Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: S. S. Kale

13 Enhancement of Biomass and Bioactive Compounds in Kale Subjected to UV-A LED Lights

Authors: Jin-Hui Lee, Myung-Min Oh


The application of temporary abiotic stresses before crop harvest is a potential strategy to enhance phytochemical content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various UV-A LED lights on the growth and content of bioactive compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Fourteen-day-old kale seedlings were cultivated in a plant factory with artificial lighting (air temperature of 20℃, relative humidity of 60%, photosynthesis photon flux density (PPFD) of 125 µmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹) for 3 weeks. Kale plants were irradiated by four types of UV-A LEDs (peak wavelength; 365, 375, 385, and 395 nm) with 30 W/m² for 7 days. As a result, image chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) value of kale leaves was lower as the UV-A LEDs peak wavelength was shorter. Fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots of kale plants were significantly higher in the plants under UV-A than the control at 7 days of treatment. In particular, the growth was significantly increased with a longer peak wavelength of the UV-A LEDs. The results of leaf area and specific leaf weight showed a similar pattern with those of growth characteristics. Chlorophyll content was highest in kale leaves subjected to UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 3 days of treatment compared with the control. Total phenolic contents of UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 5 and 6 days of treatment were 44% and 47% higher than those of the control, respectively. Antioxidant capacity showed almost the same pattern as the results of total phenol content. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was approximately 11% and 8% higher in the UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm compared to the control at 5 and 6 days of treatment, respectively. Our results imply that the UV-A LEDs with relative longer peak wavelength were effective to improve growth as well as the content of bioactive compounds of kale plants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, growth, Kale, UV-A LEDs

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12 Weak Electric Fields Enhance Growth and Nutritional Quality of Kale

Authors: So-Ra Lee, Myung-Min Oh


Generally, plants growing on the earth are under the influence of natural electric fields and may even require exposure of the electric field to survive. Electric signals have been observed within plants and seem to play an important role on various metabolic processes, but their role is not fully understood. In this study, we attempted to explore the response of plants under external electric fields in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The plants were hydroponically grown for 28 days in a plant factory. Electric currents at 10, 50 and 100 mA were supplied to nutrient solution for 3 weeks. Additionally, some of the plants were cultivated in a Faraday cage to remove the natural electric field. Kale plants exposed to electric fields had higher fresh weight than the control and plants in Faraday cage. Absence of electric field caused a significant decrease in shoot dry weight and root growth. Leaf area also showed a similar response with shoot fresh weight. Supplying weak electric stimulation enhanced nutritional quality including total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. This work provides basic information on the effects of electric fields on plants and is a meaningful attempt for developing a new economical technology to increase crop productivity and quality by applying an electric field. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Research Center Support Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (717001-07-02-HD240).

Keywords: electroculture, electric signal, faraday cage, electric field

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11 Development of Method for Detecting Low Concentration of Organophosphate Pesticides in Vegetables Using near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Atchara Sankom, Warapa Mahakarnchanakul, Ronnarit Rittiron, Tanaboon Sajjaanantakul, Thammasak Thongket


Vegetables are frequently contaminated with pesticides residues resulting in the most food safety concern among agricultural products. The objective of this work was to develop a method to detect the organophosphate (OP) pesticides residues in vegetables using Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Low concentration (ppm) of OP pesticides in vegetables were investigated. The experiment was divided into 2 sections. In the first section, Chinese kale spiked with different concentrations of chlorpyrifos pesticide residues (0.5-100 ppm) was chosen as the sample model to demonstrate the appropriate conditions of sample preparation, both for a solution or solid sample. The spiked samples were extracted with acetone. The sample extracts were applied as solution samples, while the solid samples were prepared by the dry-extract system for infrared (DESIR) technique. The DESIR technique was performed by embedding the solution sample on filter paper (GF/A) and then drying. The NIR spectra were measured with the transflectance mode over wavenumber regions of 12,500-4000 cm⁻¹. The QuEChERS method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed as the standard method. The results from the first section showed that the DESIR technique with NIR spectroscopy demonstrated good accurate calibration result with R² of 0.93 and RMSEP of 8.23 ppm. However, in the case of solution samples, the prediction regarding the NIR-PLSR (partial least squares regression) equation showed poor performance (R² = 0.16 and RMSEP = 23.70 ppm). In the second section, the DESIR technique coupled with NIR spectroscopy was applied to the detection of OP pesticides in vegetables. Vegetables (Chinese kale, cabbage and hot chili) were spiked with OP pesticides (chlorpyrifos ethion and profenofos) at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 100 ppm. Solid samples were prepared (based on the DESIR technique), then samples were scanned by NIR spectrophotometer at ambient temperature (25+2°C). The NIR spectra were measured as in the first section. The NIR- PLSR showed the best calibration equation for detecting low concentrations of chlorpyrifos residues in vegetables (Chinese kale, cabbage and hot chili) according to the prediction set of R2 and RMSEP of 0.85-0.93 and 8.23-11.20 ppm, respectively. For ethion residues, the best calibration equation of NIR-PLSR showed good indexes of R² and RMSEP of 0.88-0.94 and 7.68-11.20 ppm, respectively. As well as the results for profenofos pesticide, the NIR-PLSR also showed the best calibration equation for detecting the profenofos residues in vegetables according to the good index of R² and RMSEP of 0.88-0.97 and 5.25-11.00 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the calibration equation developed in this work could rapidly predict the concentrations of OP pesticides residues (0.5-100 ppm) in vegetables, and there was no significant difference between NIR-predicted values and actual values (data from GC-MS) at a confidence interval of 95%. In this work, the proposed method using NIR spectroscopy involving the DESIR technique has proved to be an efficient method for the screening detection of OP pesticides residues at low concentrations, and thus increases the food safety potential of vegetables for domestic and export markets.

Keywords: NIR spectroscopy, organophosphate pesticide, vegetable, food safety

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10 Investigation of Norovirus Genogroups (GI, GII and GIV) in Stool of Pet Dogs with Diarrhea

Authors: S. Sokel, M. Kale


Norovirus (NoV) infection is effective and contagious in humans and many animals such as calves, pigs, dogs, cats, monkeys. There is not enough evidence about the zoonotic transmission of NoV between humans and animals. However, the fact that contamination of foods and environment by animal/human waste happens in indirect way leads to consideration of the agent as a zoonotic character. In our study, we aim to search the presence of NoV infection, which is a major public health problem, in possessed dogs showing diarrhea symptoms, to detect its genotype and to study nutrition and life conditions. We searched the existence of human NoV GI, GII and GIV in the stool of 128 pet dogs in Burdur Province with diarrhoea in various sex, age and breed by using Real-Time PCR method. Human NoV GII was found in only 5 of the 128 dog stool samples (3.91%). In the study, it was determined that the owners of the dogs with NoV GII are middle aged or elderly people most of whom are male and that there were no children in their houses. As these dogs are treated like the owner’s child, it is assumed that they could be transmitted with NoV GII as a result of close interaction with their owner.

Keywords: dog, human, norovirus, Real-Time PCR, stool

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9 The Pomade for Treatment of Bovine Papilomavirus-Induced Warts in Teats

Authors: Mehmet Kale, Ramazan Sencan, Sibel Yavru, Ahmet Ak, Nuri Mamak, Sibel Hasırcıoglu, Mesih Kocamuftuoglu, Yakup Yıldırım, Hasbi Sait Saltık


Bovine Papilloma Virus (BPV)-induced warts can cause mastitis, teat blindness, reduction of milk yield, udder deformities, and a difficulty in getting the teats into the milking machine. Especially, surgical operations cannot be performed in BPV-induced teat warts because of the increased sensitivity of the breast region and small-sized papillomas. Thus, there is a need to find new topical treatment methods. We have developed a pomade for treatment of BPV in cattle. The pomade is consists of lanoline, snakeskin (two special kind of snake), alcohol, vaseline, and ether. Firstly, we determined 46 cattle with teat warts. In the study, BPV antigen was detected in 28 cattle blood samples (61%) by ELISA. The pomade was applied to all BPV infected animals. The regression and recovery of warts were 100% in all animals. We advised using the pomade for treatment of BPV-induced warts in teats.

Keywords: bovine papilloma virus, pomade, teat, udder

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8 Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of Indium Sulfide Films Deposited under Different Deposition Conditions by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: S. B. Bansode, V. G. Wagh, R. S. Kapadnis, S. S. Kale, M. Pathan Habib


Indium sulfide films have been deposited using chemical bath deposition onto glass and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The influences of different deposition parameters viz. substrate and pH have been studied. The films were characterized by different techniques with respect to their crystal structure, surface morphology and compositional property by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and optical absorption. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that amorphous nature of the films. The scanning electron microscopy of as deposited indium sulfide film on ITO coated glass substrate shows random orientation of grains where as those on glass substrates show dumbbell shape. Optical absorption study revealed that band gap varies from 2.29 to 2.79 eV for the deposited film.

Keywords: chemical bath deposition, optical properties, structural property, Indium sulfide

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7 Bayes Estimation of Parameters of Binomial Type Rayleigh Class Software Reliability Growth Model using Non-informative Priors

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Kailash Kale


In this paper, the Binomial process type occurrence of software failures is considered and failure intensity has been characterized by one parameter Rayleigh class Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM). The proposed SRGM is mathematical function of parameters namely; total number of failures i.e. η-0 and scale parameter i.e. η-1. It is assumed that very little or no information is available about both these parameters and then considering non-informative priors for both these parameters, the Bayes estimators for the parameters η-0 and η-1 have been obtained under square error loss function. The proposed Bayes estimators are compared with their corresponding maximum likelihood estimators on the basis of risk efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulation technique. It is concluded that both the proposed Bayes estimators of total number of failures and scale parameter perform well for proper choice of execution time.

Keywords: binomial process, non-informative prior, maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), rayleigh class, software reliability growth model (SRGM)

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6 Crisis of Sinti (Gypsy) Ethnicity and Identity

Authors: Rinaldo Diricchardi


In this paper, author theoretically and empirically explores the ethnic identity of the descendants of the Indian travelers in Slovenia Sinti, who are in modern time, for the researchers, still a "tabula rasa". He investigates the extent to which Sinti ethnic particular identities (e.g. Sinti chiefs, Sinti’s individual political structure…), the Sinti language (dialect, which is topic and it is not allowed to be spoken in public), culture and habits still in the impact of anachronism, moreover, to what extent the community is still “tabula rasa” (to non–Sinti population). The relationships within the Sinti entity: "in se–intra se" is a mirror of duality of the relation of "extra se". Is it possible that the concepts of social/economical relationships are reflecting the Sinti community, moreover, the possible influence of minority from outside to inside? Is the stratification of their ethnicity and their language ethnicism? In addition, is the result of stratification of discourse still inherited and discounted the Indian caste system? In present article, author uses the word Gypsy with high respect and with a large measure of prudentiality, without negative connotations. At the first Gypsy World Congress in 1971 in London the Sinti did not accept unification with Romani, but Sinti and others Gypsies still keep the name Gypsy/Romanichals, Gypsy/Kale, Gypsy/Manouches, Gypsy/Manoesje, Gypsy/Xoraxano, Gypsy/Machaways and Gypsy/Kalderashe. In addition, all of the European documents taken into account respect and use the name Gypsy.

Keywords: Sinti, Gypsy, identity, stratification, inclusion, exclusion

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5 Comparative Studies of the Effects of Microstructures on the Corrosion Behavior of Micro-Alloyed Steels in Unbuffered 3.5 Wt% NaCl Saturated with CO2

Authors: Lawrence I. Onyeji, Girish M. Kale, M. Bijan Kermani


Corrosion problem which exists in every stage of oil and gas production has been a great challenge to the operators in the industry. The conventional carbon steel with all its inherent advantages has been adjudged susceptible to the aggressive corrosion environment of oilfield. This has aroused increased interest in the use of micro alloyed steels for oil and gas production and transportation. The corrosion behavior of three commercially supplied micro alloyed steels designated as A, B, and C have been investigated with API 5L X65 as reference samples. Electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted in an unbuffered 3.5 wt% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 at 30 0C for 24 hours. Pre-corrosion analyses revealed that samples A, B and X65 consist of ferrite-pearlite microstructures but with different grain sizes, shapes and distribution whereas sample C has bainitic microstructure with dispersed acicular ferrites. The results of the electrochemical corrosion tests showed that within the experimental conditions, the corrosion rate of the samples can be ranked as CR(A)< CR(X65)< CR(B)< CR(C). These results are attributed to difference in microstructures of the samples as depicted by ASTM grain size number in accordance with ASTM E112-12 Standard and ferrite-pearlite volume fractions determined by ImageJ Fiji grain size analysis software.

Keywords: carbon dioxide corrosion, corrosion behaviour, micro-alloyed steel, microstructures

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4 Aerodynamic Study of an Open Window Moving Bus with Passengers

Authors: Pawan Kumar Pant, Bhanu Gupta, S. R. Kale, S. V. Veeravalli


In many countries, buses are the principal means of transport, of which a majority are naturally ventilated with open windows. The design of this ventilation has little scientific basis and to address this problem a study has been undertaken involving both experiments and numerical simulations. The flow pattern inside and around of an open window bus with passengers has been investigated in detail. A full scale three-dimensional numerical simulation has been used for a) a bus with closed windows and b) with open windows. In either simulation, the bus had 58 seated passengers. The bus dimensions used were 2500 mm wide × 2500 mm high (exterior) × 10500 mm long and its speed was set at 40 km/h. In both cases, the flow separates at the top front edge forming a vortex and reattaches close to the mid-length. This attached flow separates once more as it leaves the bus. However, the strength and shape of the vortices at the top front and wake region is different for both cases. The streamline pattern around the bus is also different for the two cases. For the bus with open windows, the dominant airflow inside the bus is from the rear to the front of the bus and air velocity at the face level of the passengers was found to be 1/10th of the free stream velocity. These findings are in good agreement with flow visualization experiments performed in a water channel at 10 m/s, and with smoke/tuft visualizations in a wind tunnel with a free-stream velocity of approximately 40 km/h on a 1:25 scaled Perspex model.

Keywords: air flow, moving bus, open windows, vortex, wind tunnel

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3 The Effects of Kicking Leg Preference on the Bilateral Balance Ability Asymmetries in Collegian Football Players

Authors: Mehmet Yildiz, Mehmet Kale


The primary aim of the present study was to identify the bilateral balance asymmetries when comparing the dominant (DL) vs. the non-dominant leg (NDL) in the collegian soccer players. The secondary aim was to compare the inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) when differentiating by kicking preference (right-dominant vs. left-dominant). 34 right-dominant leg (RightDL) (age:21.12±1.85, height:174.50±5.18, weight:69.42±6.86) and 23 left-dominant leg (LeftDL), (age:21.70±2.03, height:176.2±6.27, weight:68.73±5.96) collegian football players were tested for bilateral static and dynamic balance. Balance ability was assessed by measuring centre of pressure deviation on a single leg. Single leg static and dynamic balance scores and inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Student t tests were used for the comparison of dominant and nondominant leg balance scores and RightDL and LeftDL football players’ inter-limb asymmetry index of the balance scores. The results showed that there were significant differences in the dynamic balance scores in favour of the nondominant leg, (DL:738±211 vs. NDL:606±226, p < 0.01). Also, it has been seen that LeftDL players have significantly higher inter-limb asymmetry index when compared with rightDL players for both static (rightDL:-7.07±94.91 vs. leftDL:-183.19±354.05, p < 0.01) and dynamic (rightDL: 1.73±49.65 vs. leftDL:27.08±23.34, p < 0.05) balance scores. In conclusion, bilateral dynamic balance asymmetries may be affected using single leg predominantly in the mobilization workouts. Because of having higher inter-limb asymmetry index, left-dominant leg players may be screened and trained to minimize balance asymmetry.

Keywords: bilateral balance, asymmetries, dominant leg, leg preference

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2 Study on Health Status and Health Promotion Models for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Asylum Seekers at Asylum Seekers Center, Kupang-Indonesia

Authors: Era Dorihi Kale, Sabina Gero, Uly Agustine


Asylum seekers are people who come to other countries to get asylum. In line with that, they also carry the culture and health behavior of their country, which is very different from the new country they currently live in. This situation raises problems, also in the health sector. The approach taken must also be a culturally sensitive approach, where the culture and habits of the refugee's home area are also valued so that the health services provided can be right on target. Some risk factors that already exist in this group are lack of activity, consumption of fast food, smoking, and stress levels that are quite high. Overall this condition will increase the risk of an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. This research is a descriptive and experimental study. The purpose of this study is to identify health status and develop a culturally sensitive health promotion model, especially related to the risk of cardiovascular disease for asylum seekers in detention homes in the city of Kupang. This research was carried out in 3 stages, stage 1 was conducting a survey of health problems and the risk of asylum seeker cardiovascular disease, Stage 2 developed a health promotion model, and stage 3 conducted a testing model of health promotion carried out. There were 81 respondents involved in this study. The variables measured were: health status, risk of cardiovascular disease and, health promotion models. Method of data collection: Instruments (questionnaires) were distributed to respondents answered for anamnese health status; then, cardiovascular risk measurements were taken. After that, the preparation of information needs and the compilation of booklets on the prevention of cardiovascular disease is carried out. The compiled booklet was then translated into Farsi. After that, the booklet was tested. Respondent characteristics: average lived in Indonesia for 4.38 years, the majority were male (90.1%), and most were aged 15-34 years (90.1%). There are several diseases that are often suffered by asylum seekers, namely: gastritis, headaches, diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, skin allergies, sore throat, cough, and depression. The level of risk for asylum seekers experiencing cardiovascular problems is 4 high risk people, 6 moderate risk people, and 71 low risk people. This condition needs special attention because the number of people at risk is quite high when compared to the age group of refugees. This is very related to the level of stress experienced by the refugees. The health promotion model that can be used is the transactional stress and coping model, using Persian (oral) and English for written information. It is recommended for health practitioners who care for refugees to always pay attention to aspects of culture (especially language) as well as the psychological condition of asylum seekers to make it easier to conduct health care and promotion. As well for further research, it is recommended to conduct research, especially relating to the effect of psychological stress on the risk of cardiovascular disease in asylum seekers.

Keywords: asylum seekers, health status, cardiovascular disease, health promotion

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1 Rectus Sheath Block to Extend the Effectiveness of Post Operative Epidural Analgesia

Authors: Sugam Kale, Arif Uzair Bin Mohammed Roslan, Cindy Lee, Syed Beevee Mohammed Ismail


Preemptive analgesia is an established concept in the modern practice of anaesthesia. To be most effective, it is best instituted earlier than the surgical stimulus and should last beyond the offset of surgically induced pain till healing is complete. Whereas the start of afferent pain blockade with regional anaesthesia is common, its effect often falls short to cover the entire period of pain impulses making their way to CNS in the post-operative period. We tried to use a combination of two regional anaesthetic techniques used sequentially to overcome this handicap. Madam S., a 56 year old lady, was scheduled for elective surgery for pancreatic cancer. She underwent laparotomy and distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, and sigmoid colectomy. Surgery was expected to be extensive, and it was presumed that the standard pain relief with PCA with opiates and oral analgesics would not be adequate. After counselling the patient pre-operative about the technique of regional anaesthesia techniques, including epidural catheterization and rectus sheath catheter placement, their benefits, and potential complications, informed consent was obtained. Epidural catheter was placed awake, and general anaesthesia was then induced. Epidural infusion of local anaesthetics was started prior to surgical incision and was continued till 60 hours into the postoperative period. Before skin closure, the surgeons inserted commercially available rectus sheath catheters bilaterally along the midline incision used for laparotomy. After 46 hours post-op, local anaesthetic infusion via these was started as bridging while the epidural infusion rate was tapered off. The epidural catheter was removed at 75 hours. Elastomeric pumps were used to provide local anaesthetic infusion with the ability to vary infusion rates. Acute pain service followed up the patient’s vital signs and effectiveness of pain relief twice daily or more frequently as required. Rectus sheath catheters were removed 137 hours post-op. The patient had good post-op analgesia with the minimal additional analgesic requirement. For the most part, the visual analog score (VAS) for pain remained at 1-3 on a scale of 1 to 10. Haemodynamics remained stable, and surgical recovery was as expected. Minimal opiate requirement after an extensive laparotomy also translates to the early return of intestinal motility. Our experience was encouraging, and we are hoping to extend this combination of two regional anaesthetic techniques to patients undergoing similar surgeries. Epidural analgesia is denser and offers excellent pain relief for both visceral and somatic pain in the first few days after surgery. As the pain intensity grows weaker, rectus sheath block and oral analgesics provide almost the same degree of pain relief after the epidural catheter is removed. We discovered that the background infusion of local anaesthetic down the rectus sheath catherter largely reduced the requirement for other classes of analgesics. We aim to study this further with a larger patient cohort and hope that it may become an established clinical practice that benefits patients everywhere.

Keywords: rectus sheath, epidural infusion, post operative analgesia, elastomeric

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