Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 190

Search results for: spectrometer

190 Simulation and Characterization of Compact Magnetic Proton Recoil Spectrometer for Fast Neutron Spectra Measurements

Authors: Xingyu Peng, Qingyuan Hu, Xuebin Zhu, Xi Yuan

Abstract:

Neutron spectrometry has contributed much to the development of nuclear physics since 1932 and has also become an importance tool in several other fields, notably nuclear technology, fusion plasma diagnostics and radiation protection. Compared with neutron fluxes, neutron spectra can provide more detailed information on the internal physical process of neutron sources, such as fast neutron reactors, fusion plasma, fission-fusion hybrid reactors, and so on. However, high performance neutron spectrometer is not so commonly available as it requires the use of large and complex instrumentation. This work describes the development and characterization of a compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for high-resolution measurements of fast neutron spectra. The compact MPR spectrometer is featured by its large recoil angle, small size permanent analysis magnet, short beam transport line and dual-purpose detector array for both steady state and pulsed neutron spectra measurement. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle transport code is developed to simulate the response function of the spectrometer. Simulation results illustrate that the performance of the spectrometer is mainly determined by n-p recoil foil and proton apertures, and an overall energy resolution of 3% is achieved for 14 MeV neutrons. Dedicated experiments using alpha source and mono-energetic neutron beam are employed to verify the simulated response function of the compact MPR spectrometer. These experimental results show a good agreement with the simulated ones, which indicates that the simulation code possesses good accuracy and reliability. The compact MPR spectrometer described in this work is a valuable tool for fast neutron spectra measurements for the fission or fusion devices.

Keywords: neutron spectrometry, magnetic proton recoil spectrometer, neutron spectra, fast neutron

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189 Stray Light Reduction Methodology by a Sinusoidal Light Modulation and Three-Parameter Sine Curve Fitting Algorithm for a Reflectance Spectrometer

Authors: Hung Chih Hsieh, Cheng Hao Chang, Yun Hsiang Chang, Yu Lin Chang

Abstract:

In the applications of the spectrometer, the stray light that comes from the environment affects the measurement results a lot. Hence, environment and instrument quality control for the stray reduction is critical for the spectral reflectance measurement. In this paper, a simple and practical method has been developed to correct a spectrometer's response for measurement errors arising from the environment's and instrument's stray light. A sinusoidal modulated light intensity signal was incident on a tested sample, and then the reflected light was collected by the spectrometer. Since a sinusoidal signal modulated the incident light, the reflected light also had a modulated frequency which was the same as the incident signal. Using the three-parameter sine curve fitting algorithm, we can extract the primary reflectance signal from the total measured signal, which contained the primary reflectance signal and the stray light from the environment. The spectra similarity between the extracted spectra by this proposed method with extreme environment stray light is 99.98% similar to the spectra without the environment's stray light. This result shows that we can measure the reflectance spectra without the affection of the environment's stray light.

Keywords: spectrometer, stray light, three-parameter sine curve fitting, spectra extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
188 Design and Simulation of a Radiation Spectrometer Using Scintillation Detectors

Authors: Waleed K. Saib, Abdulsalam M. Alhawsawi, Essam Banoqitah

Abstract:

The idea of this research is to design a radiation spectrometer using LSO scintillation detector coupled to a C series of SiPM (silicon photomultiplier). The device can be used to detects gamma and X-ray radiation. This device is also designed to estimates the activity of the source contamination. The SiPM will detect light in the visible range above the threshold and read them as counts. Three gamma sources were used for these experiments Cs-137, Am-241 and Co-60 with various activities. These sources are applied for four experiments operating the SiPM as a spectrometer, energy resolution, pile-up set and efficiency. The SiPM is connected to a MCA to perform as a spectrometer. Cerium doped Lutetium Silicate (Lu₂SiO₅) with light yield 26000 photons/Mev coupled with the SiPM. As a result, all the main features of the Cs-137, Am-241 and Co-60 are identified in MCA. The experiment shows how photon energy and probability of interaction are inversely related. Total attenuation reduces as photon energy increases. An analytical calculation was made to obtain the FWHM resolution for each gamma source. The FWHM resolution for Am-241 (59 keV) is 28.75 %, for Cs-137 (662 keV) is 7.85 %, for Co-60 (1173 keV) is 4.46 % and for Co-60 (1332 keV) is 3.70%. Moreover, the experiment shows that the dead time and counts number decreased when the pile-up rejection was disabled and the FWHM decreased when the pile-up was enabled. The efficiencies were calculated at four different distances from the detector 2, 4, 8 and 16 cm. The detection efficiency was observed to declined exponentially with increasing distance from the detector face. Conclusively, the SiPM board operated with an LSO scintillator crystal as a spectrometer. The SiPM energy resolution for the three gamma sources used was a decent comparison to other PMTs.

Keywords: PMT, radiation, radiation detection, scintillation detectors, silicon photomultiplier, spectrometer

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187 Measure the Gas to Dust Ratio Towards Bright Sources in the Galactic Bulge

Authors: Jun Yang, Norbert Schulz, Claude Canizares

Abstract:

Knowing the dust content in the interstellar matter is necessary to understand the composition and evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). The metal composition of the ISM enables us to study the cooling and heating processes that dominate the star formation rates in our Galaxy. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) Spectrometer provides a unique opportunity to measure element dust compositions through X-ray edge absorption structure. We measure gas to dust optical depth ratios towards 9 bright Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the Galactic Bulge with the highest precision so far. Well calibrated and pile-up free optical depths are measured with the HETG spectrometer with respect to broadband hydrogen equivalent absorption in bright LMXBs: 4U 1636-53, Ser X-1, GX 3+1, 4U 1728-34, 4U 1705-44, GX 340+0, GX 13+1, GX 5-1, and GX 349+2. From the optical depths results, we deduce gas to dust ratios for various silicates in the ISM and present our results for the Si K edge in different lines of sight towards the Galactic Bulge.

Keywords: low-mass X-ray binaries, interstellar medium, gas to dust ratio, spectrometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
186 What Are the Problems in the Case of Analysis of Selenium by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in Food and Food Raw Materials?

Authors: Béla Kovács, Éva Bódi, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay, Dávid Andrási

Abstract:

For analysis of elements in different food, feed and food raw material samples generally a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS), a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS), an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) are applied. All the analytical instruments have different physical and chemical interfering effects analysing food and food raw material samples. The smaller the concentration of an analyte and the larger the concentration of the matrix the larger the interfering effects. Nowadays, it is very important to analyse growingly smaller concentrations of elements. From the above analytical instruments generally the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. The applied ICP-MS instrument has Collision Cell Technology (CCT) also. Using CCT mode certain elements have better detection limits with 1-3 magnitudes comparing to a normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT mode has better detection limits mainly for analysis of selenium (arsenic, germanium, vanadium, and chromium). To elaborate an analytical method for selenium with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer the most important interfering effects (problems) were evaluated: 1) isobaric elemental, 2) isobaric molecular, and 3) physical interferences. Analysing food and food raw material samples an other (new) interfering effect emerged in ICP-MS, namely the effect of various matrixes having different evaporation and nebulization effectiveness, moreover having different quantity of carbon content of food, feed and food raw material samples. In our research work the effect of different water-soluble compounds furthermore the effect of various quantity of carbon content (as sample matrix) were examined on changes of intensity of selenium. So finally we could find “opportunities” to decrease the error of selenium analysis. To analyse selenium in food, feed and food raw material samples, the most appropriate inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is a quadrupole instrument applying a collision cell technique (CCT). The extent of interfering effect of carbon content depends on the type of compounds. The carbon content significantly affects the measured concentration (intensities) of Se, which can be corrected using internal standard (arsenic or tellurium).

Keywords: selenium, ICP-MS, food, food raw material

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
185 Design of a Remote Radiation Sensing Module Based on Portable Gamma Spectrometer

Authors: Young Gil Kim, Hye Min Park, Chan Jong Park, Koan Sik Joo

Abstract:

A personal gamma spectrometer has to be sensitive, pocket-sized, and carriable on the users. To serve these requirements, we developed the SiPM-based portable radiation detectors. The prototype uses a Ce:GAGG scintillator coupled to a silicon photomultiplier and a radio frequency(RF) module to measure gamma-ray, and can be accessed wirelessly or remotely by mobile equipment. The prototype device consumes roughly 4.4W, weighs about 180g (including battery), and measures 5.0 7.0. It is able to achieve 5.8% FWHM energy resolution at 662keV.

Keywords: Ce:GAGG, gamma-ray, radio frequency, silicon photomultiplier

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
184 Influence of MgO Physically Mixed with Tungsten Oxide Supported Silica Catalyst on Coke Formation

Authors: Thidaya Thitiapichart

Abstract:

The effect of additional magnesium oxide (MgO) was investigated by using the tungsten oxide supported on silica catalyst (WOx/SiO2) physically mixed with MgO in a weight ratio 1:1. The both fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by FT-Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis spectrometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results indicated that the additional MgO could enhance the conversion of trans-2-butene due to isomerization reaction. However, adding MgO would increase the amount of coke deposit on the WOx/SiO2 catalyst. The TPO profile presents two peaks when the WOx/SiO2 catalyst was physically mixed with MgO. The further peak was suggested to be coming from the coke precursor that could be produced by isomerization reaction of the undesired product. Then, the occurred coke precursor could deposit and form coke on the acid catalyst.

Keywords: coke formation, metathesis, magnesium oxide, physically mix

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
183 Evaluation of Non-Destructive Application to Detect Pesticide Residue on Leaf Mustard Using Spectroscopic Method

Authors: Nazmi Mat Nawi, Muhamad Najib Mohamad Nor, Che Dini Maryani Ishkandar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of spectroscopic methods to detect the presence of pesticide residues on leaf mustard. A total of 105 leaf mustard used were divided into five batches, four batches were treated with four different types of pesticides whereas one batch with no pesticide applied. Spectral data were obtained using visible shortwave near infrared spectrometer (VSWNIRS) which is Ocean Optics HR4000 High-resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. Reflectance value was collected to determine the difference between one pesticide to the other. The obtained spectral data were pre-processed for optimum performance. The effective wavelength of approximate 880 nm, 675-710 nm also 550 and 700 nm indicates the overtones -CH stretching vibration, tannin, also chlorophyll content present in the leaf mustard respectively. This study has successfully demonstrated that the spectroscopic method was able to differentiate between leaf mustard sample with and without pesticide residue.

Keywords: detect, leaf mustard, non-destructive, pesticide residue

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
182 Charging-Vacuum Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection Technology in the Application of Space Products Leak Testing and Error Control

Authors: Jijun Shi, Lichen Sun, Jianchao Zhao, Lizhi Sun, Enjun Liu, Chongwu Guo

Abstract:

Because of the consistency of pressure direction, more short cycle, and high sensitivity, Charging-Vacuum helium mass spectrometer leak testing technology is the most popular leak testing technology for the seal testing of the spacecraft parts, especially the small and medium size ones. Usually, auxiliary pump was used, and the minimum detectable leak rate could reach 5E-9Pa•m3/s, even better on certain occasions. Relative error is more important when evaluating the results. How to choose the reference leak, the background level of helium, and record formats would affect the leak rate tested. In the linearity range of leak testing system, it would reduce 10% relative error if the reference leak with larger leak rate was used, and the relative error would reduce obviously if the background of helium was low efficiently, the record format of decimal was used, and the more stable data were recorded.

Keywords: leak testing, spacecraft parts, relative error, error control

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
181 Production of Neutrons by High Intensity Picosecond Laser Interacting with Thick Solid Target at XingGuangIII

Authors: Xi Yuan, Xuebin Zhu, Bojun Li

Abstract:

This work describes the experiment to produce high-intensity pulsed neutron beams on XingGuangIII laser facility. The high-intensity laser is utilized to drive protons and deuterons, which hit a thick solid target to produce neutrons. The pulse duration of the laser used in the experiment is about 0.8 ps, and the laser energy is around 100 J. Protons and deuterons are accelerated from a 10-μm-thick deuterated polyethylene (CD₂) foil and diagnosed by a Thomson parabola ion-spectrometer. The energy spectrum of neutrons generated via ⁷Li(d,n) and ⁷Li(p,n) reaction when proton and deuteron beams hit a 5-mm-thick LiF target is measured by a scintillator-based time-of-flight spectrometer. Results from the neuron measurements show that the maximum neutron energy is about 12.5 MeV and the neutron yield is up to 2×10⁹/pulse. The high-intensity pulsed neutron beams demonstrated in this work can provide a valuable neutron source for material research, fast neutron induced fission research, and so on.

Keywords: picosecond laser driven, fast neutron, time-of-flight spectrometry, XinggungIII

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180 Effect of the Deposition Time of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Si Grown on Porous Alumina Film on Glass Substrate by Plasma Processing Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: F. Laatar, S. Ktifa, H. Ezzaouia

Abstract:

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) method is used to deposit hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films (nc-Si: H) on Porous Anodic Alumina Films (PAF) on glass substrate at different deposition duration. Influence of the deposition time on the physical properties of nc-Si: H grown on PAF was investigated through an extensive correlation between micro-structural and optical properties of these films. In this paper, we present an extensive study of the morphological, structural and optical properties of these films by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques and a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. It was found that the changes in DT can modify the films thickness, the surface roughness and eventually improve the optical properties of the composite. Optical properties (optical thicknesses, refractive indexes (n), absorption coefficients (α), extinction coefficients (k), and the values of the optical transitions EG) of this kind of samples were obtained using the data of the transmittance T and reflectance R spectra’s recorded by the UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer. We used Cauchy and Wemple–DiDomenico models for the analysis of the dispersion of the refractive index and the determination of the optical properties of these films.

Keywords: hydragenated nanocrystalline silicon, plasma processing chemical vapor deposition, X-ray diffraction, optical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
179 Problems and Solutions in the Application of ICP-MS for Analysis of Trace Elements in Various Samples

Authors: Béla Kovács, Éva Bódi, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay, Áron Soós, Xénia Vágó, Dávid Andrási

Abstract:

In agriculture for analysis of elements in different food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples generally flame atomic absorption spectrometers (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometers (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) are routinely applied. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is capable for analysis of 70-80 elements in multielemental mode, from 1-5 cm3 volume of a sample, moreover the detection limits of elements are in µg/kg-ng/kg (ppb-ppt) concentration range. All the analytical instruments have different physical and chemical interfering effects analysing the above types of samples. The smaller the concentration of an analyte and the larger the concentration of the matrix the larger the interfering effects. Nowadays there is very important to analyse growingly smaller concentrations of elements. From the above analytical instruments generally the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. The applied ICP-MS instrument has Collision Cell Technology (CCT) also. Using CCT mode certain elements have better (smaller) detection limits with 1-3 magnitudes comparing to a normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT mode has better detection limits mainly for analysis of selenium, arsenic, germanium, vanadium and chromium. To elaborate an analytical method for trace elements with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer the most important interfering effects (problems) were evaluated: 1) Physical interferences; 2) Spectral interferences (elemental and molecular isobaric); 3) Effect of easily ionisable elements; 4) Memory interferences. Analysing food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples an other (new) interfering effect emerged in ICP-MS, namely the effect of various matrixes having different evaporation and nebulization effectiveness, moreover having different quantity of carbon content of food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples. In our research work the effect of different water-soluble compounds furthermore the effect of various quantity of carbon content (as sample matrix) were examined on changes of intensity of the applied elements. So finally we could find “opportunities” to decrease or eliminate the error of the analyses of applied elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Pb, Bi). To analyse these elements in the above samples, the most appropriate inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is a quadrupole instrument applying a collision cell technique (CCT). The extent of interfering effect of carbon content depends on the type of compounds. The carbon content significantly affects the measured concentration (intensities) of the above elements, which can be corrected using different internal standards.

Keywords: elements, environmental and food samples, ICP-MS, interference effects

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178 Study of Chemical State Analysis of Rubidium Compounds in Lα, Lβ₁, Lβ₃,₄ and Lγ₂,₃ X-Ray Emission Lines with Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

Authors: Harpreet Singh Kainth

Abstract:

Rubidium salts have been commonly used as an electrolyte to improve the efficiency cycle of Li-ion batteries. In recent years, it has been implemented into the large scale for further technological advances to improve the performance rate and better cyclability in the batteries. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful tool for obtaining the information in the electronic structure which involves the chemical state analysis in the active materials used in the batteries. However, this technique is not well suited for the industrial applications because it needs a synchrotron X-ray source and special sample file for in-situ measurements. In contrast to this, conventional wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer is nondestructive technique used to study the chemical shift in all transitions (K, L, M, …) and does not require any special pre-preparation planning. In the present work, the fluorescent Lα, Lβ₁ , Lβ₃,₄ and Lγ₂,₃ X-ray spectra of rubidium in different chemical forms (Rb₂CO₃ , RbCl, RbBr, and RbI) have been measured first time with high resolution wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer (Model: S8 TIGER, Bruker, Germany), equipped with an Rh anode X-ray tube (4-kW, 60 kV and 170 mA). In ₃₇Rb compounds, the measured energy shifts are in the range (-0.45 to - 1.71) eV for Lα X-ray peak, (0.02 to 0.21) eV for Lβ₁ , (0.04 to 0.21) eV for Lβ₃ , (0.15 to 0.43) eV for Lβ₄ and (0.22 to 0.75) eV for Lγ₂,₃ X-ray emission lines. The chemical shifts in rubidium compounds have been measured by considering Rb₂CO₃ compounds taking as a standard reference. A Voigt function is used to determine the central peak position of all compounds. Both positive and negative shifts have been observed in L shell emission lines. In Lα X-ray emission lines, all compounds show negative shift while in Lβ₁, Lβ₃,₄, and Lγ₂,₃ X-ray emission lines, all compounds show a positive shift. These positive and negative shifts result increase or decrease in X-ray energy shifts. It looks like that ligands attached with central metal atom attract or repel the electrons towards or away from the parent nucleus. This pulling and pushing character of rubidium affects the central peak position of the compounds which causes a chemical shift. To understand the chemical effect more briefly, factors like electro-negativity, line intensity ratio, effective charge and bond length are responsible for the chemical state analysis in rubidium compounds. The effective charge has been calculated from Suchet and Pauling method while the line intensity ratio has been calculated by calculating the area under the relevant emission peak. In the present work, it has been observed that electro-negativity, effective charge and intensity ratio (Lβ₁/Lα, Lβ₃,₄/Lα and Lγ₂,₃/Lα) are inversely proportional to the chemical shift (RbCl > RbBr > RbI), while bond length has been found directly proportional to the chemical shift (RbI > RbBr > RbCl).

Keywords: chemical shift in L emission lines, bond length, electro-negativity, effective charge, intensity ratio, Rubidium compounds, WDXRF spectrometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
177 Use of Carica papaya as a Bio-Sorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater

Authors: W. E. Igwegbe, B. C. Okoro, J. C. Osuagwu

Abstract:

The study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in waste water using Pawpaw (Carica papaya) wood as a bio-sorbent. The heavy metals considered include; zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, iron, selenium, nickel, and manganese. The physiochemical properties of carica papaya stem were studied. The experimental sample was obtained from a felled trunk of matured pawpaw tree. Waste water for experimental use was prepared by dissolving soil samples collected from a dump site at Owerri, Imo state in water. The concentration of each metal remaining in solution as residual metal after bio-sorption was determined using Atomic absorption Spectrometer. The effects of ph, contact time and initial heavy metal concentration were studied in a batch reactor. The results of Spectrometer test showed that there were different functional groups detected in the carica papaya stem biomass. Optimum bio-sorption occurred at pH 5.9 with 5g/100ml solution of bio-sorbent. The results of the study showed that the treated wastewater is fit for irrigation purpose based on Canada wastewater quality guideline for the protection of Agricultural standard. This approach thus provides a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for treating waste water.

Keywords: biomass, bio-sorption, Carica papaya, heavy metal, wastewater

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176 To Study the Effect of Drying Temperature Towards Extraction of Aquilaria subintegra Dry Leaves Using Vacuum Far Infrared

Authors: Tengku Muhammad Rafi Nazmi Bin Tengku Razali, Habsah Alwi

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This article based on effect of temperature towards extraction of Aquilaria Subintegra. Aquilaria Subintegra which its main habitat is in Asia-tropical and particularly often found in its native which is Thailand. There is claim which is Aquilaria Subintegra contains antipyretic properties that helps fight fever. Research nowadays also shown that paracetamol consumed bring bad effect towards consumers. This sample will first dry using Vacuum Far Infrared which provides better drying than conventional oven. Soxhlet extractor used to extract oil from sample. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer used to analyze sample to determine its compound. Objective from this research was to determine the active ingredients that exist in the Aquilaria Subintegra leaves and to determine whether compound of Acetaminophen exist or not inside the leaves. Moisture content from 400C was 80%, 500C was 620% and 600C was 36%. The greater temperature resulting lower moisture content inside sample leaves. 7 components were identified in sample T=400C while only 5 components were identified in sample at T=50C and T=60C. Four components were commonly identified in three sample which is 1n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (z,z,z), Vitamin E and Squalene. Further studies are needed with new series of temperature to refine the best results.

Keywords: aquilaria subintegra, vacuum far infrared, SOXHLET extractor, gas chromatography mass spectrometer, paracetamol

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175 238U, 40K, 226Ra, 222Rn and Trace Metals in Chemical Fertilizers in Saudi Arabia Markets

Authors: Fatimh Alshahri, Muna Alqahtani

Abstract:

The specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 40K and 222Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabia markets. The specific activities of 238U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kgˉ¹, 226Ra ranged from 5.6 ± 2.8 to 392 ± 18 Bq kgˉ¹ and 40K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16476 ± 820 Bq kgˉ¹. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.2 ± 1.2 to 1531.6 ± 160 Bq mˉ³ and from 1.6 to 773.7 mBq mˉ² hˉ¹, respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for Six local samples (NPK and SSP) and one imported sample (SOP) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kgˉ¹. The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy hˉ¹. The highest annual effective dose was in TSP fertilizers (2.1 mSvyˉ¹). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values.

Keywords: chemical fertilizers, 238U, 222Rn, trace metals, Saudi Arabia

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174 Chemical Fingerprinting of Complex Samples With the Aid of Parallel Outlet Flow Chromatography

Authors: Xavier A. Conlan

Abstract:

Speed of analysis is a significant limitation to current high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)/MS systems both of which are used in many forensic investigations. The flow rate limitations of MS detection require a compromise in the chromatographic flow rate, which in turn reduces throughput, and when using modern columns, a reduction in separation efficiency. Commonly, this restriction is combated through the post-column splitting of flow prior to entry into the mass spectrometer. However, this results in a loss of sensitivity and a loss in efficiency due to the post-extra column dead volume. A new chromatographic column format known as 'parallel segmented flow' involves the splitting of eluent flow within the column outlet end fitting, and in this study we present its application in order to interrogate the provenience of methamphetamine samples with mass spectrometry detection. Using parallel segmented flow, column flow rates as high as 3 mL/min were employed in the analysis of amino acids without post-column splitting to the mass spectrometer. Furthermore, when parallel segmented flow chromatography columns were employed, the sensitivity was more than twice that of conventional systems with post-column splitting when the same volume of mobile phase was passed through the detector. These finding suggest that this type of column technology will particularly enhance the capabilities of modern LC/MS enabling both high-throughput and sensitive mass spectral detection.

Keywords: chromatography, mass spectrometry methamphetamine, parallel segmented outlet flow column, forensic sciences

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173 Full Characterization of Heterogeneous Antibody Samples under Denaturing and Native Conditions on a Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

Authors: Rowan Moore, Kai Scheffler, Eugen Damoc, Jennifer Sutton, Aaron Bailey, Stephane Houel, Simon Cubbon, Jonathan Josephs

Abstract:

Purpose: MS analysis of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) at the protein and peptide levels is critical during development and production of biopharmaceuticals. The compositions of current generation therapeutic proteins are often complex due to various modifications which may affect efficacy. Intact proteins analyzed by MS are detected in higher charge states that also provide more complexity in mass spectra. Protein analysis in native or native-like conditions with zero or minimal organic solvent and neutral or weakly acidic pH decreases charge state value resulting in mAb detection at higher m/z ranges with more spatial resolution. Methods: Three commercially available mAbs were used for all experiments. Intact proteins were desalted online using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) or reversed phase chromatography coupled on-line with a mass spectrometer. For streamlined use of the LC- MS platform we used a single SEC column and alternately selected specific mobile phases to perform separations in either denaturing or native-like conditions: buffer A (20 % ACN, 0.1 % FA) with Buffer B (100 mM ammonium acetate). For peptide analysis mAbs were proteolytically digested with and without prior reduction and alkylation. The mass spectrometer used for all experiments was a commercially available Thermo Scientific™ hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer, equipped with the new BioPharma option which includes a new High Mass Range (HMR) mode that allows for improved high mass transmission and mass detection up to 8000 m/z. Results: We have analyzed the profiles of three mAbs under reducing and native conditions by direct infusion with offline desalting and with on-line desalting via size exclusion and reversed phase type columns. The presence of high salt under denaturing conditions was found to influence the observed charge state envelope and impact mass accuracy after spectral deconvolution. The significantly lower charge states observed under native conditions improves the spatial resolution of protein signals and has significant benefits for the analysis of antibody mixtures, e.g. lysine variants, degradants or sequence variants. This type of analysis requires the detection of masses beyond the standard mass range ranging up to 6000 m/z requiring the extended capabilities available in the new HMR mode. We have compared each antibody sample that was analyzed individually with mixtures in various relative concentrations. For this type of analysis, we observed that apparent native structures persist and ESI is benefited by the addition of low amounts of acetonitrile and formic acid in combination with the ammonium acetate-buffered mobile phase. For analyses on the peptide level we analyzed reduced/alkylated, and non-reduced proteolytic digests of the individual antibodies separated via reversed phase chromatography aiming to retrieve as much information as possible regarding sequence coverage, disulfide bridges, post-translational modifications such as various glycans, sequence variants, and their relative quantification. All data acquired were submitted to a single software package for analysis aiming to obtain a complete picture of the molecules analyzed. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of the mass spectrometer to fully characterize homogeneous and heterogeneous therapeutic proteins on one single platform. Conclusion: Full characterization of heterogeneous intact protein mixtures by improved mass separation on a quadrupole-Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer with extended capabilities has been demonstrated.

Keywords: disulfide bond analysis, intact analysis, native analysis, mass spectrometry, monoclonal antibodies, peptide mapping, post-translational modifications, sequence variants, size exclusion chromatography, therapeutic protein analysis, UHPLC

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172 Forest Soil Greenhouse Gas Real-Time Analysis Using Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Timothy L. Porter, T. Randy Dillingham

Abstract:

Vegetation growth and decomposition, along with soil microbial activity play a complex role in the production of greenhouse gases originating in forest soils. The absorption or emission (respiration) of these gases is a function of many factors relating to the soils themselves, the plants, and the environment in which the plants are growing. For this study, we have constructed a battery-powered, portable field mass spectrometer for use in analyzing gases in the soils surrounding trees, plants, and other areas. We have used the instrument to sample in real-time the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane in soils where plant life may be contributing to the production of gases such as methane. Gases such as isoprene, which may help correlate gas respiration to microbial activity have also been measured. The instrument is composed of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with part per billion or better sensitivity, coupled to battery-powered turbo and diaphragm pumps. A unique ambient air pressure differentially pumped intake apparatus allows for the real-time sampling of gases in the soils from the surface to several inches below the surface. Results show that this instrument is capable of instant, part-per-billion sensitivity measurement of carbon dioxide and methane in the near surface region of various forest soils. We have measured differences in soil respiration resulting from forest thinning, forest burning, and forest logging as compared to pristine, untouched forests. Further studies will include measurements of greenhouse gas respiration as a function of temperature, microbial activity as measured by isoprene production, and forest restoration after fire.

Keywords: forest, soil, greenhouse, quadrupole

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171 Generation of Charged Nanoparticles and Their Contribution to the Thin Film and Nanowire Growth during Chemical Vapour Deposition

Authors: Seung-Min Yang, Seong-Han Park, Sang-Hoon Lee, Seung-Wan Yoo, Chan-Soo Kim, Nong-Moon Hwang

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The theory of charged nanoparticles suggested that in many Chemical Vapour Depositions (CVD) processes, Charged Nanoparticles (CNPs) are generated in the gas-phase and become a building block of thin films and nanowires. Recently, the nanoparticle-based crystallization has become a big issue since the growth of nanorods or crystals by the building block of nanoparticles was directly observed by transmission electron microscopy observations in the liquid cell. In an effort to confirm charged gas-phase nuclei, that might be generated under conventional processing conditions of thin films and nanowires during CVD, we performed an in-situ measurement using differential mobility analyser and particle beam mass spectrometer. The size distribution and number density of CNPs were affected by process parameters such as precursor flow rate and working temperature. It was shown that many films and nanostructures, which have been believed to grow by individual atoms or molecules, actually grow by the building blocks of such charged nuclei. The electrostatic interaction between CNPs and the growing surface induces the self-assembly into films and nanowires. In addition, the charge-enhanced atomic diffusion makes CNPs liquid-like quasi solid. As a result, CNPs tend to land epitaxial on the growing surface, which results in the growth of single crystalline nanowires with a smooth surface.

Keywords: chemical vapour deposition, charged nanoparticle, electrostatic force, nanostructure evolution, differential mobility analyser, particle beam mass spectrometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
170 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Plant by-Product Extracts

Authors: Cristian Moisa, Andreea Lupitu, Adriana Csakvari, Dana G. Radu, Leonard Marian Olariu, Georgeta Pop, Dorina Chambre, Lucian Copolovici, Dana Copolovici

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Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) represents a promising, accessible, eco-friendly, and safe process with significant applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical sciences, and farming. The aim of our study was to obtain silver nanoparticles, using plant wastes extracts resulted in the essential oils extraction process: Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia L., and in hemp processing for seed and fibre, Cannabis sativa. Firstly, we obtained aqueous extracts of thyme, oregano, lavender, and hemp (two monoicous and one dioicous varieties), all harvested in western part of Romania. Then, we determined the chemical composition of the extracts by liquid-chromatography coupled with diode array and mass spectrometer detectors. The compounds identified in the extracts were in agreement with earlier published data, and the determination of the antioxidant activity of the obtained extracts by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays confirmed their antioxidant activity due to their total polyphenolic content evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Then, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully biosynthesised, as was demonstrated by UV-VIS, FT-IR spectroscopies, and SEM, by reacting AgNO₃ solution and plant extracts. AgNPs were spherical in shape, with less than 30 nm in diameter, and had a good bactericidal activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens).

Keywords: plant wastes extracts, chemical composition, high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer, HPLC-MS, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, silver nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
169 Treatment of Low-Grade Iron Ore Using Two Stage Wet High-Intensity Magnetic Separation Technique

Authors: Moses C. Siame, Kazutoshi Haga, Atsushi Shibayama

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This study investigates the removal of silica, alumina and phosphorus as impurities from Sanje iron ore using wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Sanje iron ore contains low-grade hematite ore found in Nampundwe area of Zambia from which iron is to be used as the feed in the steelmaking process. The chemical composition analysis using X-ray Florence spectrometer showed that Sanje low-grade ore contains 48.90 mass% of hematite (Fe2O3) with 34.18 mass% as an iron grade. The ore also contains silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) of 31.10 mass% and 7.65 mass% respectively. The mineralogical analysis using X-ray diffraction spectrometer showed hematite and silica as the major mineral components of the ore while magnetite and alumina exist as minor mineral components. Mineral particle distribution analysis was done using scanning electron microscope with an X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and images showed that the average mineral size distribution of alumina-silicate gangue particles is in order of 100 μm and exists as iron-bearing interlocked particles. Magnetic separation was done using series L model 4 Magnetic Separator. The effect of various magnetic separation parameters such as magnetic flux density, particle size, and pulp density of the feed was studied during magnetic separation experiments. The ore with average particle size of 25 µm and pulp density of 2.5% was concentrated using pulp flow of 7 L/min. The results showed that 10 T was optimal magnetic flux density which enhanced the recovery of 93.08% of iron with 53.22 mass% grade. The gangue mineral particles containing 12 mass% silica and 3.94 mass% alumna remained in the concentrate, therefore the concentrate was further treated in the second stage WHIMS using the same parameters from the first stage. The second stage process recovered 83.41% of iron with 67.07 mass% grade. Silica was reduced to 2.14 mass% and alumina to 1.30 mass%. Accordingly, phosphorus was also reduced to 0.02 mass%. Therefore, the two stage magnetic separation process was established using these results.

Keywords: Sanje iron ore, magnetic separation, silica, alumina, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
168 Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and Statistical Classifiers in Olive Sorting Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: İsmail Kavdır, M. Burak Büyükcan, Ferhat Kurtulmuş

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Table olive is a valuable product especially in Mediterranean countries. It is usually consumed after some fermentation process. Defects happened naturally or as a result of an impact while olives are still fresh may become more distinct after processing period. Defected olives are not desired both in table olive and olive oil industries as it will affect the final product quality and reduce market prices considerably. Therefore it is critical to sort table olives before processing or even after processing according to their quality and surface defects. However, doing manual sorting has many drawbacks such as high expenses, subjectivity, tediousness and inconsistency. Quality criterions for green olives were accepted as color and free of mechanical defects, wrinkling, surface blemishes and rotting. In this study, it was aimed to classify fresh table olives using different classifiers and NIR spectroscopy readings and also to compare the classifiers. For this purpose, green (Ayvalik variety) olives were classified based on their surface feature properties such as defect-free, with bruised defect and with fly defect using FT-NIR spectroscopy and classification algorithms such as artificial neural networks, ident and cluster. Bruker multi-purpose analyzer (MPA) FT-NIR spectrometer (Bruker Optik, GmbH, Ettlingen Germany) was used for spectral measurements. The spectrometer was equipped with InGaAs detectors (TE-InGaAs internal for reflectance and RT-InGaAs external for transmittance) and a 20-watt high intensity tungsten–halogen NIR light source. Reflectance measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe (type IN 261) which covered the wavelengths between 780–2500 nm, while transmittance measurements were performed between 800 and 1725 nm. Thirty-two scans were acquired for each reflectance spectrum in about 15.32 s while 128 scans were obtained for transmittance in about 62 s. Resolution was 8 cm⁻¹ for both spectral measurement modes. Instrument control was done using OPUS software (Bruker Optik, GmbH, Ettlingen Germany). Classification applications were performed using three classifiers; Backpropagation Neural Networks, ident and cluster classification algorithms. For these classification applications, Neural Network tool box in Matlab, ident and cluster modules in OPUS software were used. Classifications were performed considering different scenarios; two quality conditions at once (good vs bruised, good vs fly defect) and three quality conditions at once (good, bruised and fly defect). Two spectrometer readings were used in classification applications; reflectance and transmittance. Classification results obtained using artificial neural networks algorithm in discriminating good olives from bruised olives, from olives with fly defect and from the olive group including both bruised and fly defected olives with success rates respectively changing between 97 and 99%, 61 and 94% and between 58.67 and 92%. On the other hand, classification results obtained for discriminating good olives from bruised ones and also for discriminating good olives from fly defected olives using the ident method ranged between 75-97.5% and 32.5-57.5%, respectfully; results obtained for the same classification applications using the cluster method ranged between 52.5-97.5% and between 22.5-57.5%.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, statistical classifiers, NIR spectroscopy, reflectance, transmittance

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
167 Usage of Crude Glycerol for Biological Hydrogen Production, Experiments and Analysis

Authors: Ilze Dimanta, Zane Rutkovska, Vizma Nikolajeva, Janis Kleperis, Indrikis Muiznieks

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Majority of word’s steadily increasing energy consumption is provided by non-renewable fossil resources. Need to find an alternative energy resource is essential for further socio-economic development. Hydrogen is renewable, clean energy carrier with high energy density (142 MJ/kg, accordingly – oil has 42 MJ/kg). Biological hydrogen production is an alternative way to produce hydrogen from renewable resources, e.g. using organic waste material resource fermentation that facilitate recycling of sewage and are environmentally benign. Hydrogen gas is produced during the fermentation process of bacteria in anaerobic conditions. Bacteria are producing hydrogen in the liquid phase and when thermodynamic equilibrium is reached, hydrogen is diffusing from liquid to gaseous phase. Because of large quantities of available crude glycerol and the highly reduced nature of carbon in glycerol per se, microbial conversion of it seems to be economically and environmentally viable possibility. Such industrial organic waste product as crude glycerol is perspective for usage in feedstock for hydrogen producing bacteria. The process of biodiesel production results in 41% (w/w) of crude glycerol. The developed lab-scale test system (experimental bioreactor) with hydrogen micro-electrode (Unisense, Denmark) was used to determine hydrogen production yield and rate in the liquid phase. For hydrogen analysis in the gas phase the RGAPro-100 mass-spectrometer connected to the experimental test-system was used. Fermentative bacteria strains were tested for hydrogen gas production rates. The presence of hydrogen in gaseous phase was measured using mass spectrometer but registered concentrations were comparatively small. To decrease the hydrogen partial pressure in liquid phase reactor with a system for continuous bubbling with inert gas was developed. H2 production rate for the best producer in liquid phase reached 0,40 mmol H2/l, in gaseous phase - 1,32 mmol H2/l. Hydrogen production rate is time dependent – higher rate of hydrogen production is at the fermentation process beginning when concentration increases, but after three hours of fermentation, it decreases.

Keywords: bio-hydrogen, fermentation, experimental bioreactor, crude glycerol

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
166 Materials and Techniques of Anonymous Egyptian Polychrome Cartonnage Mummy Mask: A Multiple Analytical Study

Authors: Hanaa A. Al-Gaoudi, Hassan Ebeid

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The research investigates the materials and processes used in the manufacturing of an Egyptian polychrome cartonnage mummy mask with the aim of dating this object and establishing trade patterns of certain materials that were used and available at the time of ancient Egypt. This anonymous-source object was held in the basement storage of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (EMC) and has never been on display. Furthermore, there is no information available regarding its owner, provenance, date, and even the time of its possession by the museum. Moreover, the object is in a very poor condition where almost two-thirds of the mask was bent and has never received any previous conservation treatment. This research has utilized well-established multi-analytical methods to identify the considerable diversity of materials that have been used in the manufacturing of this object. These methods include Computed Tomography Scan (CT scan) to acquire detailed pictures of the inside physical structure and condition of the bended layers. Dino-Lite portable digital microscope, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and the non-invasive imaging technique of multispectral imaging (MSI) to obtain information about the physical characteristics and condition of the painted layers and to examine the microstructure of the materials. Portable XRF Spectrometer (PXRF) and X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD) to identify mineral phases and the bulk element composition in the gilded layer, ground, and pigments; Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) to identify organic compounds and their molecular characterization; accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C) to date the object. Preliminary results suggest that there are no human remains inside the object, and the textile support is linen fibres with tabby weave 1/1 and these fibres are in a very bad condition. Several pigments have been identified, such as Egyptian blue, Magnetite, Egyptian green frit, Hematite, Calcite, and Cinnabar; moreover, the gilded layers are pure gold and the binding media in the pigments is Arabic gum and animal glue in the textile support layer.

Keywords: analytical methods, Egyptian museum, mummy mask, pigments, textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
165 Real-Time Radiological Monitoring of the Atmosphere Using an Autonomous Aerosol Sampler

Authors: Miroslav Hyza, Petr Rulik, Vojtech Bednar, Jan Sury

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An early and reliable detection of an increased radioactivity level in the atmosphere is one of the key aspects of atmospheric radiological monitoring. Although the standard laboratory procedures provide detection limits as low as few µBq/m³, their major drawback is the delayed result reporting: typically a few days. This issue is the main objective of the HAMRAD project, which gave rise to a prototype of an autonomous monitoring device. It is based on the idea of sequential aerosol sampling using a carrousel sample changer combined with a gamma-ray spectrometer. In our hardware configuration, the air is drawn through a filter positioned on the carrousel so that it could be rotated into the measuring position after a preset sampling interval. Filter analysis is performed via a 50% HPGe detector inside an 8.5cm lead shielding. The spectrometer output signal is then analyzed using DSP electronics and Gamwin software with preset nuclide libraries and other analysis parameters. After the counting, the filter is placed into a storage bin with a capacity of 250 filters so that the device can run autonomously for several months depending on the preset sampling frequency. The device is connected to a central server via GPRS/GSM where the user can view monitoring data including raw spectra and technological data describing the state of the device. All operating parameters can be remotely adjusted through a simple GUI. The flow rate is continuously adjustable up to 10 m³/h. The main challenge in spectrum analysis is the natural background subtraction. As detection limits are heavily influenced by the deposited activity of radon decay products and the measurement time is fixed, there must exist an optimal sample decay time (delayed spectrum acquisition). To solve this problem, we adopted a simple procedure based on sequential spectrum acquisition and optimal partial spectral sum with respect to the detection limits for a particular radionuclide. The prototyped device proved to be able to detect atmospheric contamination at the level of mBq/m³ per an 8h sampling.

Keywords: aerosols, atmosphere, atmospheric radioactivity monitoring, autonomous sampler

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
164 Surface Topography Measurement by Confocal Spectral Interferometry

Authors: A. Manallah, C. Meier

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Confocal spectral interferometry (CSI) is an innovative optical method for determining microtopography of surfaces and thickness of transparent layers, based on the combination of two optical principles: confocal imaging, and spectral interferometry. Confocal optical system images at each instant a single point of the sample. The whole surface is reconstructed by plan scanning. The interference signal generated by mixing two white-light beams is analyzed using a spectrometer. In this work, five ‘rugotests’ of known standard roughnesses are investigated. The topography is then measured and illustrated, and the equivalent roughness is determined and compared with the standard values.

Keywords: confocal spectral interferometry, nondestructive testing, optical metrology, surface topography, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
163 On the Optimality Assessment of Nano-Particle Size Spectrometry and Its Association to the Entropy Concept

Authors: A. Shaygani, R. Saifi, M. S. Saidi, M. Sani

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Particle size distribution, the most important characteristics of aerosols, is obtained through electrical characterization techniques. The dynamics of charged nano-particles under the influence of electric field in electrical mobility spectrometer (EMS) reveals the size distribution of these particles. The accuracy of this measurement is influenced by flow conditions, geometry, electric field and particle charging process, therefore by the transfer function (transfer matrix) of the instrument. In this work, a wire-cylinder corona charger was designed and the combined field-diffusion charging process of injected poly-disperse aerosol particles was numerically simulated as a prerequisite for the study of a multi-channel EMS. The result, a cloud of particles with non-uniform charge distribution, was introduced to the EMS. The flow pattern and electric field in the EMS were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain particle trajectories in the device and therefore to calculate the reported signal by each electrometer. According to the output signals (resulted from bombardment of particles and transferring their charges as currents), we proposed a modification to the size of detecting rings (which are connected to electrometers) in order to evaluate particle size distributions more accurately. Based on the capability of the system to transfer information contents about size distribution of the injected particles, we proposed a benchmark for the assessment of optimality of the design. This method applies the concept of Von Neumann entropy and borrows the definition of entropy from information theory (Shannon entropy) to measure optimality. Entropy, according to the Shannon entropy, is the ''average amount of information contained in an event, sample or character extracted from a data stream''. Evaluating the responses (signals) which were obtained via various configurations of detecting rings, the best configuration which gave the best predictions about the size distributions of injected particles, was the modified configuration. It was also the one that had the maximum amount of entropy. A reasonable consistency was also observed between the accuracy of the predictions and the entropy content of each configuration. In this method, entropy is extracted from the transfer matrix of the instrument for each configuration. Ultimately, various clouds of particles were introduced to the simulations and predicted size distributions were compared to the exact size distributions.

Keywords: aerosol nano-particle, CFD, electrical mobility spectrometer, von neumann entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
162 Design and Synthesis of Gradient Nanocomposite Materials

Authors: Pu Ying-Chih, Yang Yin-Ju, Hang Jian-Yi, Jang Guang-Way

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Organic-Inorganic hybrid materials consisting of graded distributions of inorganic nano particles in organic polymer matrices were successfully prepared by the sol-gel process. Optical and surface properties of the resulting nano composites can be manipulated by changing their compositions and nano particle distribution gradients. Applications of gradient nano composite materials include sealants for LED packaging and screen lenses for smartphones. Optical transparency, prism coupler, TEM, SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX), Izod impact strength, conductivity, pencil hardness, and thermogravimetric characterizations of the nano composites were performed and the results will be presented.

Keywords: Gradient, Hybrid, Nanocomposite, Organic-Inorganic

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
161 Predictive Maintenance Based on Oil Analysis Applicable to Transportation Fleets

Authors: Israel Ibarra Solis, Juan Carlos Rodriguez Sierra, Ma. del Carmen Salazar Hernandez, Isis Rodriguez Sanchez, David Perez Guerrero

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At the present paper we try to explain the analysis techniques use for the lubricating oil in a maintenance period of a city bus (Mercedes Benz Boxer 40), which is call ‘R-24 route’, line Coecillo Centro SA de CV in Leon Guanajuato, to estimate the optimal time for the oil change. Using devices such as the rotational viscometer and the atomic absorption spectrometer, they can detect the incipient form when the oil loses its lubricating properties and, therefore, cannot protect the mechanical components of diesel engines such these trucks. Timely detection of lost property in the oil, it allows us taking preventive plan maintenance for the fleet.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrometry, maintenance, predictive velocity rate, lubricating oils

Procedia PDF Downloads 448