Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 116

Search results for: glasses

116 Simulation of Immiscibility Regions in Sodium Borosilicate Glasses

Authors: Djamila Aboutaleb, Brahim Safi

Abstract:

In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.

Keywords: sodium borosilicate, heat-resistant, isothermal treatments, immiscibility, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
115 Spectroscopic and 1.08mm Laser Properties of Nd3+ Doped Oxy-Fluoro Borate Glasses

Authors: Swapna Koneru, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash Gaddem

Abstract:

The different concentrations of neodymium-doped (Nd-doped) oxy fluoroborate (OFB) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay curve measurements to understand the lasing potentialities of these glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded and have been analyzed using Judd–Ofelt theory. The dipole strengths are parameterized in terms of three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) to elucidate the glassy matrix around Nd3+ ion as well as to determine the 4F3/2 metastable state radiative properties such as the transition probability (AR), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratios (βR) and integrated absorption cross-section (σa) have been measured for most of the fluorescent levels of Nd3+. The emission spectra recorded for these glasses exhibit two peaks at 1085 and 1328 nm corresponding to 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 transitions have been obtained for all the glasses upon 808 nm diode laser excitation in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 transition increases with increase of Nd3+ concentration up to 1 mol% and then concentration quenching is observed for 2.0 mol% of Nd3+ concentration. The lifetimes for the 4F3/2 level are found to decrease with increase in Nd2O3 concentration in the glasses due to the concentration quenching. The decay curves of all these glasses show single exponential behavior. The spectroscopy of Nd3+ in these glasses is well understood and laser properties can be accurately determined from measured spectroscopic properties. The results obtained are compared with reports on similar glasses. The results indicate that the present glasses could be useful for 1.08 µm laser applications.

Keywords: glasses, luminescence, optical properties, photoluminescence spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
114 Study and Analyze of Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications: From Soft to Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. Monfared, S. Faghihi

Abstract:

Metallic glasses (MGs) are newcomers in the field of metals that show great potential for soft and bone tissue engineering due to the amorphous structure that endows unique properties. Up to now, various MGs based on Ti, Zr, Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Sr in the form of a ribbon, bulk, thin-film, and powder have been investigated for biomedical purposes. This article reviews the compositions and biomedical properties of MGs as well as analyzes results in order to guide new approaches and future development of MGs.

Keywords: metallic glasses, biomaterials, biocompatibility, biocorrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
113 Simulation of Acoustic Properties of Borate and Tellurite Glasses

Authors: M. S. Gaafar, S. Y. Marzouk, I. S. Mahmoud, S. Al-Zobaidi

Abstract:

Makishima and Mackenzie model was used to simulation of acoustic properties (longitudinal and shear ultrasonic wave velocities, elastic moduli theoretically for many tellurite and borate glasses. The model was proposed mainly depending on the values of the experimentally measured density, which are obtained before. In this search work, we are trying to obtain the values of densities of amorphous glasses (as the density depends on the geometry of the network structure of these glasses). In addition, the problem of simulating the slope of linear regression between the experimentally determined bulk modulus and the product of packing density and experimental Young's modulus, were solved in this search work. The results showed good agreement between the experimentally measured values of densities and both ultrasonic wave velocities, and those theoretically determined.

Keywords: glasses, ultrasonic wave velocities, elastic modulus, Makishima & Mackenzie Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
112 Structural Investigation of Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 Glasses Doped with NdF3

Authors: M. S. Gaafar, S. Y. Marzouk

Abstract:

Sodium borosilicate glasses doped with different content of NdF3 mol % have been prepared by rapid quenching method. Ultrasonic velocities (both longitudinal and shear) measurements have been carried out at room temperature and at ultrasonic frequency of 4 MHz. Elastic moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have been obtained as a function of NdF3 modifier content. Results showed that the elastic moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have very slight change with the change of NdF3 mol % content. Based on FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical (Bond compression) model, quantitative analysis has been carried out in order to obtain more information about the structure of these glasses. The study indicated that the structure of these glasses is mainly composed of SiO4 units with four bridging oxygens (Q4), and with three bridging and one nonbridging oxygens (Q3).

Keywords: borosilicate glasses, ultrasonic velocity, elastic moduli, FTIR spectroscopy, bond compression model

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
111 Physical Properties and Elastic Studies of Fluoroaluminate Glasses Based on Alkali

Authors: C. Benhamideche

Abstract:

Fluoroaluminate glasses have been reported as the earliest heavy metal fluoride glasses. By comparison with flurozirconate glasses, they offer a set of similar optical features, but also some differences in their elastic and chemical properties. In practice they have been less developed because their stability against devitrification is smaller than that of the most stable fluoroziconates. The purpose of this study was to investigate glass formation in systems AlF3-YF3-PbF2-MgF2-MF2 (M= Li, Na, K). Synthesis was implemented at room atmosphere using the ammonium fluoride processing. After fining, the liquid was into a preheated brass mold, then annealed below the glass transition temperature for several hours. The samples were polished for optical measurements. Glass formation has been investigated in a systematic way, using pseudo ternary systems in order to allow parameters to vary at the same time. We have chosen the most stable glass compositions for the determination of the physical properties. These properties including characteristic temperatures, density and proprieties elastic. Glass stability increases in multicomponent glasses. Bulk samples have been prepared for physical characterization. These glasses have a potential interest for passive optical fibers because they are less sensitive to water attack than ZBLAN glass, mechanically stronger. It is expected they could have a larger damage threshold for laser power transmission.

Keywords: fluoride glass, aluminium fluoride, thermal properties, density, proprieties elastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
110 Composition Dependent Spectroscopic Studies of Sm3+-Doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: K. Swapna, Sk. Mahamuda, Ch, Annapurna, A. Srinivasa Rao, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

Samarium ions doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite (AFTT) Glasses have been prepared by using the melt quenching technique and characterized through various spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and decay spectral studies. From the measured absorption spectra of Sm3+ ions in AFTT glasses, the optical band gap and Urbach energies have been evaluated. The spectroscopic parameters such as oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ωλ), spontaneous emission probability (AR), branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) of various excited levels have been determined from the absorption spectrum by using J-O analysis. A strong luminescence in the reddish-orange spectral region has been observed for all the Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses. It consisting four emission transitions occurring from the 4G5/2metastable state to the lower lying states 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 upon exciting the sample with a 478 nm line of an argon ion laser. The stimulated emission cross-sections (σe) and branching ratios (βmeas) were estimated from the emission spectra for all emission transitions. Correlation of the radiative lifetime with the experimental lifetime measured from the day curves allows us to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared glasses. In order to know the colour emission of the prepared glasses under near UV excitation, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 colour chromaticity diagram. The aforementioned spectral studies carried out on Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses allowed us to conclude that, these glasses are best suited for orange-red visible lasers.

Keywords: fluoro tungsten tellurite glasses, judd-ofelt intensity parameters, lifetime, stimulated emission cross-section

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109 In-Vitro and Antibacterial Studies for Silicate-Phosphate Glasses Formed with Biosynthesized Silica

Authors: Damandeep Kaur, O.P. Pandey, M.S. Reddy

Abstract:

In the present research, bio-synthesisation of silica particles has been carried out successfully. For this purpose, agriculture waste rice husk (RH) has been utilized. Among several types of agriculture waste, RH is considered to be cost-effective and easily accessible. In the present investigation, a chemical approach has been followed to extract silica nanoparticles. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the amorphous nature of silica at lower temperature range. Silica and other mineral contents have been found using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Morphological and structural studies have been carried out with the use of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission (FTIR) spectroscopy. Further, extracted silica from RH has been used for preparation of the glasses. The appearance of broad humps in XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous nature of prepared glasses. These glasses exhibited enhanced antibacterial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The as-synthesized glass samples can be further used for physical and structural studies for drug loading applications.

Keywords: rice husk, biosynthesized silica, bioactive glasses, antibacterial studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
108 Spectroscopic Study of Eu³⁺ Ions Doped Potassium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for Photonic Device Application

Authors: Nisha Deopa, Allam Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Quaternary potassium lead alumino borate (KPbAlB) glasses doped with different concentration of Eu³⁺ ions have been synthesized by melt quench technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Photoluminescence (PL), Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and CIE-chromaticity co-ordinates to study their luminescence behavior. A broad hump was observed in XRD spectrum confirms glassy nature of as-prepared glasses. By using Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, various radiative parameters for the prominent fluorescent levels of Eu³⁺ have been investigated. The intense emission peak was observed at 613 nm (⁵D₀→⁷F₂) under 393 nm excitation, matches well with the excitation of n-UV LED chips. The decay profiles observed for ⁵D₀ level were exponential for lower Eu³⁺ ion concentration while non-exponential for higher concentration, which may be due to efficient energy transfer between Eu³⁺-Eu³⁺ through cross relaxation and subsequent quenching observed. From the emission cross-sections, branching ratios, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 7 mol % of Eu³⁺ ion concentration (glass B) is optimum in KPbAlB glasses for photonic device application.

Keywords: energy transfer, glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
107 Photoluminescence and Spectroscopic Studies of Tm3+ Ions Doped Lead Tungsten Tellurite Glasses for Visible Red and Near-Ir Laser Applications

Authors: M. Venkateswarlu, Srinivasa Rao Allam, S. K. Mahamuda, K. Swapna, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

Lead Tungsten Tellurite (LTT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Tm3+ ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay spectral studies to know the feasibility of using these glasses as luminescent devices in visible Red and NIR regions. By using optical absorption spectral data, the energy band gaps for all the glasses were evaluated and were found to be in the range of 2.34-2.59 eV; which is very useful for the construction of optical devices. Judd-Ofelt (J-O)theory has been applied to the optical absorption spectral profiles to calculate the J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) and consecutively used to evaluate various radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (AR), radiative lifetimes (τ_R) and branching ratios (β_R) for the prominent luminescent levels. The luminescence spectra for all the LTT glass samples have shown two intense peaks in bright red and Near Infrared regions at 650 nm (1G4→3F4) and 800 nm (3H4→3H6) respectively for which effective bandwidths (〖Δλ〗_P), experimental branching ratios (β_exp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ_se) are evaluated. The decay profiles for all the glasses were also recorded to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared LTT glasses by coupling the radiative and experimental lifetimes. From the measured emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 0.5 mol% of Tm3+ ions doped LTT glass is most suitable for generating bright visible red and NIR lasers to operate at 650 and 800 nm respectively.

Keywords: glasses, JO parameters, optical materials, thullium

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
106 Spectroscopic Investigations of Nd³⁺ Doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for 1.06μM Laser Applications

Authors: Nisha Deopa, A. S. Rao

Abstract:

Neodymium doped lithium lead alumino borate glasses were synthesized with the molar composition 10Li₂O – 10PbO – (10-x) Al₂O₃ – 70B₂O₃ – xNd₂O₃ (where, x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol %) via conventional melt quenching technique to understand their lasing potentiality. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters along with various spectroscopic parameters have been estimated. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under investigation exhibit two emission transitions, ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₁₁/₂ (1063 nm) and ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₉/₂ (1350 nm) for which radiative parameters have been evaluated. The emission intensity increases with increase in Nd³⁺ ion concentration up to 1 mol %, and beyond concentration quenching took place. The decay profile shows single exponential nature for lower Nd³⁺ ions concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration. To elucidate the nature of energy transfer process, non-exponential decay curves were well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama model. The relatively high values of emission cross-section, branching ratio, lifetimes and quantum efficiency suggest that 1.0 mol% of Nd³⁺ in LiPbAlB glasses is aptly suitable to generate lasing action in NIR region at 1063 nm.

Keywords: energy transfer, glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
105 Implementing Two Rotatable Circular Polarized Glass Made Window to Reduce the Amount of Electricity Usage by Air Condition System

Authors: Imtiaz Sarwar

Abstract:

Air conditioning in homes may account for one-third of the electricity during period in summer when most of the energy is required in large cities. It is not consuming only electricity but also has a serious impact on environment including greenhouse effect. Circular polarizer filter can be used to selectively absorb or pass clockwise or counter-clock wise circularly polarized light. My research is about putting two circular polarized glasses parallel to each other and make a circular window with it. When we will place two circular polarized glasses exactly same way (0 degree to each other) then nothing will be noticed rather it will work as a regular window through which all light and heat can pass on. While we will keep rotating one of the circular polarized glasses, the angle between the glasses will keep increasing and the window will keep blocking more and more lights. It will completely block all the lights and a portion of related heat when one of the windows will reach 90 degree to another. On the other hand, we can just open the window when fresh air is necessary. It will reduce the necessity of using Air condition too much or consumer will use electric fan rather than air conditioning system. Thus, we can save a significant amount of electricity and we can go green.

Keywords: circular polarizer, window, air condition, light, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
104 Dy3+ Ions Doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungstunate Tellurite Glasses for Laser and White LED Applications

Authors: Allam Srinivasa Rao, Ch. Annapurna Devi, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

A new-fangled series of white light emitting 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped Single-Alklai and Mixed-Alkai fluoro tungstunate tellurite glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by studying XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dy-O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined which are used to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy–ligand field environment. The evaluated J-O parameters (Ω_4>Ω_2>Ω_6) for all the glasses are following the same trend. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and Yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2→6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2→6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of fluoro tungstunate tellurite glass (TeWK: 1Dy). The J-O intensity parameters have been used to determine the various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By using the experimental lifetimes (τ_exp) measured from the decay spectral features and radiative lifetimes (τ_R), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated. Among all the glasses, the potassium combined fluoro tungstunate tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass has the highest quantum efficiency (94.6%). The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The (x, y) and (u, v) chromaticity colour coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, we are suggesting that the 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and White-LED applications.

Keywords: dysprosium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, photo luminescence, tellurite glasses

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
103 Spectroscopic Studies and Reddish Luminescence Enhancement with the Increase in Concentration of Europium Ions in Oxy-Fluoroborate Glasses

Authors: Mahamuda Sk, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash G.

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The different concentrations of Eu3+ ions doped in Oxy-fluoroborate glasses of composition 60 B2O3-10 BaF2-10 CaF2-15 CaF2- (5-x) Al2O3 -x Eu2O3 where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%, have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and are characterized through absorption and photoluminescence (PL), decay, color chromaticity and Confocal measurements. The absorption spectra of all the glasses consists of six peaks corresponding to the transitions 7F0→5D2, 7F0→5D1, 7F1→5D1, 7F1→5D0, 7F0→7F6 and 7F1→7F6 respectively. The experimental oscillator strengths with and without thermal corrections have been evaluated using absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4) have been evaluated from the photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses. PL spectra of all the glasses have been recorded at excitation wavelengths 395 nm (conventional excitation source) and 410 nm (diode laser) to observe the intensity variation in the PL spectra. All the spectra consists of five emission peaks corresponding to the transitions 5D0→7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4). Surprisingly no concentration quenching is observed on PL spectra. Among all the glasses the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration possesses maximum intensity for the transition 5D0→7F2 (612 nm) in bright red region. The JO parameters derived from the photoluminescence spectra have been used to evaluate the essential radiative properties such as transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratio (βR) and peak stimulated emission cross-section (σse) for the 5D0→7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The decay rates of the 5D0 fluorescent level of Eu3+ ions in the title glasses are found to be single exponential for all the studied Eu3+ ion concentrations. A marginal increase in lifetime of the 5D0 level has been noticed with increase in Eu3+ ion concentration from 0.1 mol% to 2.0 mol%. Among all the glasses, the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration possesses maximum values of branching ratio, stimulated emission cross-section and quantum efficiency for the transition 5D0→7F2 (612 nm) in bright red region. The color chromaticity coordinates are also evaluated to confirm the reddish luminescence from these glasses. These color coordinates exactly fall in the bright red region. Confocal images also recorded to confirm reddish luminescence from these glasses. From all the obtained results in the present study, it is suggested that the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration is suitable to emit bright red color laser.

Keywords: Europium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, laser, luminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
102 Lithium Oxide Effect on the Thermal and Physical Properties of the Ternary System Glasses (Li2O3-B2O3-Al2O3)

Authors: D. Aboutaleb, B. Safi

Abstract:

The borate glasses are known by their structural characterized by existence of unit’s structural composed by triangles and tetrahedrons boron in different configurations depending on the percentage of B2O3 in the glass chemical composition. In this paper, effect of lithium oxide addition on the thermal and physical properties of an alumina borate glass, was investigated. It was found that the boron abnormality has a significant effect in the change of glass properties according to the addition rate of lithium oxide.

Keywords: borate glasses, triangles and tetrahedrons boron, lithium oxide, boron anomaly, thermal properties, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
101 Spectroscopic Studies of Dy³⁺ Ions in Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite Glasses for Optoelectronic Devices

Authors: K. Swapna

Abstract:

A Series of Alkali-Earth Boro Tellurite (AEBT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy³⁺ ions have been prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and photoluminescence decay to understand their utility in optoelectronic devices such as lasers and white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs). Raman spectrum recorded for an undoped glass is used to measure the phonon energy of the host glass and various functional groups present in the host glass (AEBT). The intensities of the electronic transitions and the ligand environment around the Dy³⁺ ions were studied by applying Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory to the recorded absorption spectra of the glasses. The evaluated J-O parameters are subsequently used to measure various radiative parameters such as transition probability (AR), radiative branching ratio (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) for the prominent fluorescent levels of Dy³⁺ ions in the as-prepared glasses. The luminescence spectra recorded at 387 nm excitation show three emission transitions (⁴F9/2→⁶H15/2 (blue), ⁴F9/2→⁶H13/2 (yellow) and ⁴F9/2 → ⁶H11/2 (red)) of which the yellow transition observed at 575 nm is found to be highly intense. The experimental branching ratio (βexp) and stimulated emission crosssection (σse) were measured from luminescence spectra. The experimental lifetimes (τexp) measured from the decay spectral profiles are combined with radiative lifetimes to measure quantum efficiencies of the as-prepared glasses. The yellow to blue intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates are found to vary with Dy³⁺ ion concentrations. The aforementioned results reveal that these glasses are aptly suitable for w-LEDs and laser devices.

Keywords: glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence, I-H model

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
100 Life Cycle Assessment: Drinking Glass Systems

Authors: Devina Jain

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The choice between single-use drinking glasses and reusable glasses is of major concern to our lifestyles, and hence, the environment. This study is aimed at comparing three systems - a disposable paper cup, a disposable cup and a reusable stainless steel cup or glass - with respect to their effect on the environment to find out which one is more advantageous for reducing the impact on the environment. Life Cycle Assessment was conducted using modeling software, Umberto NXT Universal (Version 7.1). For the purpose of this study, the cradle to grave approach was considered. Results showed that cleaning is of a very strong influence on the environmental burden by these drinking systems, with a contribution of up to 90 to 100%. Thus, the burden is determined by the way in which the utensils are washed, and how much water is consumed. It maybe seems like a small, insignificant daily practice. In the short term, it would seem that paper and plastic cups are a better idea, since they are easy to acquire and do not need to be stored, but in the long run, we can say that steel cups will have less of an environmental impact. However, if the frequency of use and the number of glasses employed per use are of significance to decide the appropriateness of the usage, it is better to use disposable cups and glasses.

Keywords: disposable glass, life cycle assessment, paper, plastic, reusable glass, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
99 Failure Analysis of Windshield Glass of Automobiles

Authors: Bhupinder Kaur, O. P. Pandey

Abstract:

An automobile industry is using variety of materials for better comfort and utility. The present work describes the details of failure analysis done for windshield glass of a four-wheeler class. The failure occurred in two different models of the heavy duty class of four wheelers, which analysed separately. The company reported that the failure has occurred only in their rear windshield when vehicles parked under shade for several days. These glasses were characterised by dilatometer, differential thermal analyzer, and X-ray diffraction. The glasses were further investigated under scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray dot mapping. The microstructural analysis of the glasses done at the surface as well as at the fractured area indicates that carbon as an impurity got segregated as banded structure throughout the glass. Since carbon absorbs higher heat, it causes thermal mismatch to the entire glass system, and glass shattered down. In this work, the details of sequential analysis done to predict the cause of failure are present.

Keywords: failure, windshield, thermal mismatch, carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
98 Photoluminescence and Energy Transfer Studies of Dy3+ Ions Doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for W-LED and Laser Applications

Authors: Nisha Deopa, A. S. Rao

Abstract:

Lithium Lead Alumino Borate (LiPbAlB) glasses doped with different Dy3+ ions concentration were synthesized to investigate their viability in solid state lighting (SSL) technology by melt quenching techniques. From the absorption spectra, bonding parameters (ð) were investigated to study the nature of bonding between Dy3+ ions and its surrounding ligands. Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ω = 2, 4, 6), estimated from the experimental oscillator strengths (fex) of the absorption spectral features were used to evaluate the radiative parameters of different transition levels. From the decay curves, experimental lifetime (τex) were measured and coupled with the radiative lifetime to evaluate the quantum efficiency of the as-prepared glasses. As Dy3+ ions concentration increases, decay profile changes from exponential to non-exponential through energy transfer mechanism (ETM) in turn decreasing experimental lifetime. In order to investigate the nature of ETM, non-exponential decay curves were fitted to Inkuti–Hirayama (I-H) model which further confirms dipole-dipole interaction. Among all the emission transition, 4F9/2  6H15/2 transition (483 nm) is best suitable for lasing potentialities. By exciting titled glasses in n-UV to blue regions, CIE chromaticity coordinates and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) were calculated to understand their capability in cool white light generation. From the evaluated radiative parameters, CIE co-ordinates, quantum efficiency and confocal images it was observed that glass B (0.5 mol%) is a potential candidate for developing w-LEDs and lasers.

Keywords: energy transfer, glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
97 Enhanced Optical Nonlinearity in Bismuth Borate Glass: Effect of Size of Nanoparticles

Authors: Shivani Singla, Om Prakash Pandey, Gopi Sharma

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Metallic nanoparticle doped glasses has lead to rapid development in the field of optics. Large third order non-linearity, ultrafast time response, and a wide range of resonant absorption frequencies make these metallic nanoparticles more important in comparison to their bulk material. All these properties are highly dependent upon the size, shape, and surrounding environment of the nanoparticles. In a quest to find a suitable material for optical applications, several efforts have been devoted to improve the properties of such glasses in the past. In the present study, bismuth borate glass doped with different size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been prepared using the conventional melt-quench technique. Synthesized glasses are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to observe the structural modification in the glassy matrix with the variation in the size of the AuNPs. Glasses remain purely amorphous in nature even after the addition of AuNPs, whereas FTIR proposes that the main structure contains BO₃ and BO₄ units. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirms the existence and variation in the size of AuNPs. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) depicts that prepared glasses are thermally stable and are highly suitable for the fabrication of optical fibers. The nonlinear optical parameters (nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index) are calculated out by using the Z-scan technique with a Ti: sapphire laser at 800 nm. It has been concluded that the size of the nanoparticles highly influences the structural thermal and optical properties system.

Keywords: bismuth borate glass, different size, gold nanoparticles, nonlinearity

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96 Effect of BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ Glass Additive on Structural and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO₃ Ceramics

Authors: El Mehdi Haily, Lahcen Bih, Mohammed Azrour, Bouchaib Manoun

Abstract:

The effects of xBi₂O₃-yBaO-zP₂O₅ (BBP) glass addition on the sintering, structural, and dielectric properties of BaTiO₃ ceramic (BT) are studied. The BT ceramic was synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method while the glasses BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ (BBP) were elaborated by melting and quenching process. Different composites BT-xBBP were formed by mixing the BBP glasses with BT ceramic. For each glass composition, where the ratio (x:y:z) is maintained constant, we have developed three composites with different glass weight percentage (x = 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt %). Addition of the glass helps in better sintering at lower temperatures with the presence of liquid phase at the respective sintering temperatures. The results showed that the sintering temperature decreased from more than 1300°C to 900°C. Density measurements of the composites are performed using the standard Archimedean method with water as medium liquid. It is found that their density and molar volume decrease and increase with glass content, respectively. Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize their structural approach. This technique has allowed the identification of different structural units of phosphate and the characteristic vibration modes of the BT. The electrical properties of the composite samples are carried out by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz under various temperatures from 300 to 473 K. The obtained results show that their dielectric properties depend both on the content of the glass in the composite and the Bi/P ratio in the glasses.

Keywords: phosphate, glasses, composite, Raman spectroscopy, dielectric properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
95 Visual Improvement with Low Vision Aids in Children with Stargardt’s Disease

Authors: Anum Akhter, Sumaira Altaf

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the effect of low vision devices i.e. telescope and magnifying glasses on distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of children with Stargardt’s disease. Setting: Low vision department, Alshifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: 52 children having Stargardt’s disease were included in the study. All children were diagnosed by pediatrics ophthalmologists. Comprehensive low vision assessment was done by me in Low vision clinic. Visual acuity was measured using ETDRS chart. Refraction and other supplementary tests were performed. Children with Stargardt’s disease were provided with different telescopes and magnifying glasses for improving far vision and near vision. Results: Out of 52 children, 17 children were males and 35 children were females. Distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved significantly with low vision aid trial. All children showed visual acuity better than 6/19 with a telescope of higher magnification. Improvement in near visual acuity was also significant with magnifying glasses trial. Conclusions: Low vision aids are useful for improvement in visual acuity in children. Children with Stargardt’s disease who are having a problem in education and daily life activities can get help from low vision aids.

Keywords: Stargardt, s disease, low vision aids, telescope, magnifiers

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94 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Azuraida Amat, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Ishak Mansor

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The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different compositions [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes a profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defects in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give the smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation, which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: boro-tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties

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93 Structural, Spectral and Optical Properties of Boron-Aluminosilicate Glasses with High Dy₂O₃ and Er₂O₃ Content for Faraday Rotator Operating at 2µm

Authors: Viktor D. Dubrovin, Masoud Mollaee, Jie Zong, Xiushan Zhu, Nasser Peyghambarian

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Glasses doped with high rare-earth (RE) elements concentration attracted considerable attention since the middle of the 20th century due to their particular magneto-optical properties. Such glasses exhibit the Faraday effect in which the polarization plane of a linearly polarized light beam is rotated by the interaction between the incident light and the magneto-optical material. That effect found application in optical isolators that are useful for laser systems, which can prevent back reflection of light into lasers or optical amplifiers and reduce signal instability and noise. Glasses are of particular interest since they are cost-effective and can be formed into fibers, thus breaking the limits of traditional bulk optics requiring optical coupling for use with fiber-optic systems. The advent of high-power fiber lasers operating near 2µm revealed a necessity in the development of all fiber isolators for this region. Ce³⁺, Pr³⁺, Dy³⁺, and Tb³⁺ ions provide the biggest contribution to the Verdet constant value of optical materials among the RE. It is known that Pr³⁺ and Tb³⁺ ions have strong absorption bands near 2 µm, thus making Dy³⁺ and Ce³⁺ the only prospective candidates for fiber isolator operating in that region. Due to the high tendency of Ce³⁺ ions pass to Ce⁴⁺ during the synthesis, glasses with high cerium content usually suffers from Ce⁴⁺ ions absorption extending from visible to IR. Additionally, Dy³⁺ (₆H¹⁵/²) same as Ho³⁺ (⁵I₈) ions, have the largest effective magnetic moment (µeff = 10.6 µB) among the RE ions that starts to play the key role if the operating region is far from 4fⁿ→ 4fⁿ⁻¹5 d¹ electric-dipole transition relevant to the Faraday Effect. Considering the high effective magnetic moment value of Er³⁺ ions (µeff = 9.6 µB) that is 3rd after Dy³⁺/ Ho³⁺ and Tb³⁺, it is possible to assume that Er³⁺ doped glasses should exhibit Verdet constant value near 2µm that is comparable with one of Dy doped glasses. Thus, partial replacement of Dy³⁺ on Er³⁺ ions has been performed, keeping the overall concentration of Re₂O₃ equal to 70 wt.% (30.6 mol.%). Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ (RE= Er, Dy) glasses had been synthesized, and their thermal, spectral, optical, structural, and magneto-optical properties had been studied. Glasses synthesis had been conducted in Pt crucibles for 3h at 1500 °C. The obtained melt was poured into preheated up to 400 °C mold and annealed from 800 oC to room temperature for 12h with 1h dwell. The mass of obtained glass samples was about 200g. Shown that the difference between crystallization and glass transition temperature is about 150 oC, even taking into account the fact that high content of RE₂O₃ leads to glass network depolymerization. Verdet constant of Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ glasses for wavelength 1950 nm can reach more than 5.9 rad/(T*m), which is among the highest number reported for a paramagnetic glass at this wavelength. The refractive index value was found to be equal to 1.7545 at 633 nm. Our experimental results show that Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ glasses with high Dy₂O₃ content are expected to be promising material for use as highly effective Faraday isolators and modulators of electromagnetic radiation in the 2μm region.

Keywords: oxide glass, magneto-optical, dysprosium, erbium, Faraday rotator, boron-aluminosilicate system

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92 Detection of Safety Goggles on Humans in Industrial Environment Using Faster-Region Based on Convolutional Neural Network with Rotated Bounding Box

Authors: Ankit Kamboj, Shikha Talwar, Nilesh Powar

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To successfully deliver our products in the market, the employees need to be in a safe environment, especially in an industrial and manufacturing environment. The consequences of delinquency in wearing safety glasses while working in industrial plants could be high risk to employees, hence the need to develop a real-time automatic detection system which detects the persons (violators) not wearing safety glasses. In this study a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm called faster region based CNN (Faster RCNN) with rotated bounding box has been used for detecting safety glasses on persons; the algorithm has an advantage of detecting safety glasses with different orientation angles on the persons. The proposed method of rotational bounding boxes with a convolutional neural network first detects a person from the images, and then the method detects whether the person is wearing safety glasses or not. The video data is captured at the entrance of restricted zones of the industrial environment (manufacturing plant), which is further converted into images at 2 frames per second. In the first step, the CNN with pre-trained weights on COCO dataset is used for person detection where the detections are cropped as images. Then the safety goggles are labelled on the cropped images using the image labelling tool called roLabelImg, which is used to annotate the ground truth values of rotated objects more accurately, and the annotations obtained are further modified to depict four coordinates of the rectangular bounding box. Next, the faster RCNN with rotated bounding box is used to detect safety goggles, which is then compared with traditional bounding box faster RCNN in terms of detection accuracy (average precision), which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method for detection of rotatory objects. The deep learning benchmarking is done on a Dell workstation with a 16GB Nvidia GPU.

Keywords: CNN, deep learning, faster RCNN, roLabelImg rotated bounding box, safety goggle detection

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91 Study of the Phenomenon Nature of Order and Disorder in BaMn(Fe/V)F7 Fluoride Glass by the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Sidi Mohamed Mesli, Mohamed Habchi, Mohamed Kotbi, Rafik Benallal, Abdelali Derouiche

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Fluoride glasses with a nominal composition of BaMnMF7 (M = FeV assuming isomorphous replacement) have been structurally modelled through the simultaneous simulation of their neutron diffraction patterns by a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) model and by a Rietveld for disordered materials (RDM) method. Model is consistent with an expected network of interconnected [MF6] polyhedra. The RMC results are accompanied by artificial satellite peaks. To remedy this problem, we use an extension of the RMC algorithm, which introduces an energy penalty term in acceptance criteria. This method is called the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC) method. The idea of this paper is to apply the (HRMC) method to the title glasses, in order to make a study of the phenomenon nature of order and disorder by displaying and discussing the partial pair distribution functions (PDFs) g(r). We suggest that this method can be used to describe average correlations between components of fluoride glass or similar system.

Keywords: fluoride glasses, RMC simulation, neutron scattering, hybrid RMC simulation, Lennard-Jones potential, partial pair distribution functions

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90 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Probe Mixed Valence State in Eu-Doped Nanocrystalline Glass-Ceramics

Authors: Ruchika Bagga, Mauro Falconieri, Venu Gopal Achanta, José M. F. Ferreira, Ashutosh Goel, Gopi Sharma

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Mixed valence Eu-doped nanocrystalline NaAlSiO4/NaY9Si6O26 glass-ceramics have been prepared by controlled crystallization of melt quenched bulk glasses. XRD and SEM techniques were employed to characterize the crystallization process of the precursor glass and their resultant glass-ceramics. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the formation of divalent europium (Eu2+) from Eu3+ ions during high temperature synthesis under ambient atmosphere and is explained on the basis of optical basicity model. The observed luminescence properties of Eu: NaY9Si6O26 are compared with that of well explored Eu: β-PbF2 nanocrystals and their marked differences are discussed.

Keywords: rare earth, oxyfluoride glasses, nano-crystalline glass-ceramics, photoluminescence spectroscopy

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89 Photoluminescence of Barium and Lithium Silicate Glasses and Glass Ceramics Doped with Rare Earth Ions

Authors: Augustas Vaitkevicius, Mikhail Korjik, Eugene Tretyak, Ekaterina Trusova, Gintautas Tamulaitis

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Silicate materials are widely used as luminescent materials in amorphous and crystalline phase. Lithium silicate glass is popular for making neutron sensitive scintillation glasses. Cerium-doped single crystalline silicates of rare earth elements and yttrium have been demonstrated to be good scintillation materials. Due to their high thermal and photo-stability, silicate glass ceramics are supposed to be suitable materials for producing light converters for high power white light emitting diodes. In this report, the influence of glass composition and crystallization on photoluminescence (PL) of different silicate glasses was studied. Barium (BaO-2SiO₂) and lithium (Li₂O-2SiO₂) glasses were under study. Cerium, dysprosium, erbium and europium ions as well as their combinations were used for doping. The influence of crystallization was studied after transforming the doped glasses into glass ceramics by heat treatment in the temperature range of 550-850 degrees Celsius for 1 hour. The study was carried out by comparing the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, spatial distributions of PL parameters and quantum efficiency in the samples under study. The PL spectra and spatial distributions of their parameters were obtained by using confocal PL microscopy. A WITec Alpha300 S confocal microscope coupled with an air cooled CCD camera was used. A CW laser diode emitting at 405 nm was exploited for excitation. The spatial resolution was in sub-micrometer domain in plane and ~1 micrometer perpendicularly to the sample surface. An integrating sphere with a xenon lamp coupled with a monochromator was used to measure the external quantum efficiency. All measurements were performed at room temperature. Chromatic properties of the light emission from the glasses and glass ceramics have been evaluated. We observed that the quantum efficiency of the glass ceramics is higher than that of the corresponding glass. The investigation of spatial distributions of PL parameters revealed that heat treatment of the glasses leads to a decrease in sample homogeneity. In the case of BaO-2SiO₂: Eu, 10 micrometer long needle-like objects are formed, when transforming the glass into glass ceramics. The comparison of PL spectra from within and outside the needle-like structure reveals that the ratio between intensities of PL bands associated with Eu²⁺ and Eu³⁺ ions is larger in the bright needle-like structures. This indicates a higher degree of crystallinity in the needle-like objects. We observed that the spectral positions of the PL bands are the same in the background and the needle-like areas, indicating that heat treatment imposes no significant change to the valence state of the europium ions. The evaluation of chromatic properties confirms applicability of the glasses under study for fabrication of white light sources with high thermal stability. The ability to combine barium and lithium glass matrixes and doping by Eu, Ce, Dy, and Tb enables optimization of chromatic properties.

Keywords: glass ceramics, luminescence, phosphor, silicate

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88 Free-Standing Pd-Based Metallic Glass Membranes for MEMS Applications

Authors: Wei-Shan Wang, Klaus Vogel, Felix Gabler, Maik Wiemer, Thomas Gessner

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Metallic glasses, which are free of grain boundaries, have superior properties including large elastic limits, high strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Therefore, bulk metallic glasses (BMG) and thin film metallic glasses (TFMG) have been widely developed and investigated. Among various kinds of metallic glasses, Pd-Cu-Si TFMG, which has lower elastic modulus and better resistance of oxidation and corrosions compared to Zr- and Fe-based TFMGs, can be a promising candidate for MEMS applications. However, the study of Pd-TFMG membrane is still limited. This paper presents free-standing Pd-based metallic glass membranes with large area fabricated on wafer level for the first time. Properties of Pd-Cu-Si thin film metallic glass (TFMG) with various deposition parameters are investigated first. When deposited at 25°C, compressive stress occurs in the Pd76Cu6Si18 thin film regardless of Ar pressure. When substrate temperature is increased to 275°C, the stress state changes from compressive to tensile. Thin film stresses are slightly decreased when Ar pressure is higher. To show the influence of temperature on Pd-TFMGs, thin films without and with post annealing below (275°C) and within (370°C) supercooled liquid region are investigated. Results of XRD and TEM analysis indicate that Pd-TFMGs remain amorphous structure with well-controlled parameters. After verification of amorphous structure of the Pd-TFMGs, free-standing Pd-Cu-Si membranes were fabricated by depositing Pd-Cu-Si thin films directly on 200nm-thick silicon nitride membranes, followed by post annealing and dry etching of silicon nitride layer. Post annealing before SiNx removal is used to further release internal stress of Pd-TFMGs. The edge length of the square membrane ranges from 5 to 8mm. The effect of post annealing on Pd-Cu-Si membranes are discussed as well. With annealing at 370°C for 5 min, Pd-MG membranes are fully distortion-free after removal of SiNx layer. Results show that, by introducing annealing process, the stress-relief, distortion-free Pd-TFMG membranes with large area can be a promising candidate for sensing applications such as pressure and gas sensors.

Keywords: amorphous alloy, annealing, metallic glasses, TFMG membrane

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87 Optimizing and Evaluating Performance Quality Control of the Production Process of Disposable Essentials Using Approach Vague Goal Programming

Authors: Hadi Gholizadeh, Ali Tajdin

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To have effective production planning, it is necessary to control the quality of processes. This paper aims at improving the performance of the disposable essentials process using statistical quality control and goal programming in a vague environment. That is expressed uncertainty because there is always a measurement error in the real world. Therefore, in this study, the conditions are examined in a vague environment that is a distance-based environment. The disposable essentials process in Kach Company was studied. Statistical control tools were used to characterize the existing process for four factor responses including the average of disposable glasses’ weights, heights, crater diameters, and volumes. Goal programming was then utilized to find the combination of optimal factors setting in a vague environment which is measured to apply uncertainty of the initial information when some of the parameters of the models are vague; also, the fuzzy regression model is used to predict the responses of the four described factors. Optimization results show that the process capability index values for disposable glasses’ average of weights, heights, crater diameters and volumes were improved. Such increasing the quality of the products and reducing the waste, which will reduce the cost of the finished product, and ultimately will bring customer satisfaction, and this satisfaction, will mean increased sales.

Keywords: goal programming, quality control, vague environment, disposable glasses’ optimization, fuzzy regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 145