multi-source photogrammetry, low visibility underwater survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
149 Multiple Fusion Based Single Image Dehazing

Authors: Joe Amalraj, M. Arunkumar

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Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon that signicantly degrades the visibility of outdoor scenes. This is mainly due to the atmosphere particles that absorb and scatter the light. This paper introduces a novel single image approach that enhances the visibility of such degraded images. In this method is a fusion-based strategy that derives from two original hazy image inputs by applying a white balance and a contrast enhancing procedure. To blend effectively the information of the derived inputs to preserve the regions with good visibility, we filter their important features by computing three measures (weight maps): luminance, chromaticity, and saliency. To minimize artifacts introduced by the weight maps, our approach is designed in a multiscale fashion, using a Laplacian pyramid representation. This paper demonstrates the utility and effectiveness of a fusion-based technique for de-hazing based on a single degraded image. The method performs in a per-pixel fashion, which is straightforward to implement. The experimental results demonstrate that the method yields results comparative to and even better than the more complex state-of-the-art techniques, having the advantage of being appropriate for real-time applications.

Keywords: single image de-hazing, outdoor images, enhancing, DSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
148 Evaluating the Influence of Road Markings Retroreflectivity on Road Safety in Low Visibility Conditions

Authors: Darko Babic, Maja Modric, Dario Babic, Mario Fiolic

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For road markings as a part of traffic control plan, it is considered to have a positive impact on road safety. Their importance is particularly evident in low visibility conditions when the field of vision and the driver's visual acuity are significantly reduced. The aim of this article is to analyze how road marking retroreflectivity affects the frequency of traffic accidents in low visibility conditions. For this purpose, 10,417.4 km single carriageway roads were analysed across Croatia in the period from 2012 to 2016. The research included accidents that may be significantly affected by marking retroreflectivity: head-on collisions, running off the road, hitting a stationary object on the road and hitting a stationary roadside object. The results have shown that the retroreflectivity level is negatively correlated to the total number of accidents and the number of casualties and injuries, which ultimately means that the risk of traffic accidents and deaths and/or injuries of participants will be lower with the increase of road markings retroreflectivity. These results may assist in defining minimum values of retroreflectivity that the markings must meet at any time as well as the suitable technologies and materials for their implementation.

Keywords: retroreflectivity, road markings, traffic accidents, traffic safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
147 Automatic Slider Design in Injection Moldings

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tran Anh Son

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This study proposes an approach to determine the undercut regions and their releasing directions for slider design of complex parts represented by the file format of STL (STereoLithography). In order to delineate the border of undercut regions, orthogonal cutting planes are firstly employed to automatically find the inner loops of a part model. To discover the facets belonging to undercut regions, attributes are then assigned to the facets of the part model based on the topological relationship of adjacent facets of each inner loop. After that, the undercut regions are separated from other facets in the model. Through the recognized facets of the undercut regions, the concept of 'visibility map (V-map)' is further applied to determine feasible releasing directions for each of the undercut regions. The undercut regions having the same releasing direction are finally grouped to form a slider in the injection mold.

Keywords: solid model, STL data, injection mold design, visibility map

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
146 Temporal Characteristics of Human Perception to Significant Variation of Block Structures

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu

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In the latest research efforts, the structures of the image in the spatial domain have been successfully analyzed and proved to deduce the visual masking for accurately estimating the visibility thresholds of the image. If the structural properties of the video sequence in the temporal domain are taken into account to estimate the temporal masking, the improvement and enhancement of the as-sessing spatio-temporal visibility thresholds are reasonably expected. In this paper, the temporal characteristics of human perception to the change in block structures on the time axis are analyzed. The temporal characteristics of human perception are represented in terms of the significant variation in block structures for the analysis of human visual system (HVS). Herein, the block structure in each frame is computed by combined the pattern masking and the contrast masking simultaneously. The contrast masking always overestimates the visibility thresholds of edge regions and underestimates that of texture regions, while the pattern masking is weak on a uniform background and is strong on the complex background with spatial patterns. Under considering the significant variation of block structures between successive frames, we extend the block structures of images in the spatial domain to that of video sequences in the temporal domain to analyze the relation between the inter-frame variation of structures and the temporal masking. Meanwhile, the subjective viewing test and the fair rating process are designed to evaluate the consistency of the temporal characteristics with the HVS under a specified viewing condition.

Keywords: temporal characteristic, block structure, pattern masking, contrast masking

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
145 Factors Affecting Visual Environment in Mine Lighting

Authors: N. Lakshmipathy, Ch. S. N. Murthy, M. Aruna

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The design of lighting systems for surface mines is not an easy task because of the unique environment and work procedures encountered in the mines. The primary objective of this paper is to identify the major problems encountered in mine lighting application and to provide guidance in the solution of these problems. In the surface mining reflectance of surrounding surfaces is one of the important factors, which improve the vision, in the night hours. But due to typical working nature in the mines it is very difficult to fulfill these requirements, and also the orientation of the light at work site is a challenging task. Due to this reason machine operator and other workers in a mine need to be able to orient themselves in a difficult visual environment. The haul roads always keep on changing to tune with the mining activity. Other critical area such as dumpyards, stackyards etc. also change their phase with time, and it is difficult to illuminate such areas. Mining is a hazardous occupation, with workers exposed to adverse conditions; apart from the need for hard physical labor, there is exposure to stress and environmental pollutants like dust, noise, heat, vibration, poor illumination, radiation, etc. Visibility is restricted when operating load haul dumper and Heavy Earth Moving Machinery (HEMM) vehicles resulting in a number of serious accidents. one of the leading causes of these accidents is the inability of the equipment operator to see clearly people, objects or hazards around the machine. Results indicate blind spots are caused primarily by posts, the back of the operator's cab, and by lights and light brackets. The careful designed and implemented, lighting systems provide mine workers improved visibility and contribute to improved safety, productivity and morale. Properly designed lighting systems can improve visibility and safety during working in the opencast mines.

Keywords: contrast, efficacy, illuminance, illumination, light, luminaire, luminance, reflectance, visibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
144 The Environmental Influence on Slow Learners' Learning Achievement

Authors: Niphattha Hannapha

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This paper examines how the classroom environment influences slow learners’ learning achievement; it focuses on how seating patterns affect students’ behaviours and which patterns best contribute to students’ learning performance. The researcher studied how slow learners’ characteristics and seating patterns influenced their behaviours and performance at Ban Hin Lad School. As a nonparticipant observation, the target groups included 15 slow learners from Prathomsueksa (Grades) 4 and 5. Students’ behaviours were recorded during their learning activities in order to minimize their reading and written expression disorder in Thai language tutorials. The result showed four seating patterns and two behaviors which obstructed students’ learning. The average of both behaviours mostly occurred when students were seated with patterns 1 (the seat facing the door, with the corridor alongside) and 3 (the seat alongside the door, facing the aisle) respectively. Seating patterns 1 and 3 demonstrated visibility (the front and side) of a walking path with two-way movement. However, seating patterns 2 (seating with the door alongside and the aisle at the back) and 4 (sitting with the door at the back and the aisle alongside) demonstrated visibility (the side) of a walking path with one-way movement. In Summary, environmental design is important to enhance concentration in slow learners who have reading and writing disabilities. This study suggests that students should be seated where they can have the least visibility of movement to help them increase continuous learning. That means they can have a better chance of developing reading and writing abilities in comparison with other patterns of seating.

Keywords: slow learning, interior design, interior environment, classroom

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
143 Design and Analysis of Formula One Car Halo

Authors: Indira priyadarshini, B. Tulja Lal, K. Anusha, P. Sai Varun

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Formula One cars are the fastest road course racing cars in the world, owing to very high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce. The main intentions and goals of this paper are to reduce the accidents and improving the safety without affecting the visibility of the driver by redesigning Halo that was developed by Mercedes in conjunction with the FIA to deflect flying debris, such as a loose wheel, away from a driver’s head while the hinged locking mechanism can quickly be removed for easy access. Halo design has been modified in order to reduce the weight without affecting the aerodynamics of the car. CFD simulation is carried out to observe the flow over the Halo. The velocity profile and pressure contours were analyzed. Halo is designed using SOLIDWORKS Furthermore, using the software ANSYS FLUENT 3D simulation of the airflow contour around the Halo in order to make changes in the geometry to improve the design by reducing air resistance and improving aerodynamics. According to our assumption, new 3D Halo model has better aerodynamic properties in order to analyse possible improvements compared to the initial design. Structural analysis is also done by using ANSYS by making an F1 tire colliding with Halo at 225 kmph in order to know the deflections in the structure.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Halo, safety, visibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
142 Measuring the Visibility of the European Open Access Journals with Bibliometric Indicators

Authors: Maja Jokić, Andrea Mervar, Stjepan Mateljan

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Peer review journals, as the main communication channel among researchers, fully achieve their objective if they are available to the global research community, which is accomplished through open access. In the EU countries, the idea of open access has spread over the years through various projects, initiatives, and strategic documents. Consequently, in this paper we want to analyze, using various bibliometric indicators, visibility, and significance of open access peer review journals compared to the conventional (non-open access) ones. We examine the sample of open access (OA) journals in 28 EU countries in addition to open access journals in three EU candidate countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia and Serbia), all indexed by Scopus (N=1,522). These journals comprise 42% of the total number of OA journals indexed by Scopus. The distribution of OA journals in our sample according to the subject fields indicates that the largest share has OA journals in Health Sciences, 29% followed by Social Sciences and Physical Sciences with 25%, and 21% in Life Sciences. At the same time, the distribution according to countries (N=31) shows the dominance of EU15 countries with the share of 68.3% (N=1041) while post-socialist European countries (EU11 plus three candidate EU countries) have the share of 31.6% (N=481). Bibliometric indicators are derived from the SCImago Journal Ranking database. The analysis of OA journals according to their quartile scores (that reflect the relation between number of articles and their citations) shows that the largest number of OA journals from our sample was in the third quartile in 2015. For comparison, the majority of all academic journals indexed in Scopus from the countries in our sample were in the same year in the first quartile. The median of SJR indicator (SCImago Journal Rankings) for 2015 that measures the journal's prestige, amounted 0.297 for OA journals from the sample, while it was modestly lower for all OA journals, 0.284. The value of the same indicator for all journals indexed by Scopus (N=11,086) from our group of countries was 0.358, which is significantly different from the one for OA journals. Apart from the number of OA journals we also confirm significant differences between EU15 and post-socialist countries in bibliometric status of OA journals. The median SJR indicator for 2015 for EU15 countries was 0.394, while for post-socialist countries it amounted to 0.226. The changes in bibliometric indicators: quartile score, SJR (SCImago Journal Rankings), SNIP (Sources Normalised Impact by Paper) and IPP (Impact per Publication) of OA journals during 2012-2015 period, as well as H-index for the main four subject fields (Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Health Sciences) in the whole sample as well as in two main groups of European countries, show increasing trend of acceptance and visibility of OA journals within the academic community. More comprehensive insights into the visibility of OA journals could be reached by using additional qualitative research methods such as for example, interviews with researchers.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, European countries, journal evaluation, open access journals

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
141 Women Hashtactivism: Civic Engagement in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Ibahrine

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One of the prominent trends in the Saudi digital space in recent years is the boom in the use of social networking sites such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. As of 2016, Twitter has over six million users in Saudi Arabia. In the wake of the recent political instability in the Arab region, digital platforms have gained importance for both, personal and professional purposes. A conspicuously observable tide of social activism has risen, with Twitter playing an increasingly important role. One of their primary goals is to enforce the logic of public visibility, social mobility and civic participation in the Saudi society. Saudi women use Twitter to disseminate specific and relevant information and promote their social agenda that remained unrecognized and invisible in the mainstream media and thus in the public sphere. The question is to what extent does Twitter empower Saudi women or reinforces their social immobility and invisibility? This paper focuses on three kinds of empowerment through Twitter in the religiously conservative and socially patriarchal Saudi society. It traces and analyses how Saudi female hashtactivism is increasingly becoming a site of struggle over visibility, mobility, control, and civic participation. The underlying thesis is that Twitter makes a contribution to the development of participatory culture, especially in the lives of women.

Keywords: civic, hashtactivism, Saudi Arabia, Twiterverse

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
140 The Diurnal and Seasonal Relationships of Pedestrian Injuries Secondary to Motor Vehicles in Young People

Authors: Amina Akhtar, Rory O'Connor

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Introduction: There remains significant morbidity and mortality in young pedestrians hit by motor vehicles, even in the era of pedestrian crossings and speed limits. The aim of this study was to compare incidence and injury severity of motor vehicle-related pedestrian trauma according to time of day and season in a young population, based on the supposition that injuries would be more prevalent during dusk and dawn and during autumn and winter. Methods: Data was retrieved for patients between 10-25 years old from the National Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database who had been involved as pedestrians in motor vehicle accidents between 2015-2020. The incidence of injuries, their severity (using the Injury Severity Score [ISS]), hospital transfer time, and mortality were analysed according to the hours of daylight, darkness, and season. Results: The study identified a seasonal pattern, showing that autumn was the predominant season and led to 34.9% of injuries, with a further 25.4% in winter in comparison to spring and summer, with 21.4% and 18.3% of injuries, respectively. However, visibility alone was not a sufficient factor as 49.5% of injuries occurred during the time of darkness, while 50.5% occurred during daylight. Importantly, the greatest injury rate (number of injuries/hour) occurred between 1500-1630, correlating to school pick-up times. A further significant relationship between injury severity score (ISS) and daylight was demonstrated (p-value= 0.0124), with moderate injuries (ISS 9-14) occurring most commonly during the day (72.7%) and more severe injuries (ISS>15) occurred during the night (55.8%). Conclusion: We have identified a relationship between time of day and the frequency and severity of pedestrian trauma in young people. In addition, particular time groupings correspond to the greatest injury rate, suggesting that reduced visibility coupled with school pick-up times may play a significant role. This could be addressed through a targeted public health approach to implementing change. We recommend targeted public health measures to improve road safety that focus on these times and that increase the visibility of children combined with education for drivers.

Keywords: major trauma, paediatric trauma, road traffic accidents, diurnal pattern

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139 The Visible Third: Female Artists’ Participation in the Portuguese Contemporary Art World

Authors: Sonia Bernardo Correia

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This paper is part of ongoing research that aims to understand the role of gender in the composition of the Portuguese contemporary art world and the possibilities and limits to the success of the professional paths of women and men artists. The field of visual arts is gender-sensitive as it differentiates the positions occupied by artists in terms of visibility and recognition. Women artists occupy a peripheral space, which may hinder the progression of their professional careers. Based on the collection of data on the participation of artists in Portuguese exhibitions, art fairs, auctions, and art awards between 2012 and 2019, the goal of this study is to portray female artists’ participation as a condition of professional, social, and cultural visibility. From the analysis of a significant sample of institutions from the artistic field, it was possible to observe that the works of female authors are under exhibited, never exceeding one-third of the total of exhibitions. Male artists also enjoy a comfortable majority as gallery artists (around 70%) and as part of institutional collections (around 80%). However, when analysing the younger age cohorts of artists by gender, it appears that there is representation parity, which may be a good sign of change. The data shows that there are persistent gender inequalities in accessing the artist profession. Women are not yet occupying positions of exposure, recognition, and legitimation in the market similar to those of their male counterparts, suggesting that they may face greater obstacles in experiencing successful professional trajectories.

Keywords: inequalities, invisibility of the woman artist, gender, visual arts

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
138 Image Making: The Spectacle of Photography and Text in Obituary Programs as Contemporary Practice of Social Visibility in Southern Nigeria

Authors: Soiduate Ogoye-Atanga

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During funeral ceremonies, it has become common for attendees to jostle for burial programs in some southern Nigerian towns. Beginning from ordinary typewritten text only sheets of paper in the 1980s to their current digitally formatted multicolor magazine style, burial programs continue to be collected and kept in homes where they remain as archival documents of family photo histories and as a veritable form of leveraging family status and visibility in a social economy through the inclusion of lots of choreographically arranged photographs and text. The biographical texts speak of idealized and often lofty and aestheticized accomplishments of deceased peoples, which are often corroborated by an accompanying section of tributes from first the immediate family members, and then from affiliations as well as organizations deceased people belonged, in the form of scanned letterheaded corporate tributes. Others speak of modest biographical texts when the deceased accomplished little. Usually, in majority of the cases, the display of photographs and text in these programs follow a trajectory of historical compartmentalization of the deceased, beginning from parentage to the period of youth, occupation, retirement, and old age as the case may be, which usually drives from black and white historical photographs to the color photography of today. This compartmentalization follows varied models but is designed to show the deceased in varying activities during his lifetime. The production of these programs ranges from the extremely expensive and luscious full colors of near fifty-eighty pages to bland and very simplified low-quality few-page editions in a single color and no photographs, except on the cover. Cost and quality, therefore, become determinants of varying family status and social visibility. By a critical selection of photographs and text, family members construct an idealized image of deceased people and themselves, concentrating on mutuality based on appropriate sartorial selections, socioeconomic grade, and social temperaments that are framed to corroborate the public’s perception of them. Burial magazines, therefore, serve purposes beyond their primary use; they symbolize an orchestrated social site for image-making and the validation of the social status of families, shaped by prior family histories.

Keywords: biographical texts, burial programs, compartmentalization, magazine, multicolor, photo-histories, social status

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137 Post Liberal Perspective on Minorities Visibility in Contemporary Visual Culture: The Case of Mizrahi Jews

Authors: Merav Alush Levron, Sivan Rajuan Shtang

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From as early as their emergence in Europe and the US, postmodern and post-colonial paradigm have formed the backbone of the visual culture field of study. The self-representation project of political minorities is studied, described and explained within the premises and perspectives drawn from these paradigms, addressing the key issues they had raised: modernism’s crisis of representation. The struggle for self-representation, agency and multicultural visibility sought to challenge the liberal pretense of universality and equality, hitting at its different blind spots, on issues such as class, gender, race, sex, and nationality. This struggle yielded subversive identity and hybrid performances, including reclaiming, mimicry and masquerading. These performances sought to defy the uniform, universal self, which forms the basis for the liberal, rational, enlightened subject. The argument of this research runs that this politics of representation itself is confined within liberal thought. Alongside post-colonialism and multiculturalism’s contribution in undermining oppressive structures of power, generating diversity in cultural visibility, and exposing the failure of liberal colorblindness, this subversion is constituted in the visual field by way of confrontation, flying in the face of the universal law and relying on its ongoing comparison and attribution to this law. Relying on Deleuze and Guattari, this research set out to draw theoretic and empiric attention to an alternative, post-liberal occurrence which has been taking place in the visual field in parallel to the contra-hegemonic phase and as a product of political reality in the aftermath of the crisis of representation. It is no longer a counter-representation; rather, it is a motion of organic minor desire, progressing in the form of flows and generating what Deleuze and Guattari termed deterritorialization of social structures. This discussion shall have its focus on current post-liberal performances of ‘Mizrahim’ (Jewish Israelis of Arab and Muslim extraction) in the visual field in Israel. In television, video art and photography, these performances challenge the issue of representation and generate concrete peripheral Mizrahiness, realized in the visual organization of the photographic frame. Mizrahiness then transforms from ‘confrontational’ representation into a 'presence', flooding the visual sphere in our plain sight, in a process of 'becoming'. The Mizrahi desire is exerted on the plains of sound, spoken language, the body and the space where they appear. It removes from these plains the coding and stratification engendered by European dominance and rational, liberal enlightenment. This stratification, adhering to the hegemonic surface, is flooded not by way of resisting false consciousness or employing hybridity, but by way of the Mizrahi identity’s own productive, material immanent yearning. The Mizrahi desire reverberates with Mizrahi peripheral 'worlds of meaning', where post-colonial interpretation almost invariably identifies a product of internalized oppression, and a recurrence thereof, rather than a source in itself - an ‘offshoot, never a wellspring’, as Nissim Mizrachi clarifies in his recent pioneering work. The peripheral Mizrahi performance ‘unhook itself’, in Deleuze and Guattari words, from the point of subjectification and interpretation and does not correspond with the partialness, absence, and split that mark post-colonial identities.

Keywords: desire, minority, Mizrahi Jews, post-colonialism, post-liberalism, visibility, Deleuze and Guattari

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136 Genderqueerness in Polish: A Survey-Based Study of Linguistic Strategies Employed by Genderqueer Speakers of Polish

Authors: Szymon Misiek

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The genderqueer (or gender non-binary, both terms referring to those individuals who are identified as neither men nor women) community has been gaining greater visibility over the last few years. This includes legal recognition, representation in popular media, and inclusion of non-binary perspectives in research on transgender issues. Another important aspect of visibility is language. Gender-neutrality, often associated with genderqueer people, is relatively easy to achieve in natural-gender languages such as English. This can be observed in the growing popularity of the 'singular they' pronoun (used specifically with reference to genderqueer individuals) or the gender-neutral title 'Mx.' (as an alternative to 'Ms./Mr.'). 'Singular they' seems to have become a certain standard in the genderqueer community. Grammatical-gender languages, such as Polish, provide for a greater challenge to genderqueer speakers. In Polish, every noun is inherently gendered, while verbs, adjectives, and pronouns inflect for gender. Those who do not wish to settle for using only either masculine or feminine forms (which some genderqueer Polish speakers do choose) have to somehow mix the two, attempt to avoid gendered forms altogether, or turn to non-standard forms, such as neuter (not used for people in standard Polish), plurals (vaguely akin to English 'singular they'), or neologisms (such as verb forms using the '-u-' affix). The following paper presents the results of a survey conducted among genderqueer speakers of Polish regarding their choice of linguistic strategies. As no definitive standard such as 'singular they' has (yet) emerged, it rather seeks to emphasize the diversity of chosen strategies and their relation to a person's specific identity as well as the context an exchange takes place. The findings of the study may offer an insight into how heavily gendered languages deal with non-normatively gendered experiences, and to what extent English influences this process (e.g., the majority of genderqueer poles choose English terms to label their identity), as well as help design good practices aimed at achieving gender-equality in speech.

Keywords: genderqueer, grammatical gender in Polish, non-binary, transgender

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135 Investigation of User Position Accuracy for Stand-Alone and Hybrid Modes of the Indian Navigation with Indian Constellation Satellite System

Authors: Naveen Kumar Perumalla, Devadas Kuna, Mohammed Akhter Ali

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Satellite Navigation System such as the United States Global Positioning System (GPS) plays a significant role in determining the user position. Similar to that of GPS, Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is a Satellite Navigation System indigenously developed by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), India, to meet the country’s navigation applications. This system is also known as Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). The NavIC system’s main objective, is to offer Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) services to users in its two service areas i.e., covering the Indian landmass and the Indian Ocean. Six NavIC satellites are already deployed in the space and their receivers are in the performance evaluation stage. Four NavIC dual frequency receivers are installed in the ‘Advanced GNSS Research Laboratory’ (AGRL) in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University College of Engineering, Osmania University, India. The NavIC receivers can be operated in two positioning modes: Stand-alone IRNSS and Hybrid (IRNSS+GPS) modes. In this paper, analysis of various parameters such as Dilution of Precision (DoP), three Dimension (3D) Root Mean Square (RMS) Position Error and Horizontal Position Error with respect to Visibility of Satellites is being carried out using the real-time IRNSS data, obtained by operating the receiver in both positioning modes. Two typical days (6th July 2017 and 7th July 2017) are considered for Hyderabad (Latitude-17°24'28.07’N, Longitude-78°31'4.26’E) station are analyzed. It is found that with respect to the considered parameters, the Hybrid mode operation of NavIC receiver is giving better results than that of the standalone positioning mode. This work finds application in development of NavIC receivers for civilian navigation applications.

Keywords: DoP, GPS, IRNSS, GNSS, position error, satellite visibility

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134 An Analysis of the Representation of the Translator and Translation Process into Brazilian Social Networking Groups

Authors: Érica Lima

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In the digital era, in which we have an avalanche of information, it is not new that the Internet has brought new modes of communication and knowledge access. Characterized by the multiplicity of discourses, opinions, beliefs and cultures, the web is a space of political-ideological dimensions where people (who often do not know each other) interact and create representations, deconstruct stereotypes, and redefine identities. Currently, the translator needs to be able to deal with digital spaces ranging from specific software to social media, which inevitably impact on his professional life. One of the most impactful ways of being seen in cyberspace is the participation in social networking groups. In addition to its ability to disseminate information among participants, social networking groups allow a significant personal and social exposure. Such exposure is due to the visibility of each participant achieved not only on its personal profile page, but also in each comment or post the person makes in the groups. The objective of this paper is to study the representations of translators and translation process on the Internet, more specifically in publications in two Brazilian groups of great influence on the Facebook: "Translators/Interpreters" and "Translators, Interpreters and Curious". These chosen groups represent the changes the network has brought to the profession, including the way translators are seen and see themselves. The analyzed posts allowed a reading of what common sense seems to think about the translator as opposed to what the translators seem to think about themselves as a professional class. The results of the analysis lead to the conclusion that these two positions are antagonistic and sometimes represent conflict of interests: on the one hand, the society in general consider the translator’s work something easy, therefore it is not necessary to be well remunerated; on the other hand, the translators who know how complex a translation process is and how much it takes to be a good professional. The results also reveal that social networking sites such as Facebook provide more visibility, but it takes a more active role from the translator to achieve a greater appreciation of the profession and more recognition of the role of the translator, especially in face of increasingly development of automatic translation programs.

Keywords: Facebook, social representation, translation, translator

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133 Social Media and Counseling: Opportunities, Risks and Ethical Considerations

Authors: Kyriaki G. Giota, George Kleftaras

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The purpose of this article is to briefly review the opportunities that social media presents to counselors and psychologists. Particular attention was given to understanding some of the more important common risks inherent in social media and the potential ethical dilemmas which may arise for counselors and psychologists who embrace them in their practice. Key considerations of issues pertinent to an online presence such as multiple relationships, visibility and privacy, maintaining ethical principles and professional boundaries are being discussed.

Keywords: social media, counseling, risks, ethics

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132 Heuristic to Generate Random X-Monotone Polygons

Authors: Kamaljit Pati, Manas Kumar Mohanty, Sanjib Sadhu

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A heuristic has been designed to generate a random simple monotone polygon from a given set of ‘n’ points lying on a 2-Dimensional plane. Our heuristic generates a random monotone polygon in O(n) time after O(nℓogn) preprocessing time which is improved over the previous work where a random monotone polygon is produced in the same O(n) time but the preprocessing time is O(k) for n < k < n2. However, our heuristic does not generate all possible random polygons with uniform probability. The space complexity of our proposed heuristic is O(n).

Keywords: sorting, monotone polygon, visibility, chain

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131 A LED Warning Vest as Safety Smart Textile and Active Cooperation in a Working Group for Building a Normative Standard

Authors: Werner Grommes

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The institute of occupational safety and health works in a working group for building a normative standard for illuminated warning vests and did a lot of experiments and measurements as basic work (cooperation). Intelligent car headlamps are able to suppress conventional warning vests with retro-reflective stripes as a disturbing light. Illuminated warning vests are therefore required for occupational safety. However, they must not pose any danger to the wearer or other persons. Here, the risks of the batteries (lithium types), the maximum brightness (glare) and possible interference radiation from the electronics on the implant carrier must be taken into account. The all-around visibility, as well as the required range, play an important role here. For the study, many luminance measurements of already commercially available LEDs and electroluminescent warning vests, as well as their electromagnetic interference fields and aspects of electrical safety, were measured. The results of this study showed that LED lighting is all far too bright and causes strong glare. The integrated controls with pulse modulation and switching regulators cause electromagnetic interference fields. Rechargeable lithium batteries can explode depending on the temperature range. Electroluminescence brings even more hazards. A test method was developed for the evaluation of visibility at distances of 50, 100, and 150 m, including the interview of test persons. A measuring method was developed for the detection of glare effects at close range with the assignment of the maximum permissible luminance. The electromagnetic interference fields were tested in the time and frequency ranges. A risk and hazard analysis were prepared for the use of lithium batteries. The range of values for luminance and risk analysis for lithium batteries were discussed in the standards working group. These will be integrated into the standard. This paper gives a brief overview of the topics of illuminated warning vests, which takes into account the risks and hazards for the vest wearer or others

Keywords: illuminated warning vest, optical tests and measurements, risks, hazards, optical glare effects, LED, E-light, electric luminescent

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