Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: Srinivasa Rao Allam

52 Spectroscopic Study of Eu³⁺ Ions Doped Potassium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for Photonic Device Application

Authors: Nisha Deopa, Allam Srinivasa Rao


Quaternary potassium lead alumino borate (KPbAlB) glasses doped with different concentration of Eu³⁺ ions have been synthesized by melt quench technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Photoluminescence (PL), Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and CIE-chromaticity co-ordinates to study their luminescence behavior. A broad hump was observed in XRD spectrum confirms glassy nature of as-prepared glasses. By using Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, various radiative parameters for the prominent fluorescent levels of Eu³⁺ have been investigated. The intense emission peak was observed at 613 nm (⁵D₀→⁷F₂) under 393 nm excitation, matches well with the excitation of n-UV LED chips. The decay profiles observed for ⁵D₀ level were exponential for lower Eu³⁺ ion concentration while non-exponential for higher concentration, which may be due to efficient energy transfer between Eu³⁺-Eu³⁺ through cross relaxation and subsequent quenching observed. From the emission cross-sections, branching ratios, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 7 mol % of Eu³⁺ ion concentration (glass B) is optimum in KPbAlB glasses for photonic device application.

Keywords: energy transfer, glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence

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51 Spectroscopic and 1.08mm Laser Properties of Nd3+ Doped Oxy-Fluoro Borate Glasses

Authors: Swapna Koneru, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash Gaddem


The different concentrations of neodymium-doped (Nd-doped) oxy fluoroborate (OFB) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay curve measurements to understand the lasing potentialities of these glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded and have been analyzed using Judd–Ofelt theory. The dipole strengths are parameterized in terms of three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) to elucidate the glassy matrix around Nd3+ ion as well as to determine the 4F3/2 metastable state radiative properties such as the transition probability (AR), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratios (βR) and integrated absorption cross-section (σa) have been measured for most of the fluorescent levels of Nd3+. The emission spectra recorded for these glasses exhibit two peaks at 1085 and 1328 nm corresponding to 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 transitions have been obtained for all the glasses upon 808 nm diode laser excitation in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 transition increases with increase of Nd3+ concentration up to 1 mol% and then concentration quenching is observed for 2.0 mol% of Nd3+ concentration. The lifetimes for the 4F3/2 level are found to decrease with increase in Nd2O3 concentration in the glasses due to the concentration quenching. The decay curves of all these glasses show single exponential behavior. The spectroscopy of Nd3+ in these glasses is well understood and laser properties can be accurately determined from measured spectroscopic properties. The results obtained are compared with reports on similar glasses. The results indicate that the present glasses could be useful for 1.08 µm laser applications.

Keywords: glasses, luminescence, optical properties, photoluminescence spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
50 Photoluminescence and Spectroscopic Studies of Tm3+ Ions Doped Lead Tungsten Tellurite Glasses for Visible Red and Near-Ir Laser Applications

Authors: M. Venkateswarlu, Srinivasa Rao Allam, S. K. Mahamuda, K. Swapna, G. Vijaya Prakash


Lead Tungsten Tellurite (LTT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Tm3+ ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay spectral studies to know the feasibility of using these glasses as luminescent devices in visible Red and NIR regions. By using optical absorption spectral data, the energy band gaps for all the glasses were evaluated and were found to be in the range of 2.34-2.59 eV; which is very useful for the construction of optical devices. Judd-Ofelt (J-O)theory has been applied to the optical absorption spectral profiles to calculate the J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) and consecutively used to evaluate various radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (AR), radiative lifetimes (τ_R) and branching ratios (β_R) for the prominent luminescent levels. The luminescence spectra for all the LTT glass samples have shown two intense peaks in bright red and Near Infrared regions at 650 nm (1G4→3F4) and 800 nm (3H4→3H6) respectively for which effective bandwidths (〖Δλ〗_P), experimental branching ratios (β_exp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ_se) are evaluated. The decay profiles for all the glasses were also recorded to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared LTT glasses by coupling the radiative and experimental lifetimes. From the measured emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 0.5 mol% of Tm3+ ions doped LTT glass is most suitable for generating bright visible red and NIR lasers to operate at 650 and 800 nm respectively.

Keywords: glasses, JO parameters, optical materials, thullium

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
49 Spectroscopic Study of Tb³⁺ Doped Calcium Aluminozincate Phosphor for Display and Solid-State Lighting Applications

Authors: Sumandeep Kaur, Allam Srinivasa Rao, Mula Jayasimhadri


In recent years, rare earth (RE) ions doped inorganic luminescent materials are seeking great attention due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. These materials offer high thermal and chemical stability and exhibit good luminescence properties due to the presence of RE ions. The luminescent properties of these materials are attributed to their intra-configurational f-f transitions in RE ions. A series of Tb³⁺ doped calcium aluminozincate has been synthesized via sol-gel method. The structural and morphological studies have been carried out by recording X-ray diffraction patterns and SEM image. The luminescent spectra have been recorded for a comprehensive study of their luminescence properties. The XRD profile reveals the single-phase orthorhombic crystal structure with an average crystallite size of 65 nm as calculated by using DebyeScherrer equation. The SEM image exhibits completely random, irregular morphology of micron size particles of the prepared samples. The optimization of luminescence has been carried out by varying the dopant Tb³⁺ concentration within the range from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%. The as-synthesized phosphors exhibit intense emission at 544 nm pumped at 478 nm excitation wavelength. The optimized Tb³⁺ concentration has been found to be 1.0 mol% in the present host lattice. The decay curves show bi-exponential fitting for the as-synthesized phosphor. The colorimetric studies show green emission with CIE coordinates (0.334, 0.647) lying in green region for the optimized Tb³⁺ concentration. This report reveals the potential utility of Tb³⁺ doped calcium aluminozincate phosphors for display and solid-state lighting devices.

Keywords: concentration quenching, phosphor, photoluminescence, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
48 Dy3+ Ions Doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungstunate Tellurite Glasses for Laser and White LED Applications

Authors: Allam Srinivasa Rao, Ch. Annapurna Devi, G. Vijaya Prakash


A new-fangled series of white light emitting 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped Single-Alklai and Mixed-Alkai fluoro tungstunate tellurite glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by studying XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dy-O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined which are used to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy–ligand field environment. The evaluated J-O parameters (Ω_4>Ω_2>Ω_6) for all the glasses are following the same trend. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and Yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2→6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2→6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of fluoro tungstunate tellurite glass (TeWK: 1Dy). The J-O intensity parameters have been used to determine the various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By using the experimental lifetimes (τ_exp) measured from the decay spectral features and radiative lifetimes (τ_R), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated. Among all the glasses, the potassium combined fluoro tungstunate tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass has the highest quantum efficiency (94.6%). The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The (x, y) and (u, v) chromaticity colour coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, we are suggesting that the 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and White-LED applications.

Keywords: dysprosium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, photo luminescence, tellurite glasses

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
47 Spectroscopic Studies and Reddish Luminescence Enhancement with the Increase in Concentration of Europium Ions in Oxy-Fluoroborate Glasses

Authors: Mahamuda Sk, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash G.


The different concentrations of Eu3+ ions doped in Oxy-fluoroborate glasses of composition 60 B2O3-10 BaF2-10 CaF2-15 CaF2- (5-x) Al2O3 -x Eu2O3 where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%, have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and are characterized through absorption and photoluminescence (PL), decay, color chromaticity and Confocal measurements. The absorption spectra of all the glasses consists of six peaks corresponding to the transitions 7F0→5D2, 7F0→5D1, 7F1→5D1, 7F1→5D0, 7F0→7F6 and 7F1→7F6 respectively. The experimental oscillator strengths with and without thermal corrections have been evaluated using absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4) have been evaluated from the photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses. PL spectra of all the glasses have been recorded at excitation wavelengths 395 nm (conventional excitation source) and 410 nm (diode laser) to observe the intensity variation in the PL spectra. All the spectra consists of five emission peaks corresponding to the transitions 5D0→7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4). Surprisingly no concentration quenching is observed on PL spectra. Among all the glasses the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration possesses maximum intensity for the transition 5D0→7F2 (612 nm) in bright red region. The JO parameters derived from the photoluminescence spectra have been used to evaluate the essential radiative properties such as transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratio (βR) and peak stimulated emission cross-section (σse) for the 5D0→7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The decay rates of the 5D0 fluorescent level of Eu3+ ions in the title glasses are found to be single exponential for all the studied Eu3+ ion concentrations. A marginal increase in lifetime of the 5D0 level has been noticed with increase in Eu3+ ion concentration from 0.1 mol% to 2.0 mol%. Among all the glasses, the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration possesses maximum values of branching ratio, stimulated emission cross-section and quantum efficiency for the transition 5D0→7F2 (612 nm) in bright red region. The color chromaticity coordinates are also evaluated to confirm the reddish luminescence from these glasses. These color coordinates exactly fall in the bright red region. Confocal images also recorded to confirm reddish luminescence from these glasses. From all the obtained results in the present study, it is suggested that the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration is suitable to emit bright red color laser.

Keywords: Europium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, laser, luminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
46 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami


The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, EIS, electroless Ni–P coating, heat treatment, potentiodynamic polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
45 A Horn Antenna Loaded with FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam


In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524 mm and loss tangent 0.004. Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.25 GHz (10.75–11 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency selective surface (FSS), horn

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44 A Horn Antenna Loaded with SIW FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam


In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with substrate integrated waveguide frequency selective surface (SIW FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524mm and loss tangent 0.004. This structure is called a filtering antenna (filtenna). Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite SIW FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.3 GHz (0.955–0.985 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency-selective surface (FSS), horn antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
43 Recovery of Proteins from EDAM Whey Using Membrane Ultrafiltration

Authors: F. Yelles-Allam, A. A. Nouani


In Algeria, whey is discarded without any treatment and this causes not only pollution problem, but also a loss in nutritive components of milk. In this paper, characterization of EDAM whey, which is resulted from pasteurised mixture of cow’s milk and skim milk, and recovery of whey protein by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, was studied. The physical-chemical analysis of whey has emphasized on its pollutant and nutritive characteristics. In fact, its DBO5 and DCO are 49.33, and 127.71 gr of O2/l of whey respectively. It contains: fat (1,90±0,1 gr/l), lactose (47.32±1,57 gr/l), proteins (8.04±0,2 gr/l) and ashes (5,20±0,15 gr/l), calcium (0,48±0,04 gr/l), Na (1.104gr/l), K (1.014 gr/l), Mg (0.118 gr/l) and P (0.482 gr/l). Ultrafiltration was carried out in a polyetersulfone membrane with a cut-off of 10K. Its hydraulic intrinsic resistance and permeability are respectively: 2.041.1012 m-1 and 176,32 l/h.m2 at PTM of 1 bar. The retentate obtained at FC6, contains 16,33g/l of proteins and 70,25 g/l of dry matter. The retention rate of protein is 97, 7% and the decrease in DBO5 and DCO are at 18.875 g /l and 42.818 g/l respectively. Diafiltration performed on protein concentrates allowed the complete removal of lactose and minerals. The ultrafiltration of the whey before the disposal is an alternative for Algéria dairy industry.

Keywords: diafiltration, DBO, DCO, protein, ultrafiltration, whey

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
42 Application of Analytical Method for Placement of DG Unit for Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems

Authors: G. V. Siva Krishna Rao, B. Srinivasa Rao


The main aim of the paper is to implement a technique using distributed generation in distribution systems to reduce the distribution system losses and to improve voltage profiles. The fuzzy logic technique is used to select the proper location of DG and an analytical method is proposed to calculate the size of DG unit at any power factor. The optimal sizes of DG units are compared with optimal sizes obtained using the genetic algorithm. The suggested method is programmed under Matlab software and is tested on IEEE 33 bus system and the results are presented.

Keywords: DG Units, sizing of DG units, analytical methods, optimum size

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41 Time Truncated Group Acceptance Sampling Plans for Exponentiated Half Logistic Distribution

Authors: Srinivasa Rao Gadde


In this article, we considered a group acceptance sampling plans for exponentiated half logistic distribution when the life-test is truncated at a pre-specified time. It is assumed that the index parameter of the exponentiated half logistic distribution is known. The design parameters such as the number of groups and the acceptance number are obtained by satisfying the producer’s and consumer’s risks at the specified quality levels in terms of medians and 10th percentiles under the assumption that the termination time and the number of items in each group are pre-fixed. Finally, an example is given to illustration the methodology.

Keywords: group acceptance sampling plan, operating characteristic, consumer and producer’s risks, truncated life-test

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40 Lecture Video Indexing and Retrieval Using Topic Keywords

Authors: B. J. Sandesh, Saurabha Jirgi, S. Vidya, Prakash Eljer, Gowri Srinivasa


In this paper, we propose a framework to help users to search and retrieve the portions in the lecture video of their interest. This is achieved by temporally segmenting and indexing the lecture video using the topic keywords. We use transcribed text from the video and documents relevant to the video topic extracted from the web for this purpose. The keywords for indexing are found by applying the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) topic modeling techniques on the web documents. Our proposed technique first creates indices on the transcribed documents using the topic keywords, and these are mapped to the video to find the start and end time of the portions of the video for a particular topic. This time information is stored in the index table along with the topic keyword which is used to retrieve the specific portions of the video for the query provided by the users.

Keywords: video indexing and retrieval, lecture videos, content based video search, multimodal indexing

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
39 Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend

Authors: Omaima G. Allam, O. A. Hakeim, K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy


In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: polyester viscose blends fabric, sericin, dyes, colour value

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38 Cellulose Acetate/Polyacrylic Acid Filled with Nano-Hydroxapatite Composites: Spectroscopic Studies and Search for Biomedical Applications

Authors: E. M. AbdelRazek, G. S. ElBahy, M. A. Allam, A. M. Abdelghany, A. M. Hezma


Polymeric biocomposite of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid were prepared and their thermal and mechanical properties were improved by addition of cellulose acetate. FTIR spectroscopy technique and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy shows a uniform distribution of HAp nano-particles through the polymeric matrix of two organic/inorganic composites weight ratios (60/40 and 70/30), at which the material crystallinity reaches a considerable value appropriate for the needed applications were studied and revealed that the HAp nano-particles are uniformly distributed in the polymeric matrix. Kinetic parameters were determined from the weight loss data using non isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Also, the main degradation steps were described and discussed. The mechanical properties of composites were evaluated by measuring tensile strength and elastic modulus. The data indicate that the addition of cellulose acetate can make homogeneous composites scaffold significantly resistant to higher stress. Elastic modulus of the composites was also improved by the addition of cellulose acetate, making them more appropriate for bioapplications.

Keywords: biocomposite, chemical synthesis, infrared spectroscopy, mechanical properties

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37 Privacy Preserving Data Publishing Based on Sensitivity in Context of Big Data Using Hive

Authors: P. Srinivasa Rao, K. Venkatesh Sharma, G. Sadhya Devi, V. Nagesh


Privacy Preserving Data Publication is the main concern in present days because the data being published through the internet has been increasing day by day. This huge amount of data was named as Big Data by its size. This project deals the privacy preservation in the context of Big Data using a data warehousing solution called hive. We implemented Nearest Similarity Based Clustering (NSB) with Bottom-up generalization to achieve (v,l)-anonymity. (v,l)-Anonymity deals with the sensitivity vulnerabilities and ensures the individual privacy. We also calculate the sensitivity levels by simple comparison method using the index values, by classifying the different levels of sensitivity. The experiments were carried out on the hive environment to verify the efficiency of algorithms with Big Data. This framework also supports the execution of existing algorithms without any changes. The model in the paper outperforms than existing models.

Keywords: sensitivity, sensitive level, clustering, Privacy Preserving Data Publication (PPDP), bottom-up generalization, Big Data

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
36 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byeong-Kyu Lee


This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.

Keywords: ABS, hydrophilic, heat treatment, froth flotation, contact angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
35 Fuzzy Logic Driven PID Controller for PWM Based Buck Converter

Authors: Bandreddy Anand Babu, Mandadi Srinivasa Rao, Chintala Pradeep Reddy


The main theme of this paper is to design fuzzy logic Proportional Integral Derivative controller for controlling of Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) based DCDC buck converter in continuous conduction mode of operation and comparing the results of FPID and ANFIS. Simulation is done to fuzzy the given input variables and membership functions of input values, creating the interference rules linking the input and output variables and after then defuzzfies the output variables. Fuzzy logic is simple for nonlinear models like buck converter. Fuzzy logic based PID controller technique is to control, nonlinear plants like buck converters in switching variables of power electronics. The characteristics of FPID are in terms of rise time, settling time, rise time, steady state errors for different inputs and load disturbances.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, PID controller, DC-DC buck converter, pulse width modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
34 Advanced Nanostructured Materials and Their Application for Solar Fuel

Authors: A. Hegazy, Ahmed Elsayed, Essam El Shenawy, N. Allam, Hala Handal, K. R. Mahmoud


Highly crystalline, TiO₂ pristine sub-10 nm anatase nanocrystals were fabricated at low temperatures by post hydrothermal treatment of the as-prepared TiO₂ nanoparticles. This treatment resulted in bandgap narrowing and increased photocurrent density value (3.8 mA/cm²) when this material was employed in water splitting systems. The achieved photocurrent values are among the highest reported ones so far for the fabricated nanoparticles at this low temperature. This might be explained by the increased surface defects of the prepared nanoparticles. It resulted in bandgap narrowing that was further investigated using positron annihilation experiments by measuring positron lifetime and Doppler broadening. Besides, homogeneous spherical TiO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized in large diameter and high surface area and the high percentage of (001) facet by sol-gel method using potassium persulfate (K₂S₂O₈) as an oxidizing agent. The fabricated particles exhibited high exposed surface area, high photoactivity and reduced band gap. Enhanced performance for water splitting applications was displayed by formed TiO₂ nanoparticles. Their morphological and structural properties were studied to optimize their synthesis parameters in an attempt to construct more applicable fuel cells in the industry for hydrogen fuel production.

Keywords: positron annihilation, solar energy, TiO2 nanoparticles, water splitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
33 Design and Simulation of Step Structure RF MEMS Switch for K Band Applications

Authors: G. K. S. Prakash, Rao K. Srinivasa


MEMS plays an important role in wide range of applications like biological, automobiles, military and communication engineering. This paper mainly investigates on capacitive shunt RF MEMS switch with low actuation voltage and low insertion losses. To trim the pull-in voltage, a step structure has introduced to trim air gap between the beam and the dielectric layer with that pull in voltage is trim to 2.9 V. The switching time of the proposed switch is 39.1μs, and capacitance ratio is 67. To get more isolation, we have used aluminum nitride as dielectric material instead of silicon nitride (Si₃N₄) and silicon dioxide (SiO₂) because aluminum nitride has high dielectric constant (εᵣ = 9.5) increases the OFF capacitance and eventually increases the isolation of the switch. The results show that the switch is ON state involves return loss (S₁₁) less than -25 dB up to 40 GHz and insertion loss (S₂₁) is more than -1 dB up to 35 GHz. In OFF state switch shows maximum isolation (S₂₁) of -38 dB occurs at a frequency of 25-27 GHz for K band applications.

Keywords: RF MEMS, actuation voltage, isolation loss, switches

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
32 Study of ANFIS and ARIMA Model for Weather Forecasting

Authors: Bandreddy Anand Babu, Srinivasa Rao Mandadi, C. Pradeep Reddy, N. Ramesh Babu


In this paper quickly illustrate the correlation investigation of Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving and Average (ARIMA) and daptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models done by climate estimating. The climate determining is taken from University of Waterloo. The information is taken as Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature, Barometric Pressure and Wind Direction utilized within this paper. The paper is carried out by analyzing the exhibitions are seen by demonstrating of ARIMA and ANIFIS model like with Sum of average of errors. Versatile Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) demonstrating is carried out by Mat lab programming and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving and Average (ARIMA) displaying is produced by utilizing XLSTAT programming. ANFIS is carried out in Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in Mat Lab programming.

Keywords: ARIMA, ANFIS, fuzzy surmising tool stash, weather forecasting, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
31 Separation of Chlorinated Plastics and Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Hazardous Automotive Shredder Residue

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee


In the present study, feasibility of the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment was evaluated to facilitate the separation from automotive shredder residue (ASR), by the froth flotation. The combination of 60 sec microwave treatment with PAC, a sharp and significant decrease about 16.5° contact angle of PVC was observed in ASR plastic compared with other plastics. The microwave treatment with the addition of PAC resulted in a synergetic effect for the froth flotation, which may be a result of the 90% selective separation of PVC from ASR plastics, with 82% purity. While, simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR soil/residues. The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. Microwave treatment can be a simple and effective method for PVC separation from ASR plastics.

Keywords: automotive shredder residue, chlorinated plastics, hazardous waste, heavy metals, immobilization, separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
30 A Teaching Method for Improving Sentence Fluency in Writing

Authors: Manssour Habbash, Srinivasa Rao Idapalapati


Although writing is a multifaceted task, teaching writing is a demanding task basically for two reasons: Grammar and Syntax. This article provides a method of teaching writing that was found to be effective in improving students’ academic writing composition skill. The article explains the concepts of ‘guided-discovery’ and ‘guided-construction’ upon which a method of teaching writing is grounded and developed. Providing a brief commentary on what the core could mean primarily, the article presents an exposition of understanding and identifying the core and building upon the core that can demonstrate the way a teacher can make use of the concepts in teaching for improving the writing skills of their students. The method is an adaptation of grammar translation method that has been improvised to suit to a student-centered classroom environment. An intervention of teaching writing through this method was tried out with positive outcomes in formal classroom research setup, and in view of the content’s quality that relates more to the classroom practices and also in consideration of its usefulness to the practicing teachers the process and the findings are presented in a narrative form along with the results in tabular form.

Keywords: core of a text, guided construction, guided discovery, theme of a text

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
29 Banking Risk Management between the Prudential and the Operational Approaches

Authors: Mustapha Achibane, Imane Allam


Since the nineties, all Moroccan banking institutions have to respect an arsenal of prudential ratios. The respect of these prudential measures aims to ensure the financial system stability. In order to do so, regulatory authorities tried to reduce the financial and operational risks incurred by the banking entities. Meanwhile, regulatory authorities demanded a balance sheet management work from banks. They also asked them to establish a management control system to manage operational risk, as well as an effort in terms of incurred risk-based commitments. Therefore, the prudential approach has a macroeconomic nature and it is presented as a determinant of the operational, microeconomic approach. This operational approach takes the form of a strategy that each banking entity must develop to manage the different banking risks. This study seeks to analyze the problem of risk management between the prudential and the operational approaches. It was processed through a literature review followed by an analysis of the Moroccan banking sector’s performance. At first, we will reconcile the inductive logic and then, the analytical one. The first approach consists of analyzing the phenomenon from a normative and conceptual perspective, while the second one will consist of considering the Moroccan banking system and analyzing the behavior of Moroccan banking entities in terms of risk management and performance. The results identified a favorable growth in terms of performance, despite the huge provisioning effort made to meet the international standards and the harmonization of the regulations.

Keywords: banking performance, financial intermediation, operational approach, prudential standards, risk management

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28 Optimal Scheduling of Trains in Complex National Scale Railway Networks

Authors: Sanat Ramesh, Tarun Dutt, Abhilasha Aswal, Anushka Chandrababu, G. N. Srinivasa Prasanna


Optimal Schedule Generation for a large national railway network operating thousands of passenger trains with tens of thousands of kilometers of track is a grand computational challenge in itself. We present heuristics based on a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) formulation for local optimization. These methods provide flexibility in scheduling new trains with varying speed and delays and improve utilization of infrastructure. We propose methods that provide a robust solution with hundreds of trains being scheduled over a portion of the railway network without significant increases in delay. We also provide techniques to validate the nominal schedules thus generated over global correlated variations in travel times thereby enabling us to detect conflicts arising due to delays. Our validation results which assume only the support of the arrival and departure time distributions takes an order of few minutes for a portion of the network and is computationally efficient to handle the entire network.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, optimization, railway network, train scheduling

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27 Electrodeposition and Selenization of Cuin Alloys for the Synthesis of Photoactive Cu2in1-X Gax Se2 (Cigs) Thin Films

Authors: Mohamed Benaicha, Mahdi Allam


A new two stage electrochemical process as a safe, large area and low processing cost technique for the production of semi-conducting CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films is studied. CuIn precursors were first potentiostatically electrodeposited onto molybdenum substrates from an acidic thiocyanate electrolyte. In a second stage, the prepared metallic CuIn layers were used as substrate in the selenium electrochemical deposition system and subjected to a thermal treatment in vacuum atmosphere, to eliminate binary phase formation by reaction of the Cu2-x Se and InxSey selenides, leading to the formation of CuInSe2 thin film. Electrochemical selenization from aqueous electrolyte is introduced as an alternative to toxic and hazardous H2Se or Se vapor phase selenization used in physical techniques. In this study, the influence of film deposition parameters such as bath composition, temperature and potential on film properties was studied. The electrochemical, morphological, structural and compositional properties of electrodeposited thin films were characterized using various techniques. Results of Cyclic and Stripping-Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, SCV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray microanalysis (EDX) investigations revealed good reproducibility and homogeneity of the film composition. Thereby optimal technological parameters for the electrochemical production of CuIn, Se as precursors for CuInSe2 thin layers are determined.

Keywords: photovoltaic, CIGS, copper alloys, electrodeposition, thin films

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26 The Influence of High Temperatures on HVFA Concrete Columns by NDT Methods

Authors: D. Jagath Kumari, K. Srinivasa Rao


Quality assurance of the structures subjected to high temperatures is now enforcing measure for the Structural Engineers. The existing relations between strength and nondestructive measurements have been established under normal conditions are not suitable to concretes that have been exposed to high temperatures. The scope of the work is to investigate the influence of high temperatures of short durations on the residual properties of reinforced HVFA concrete columns that affect the strength by non-destructive tests (NDT). Fly ash concrete is increasingly used in the design of normal strength, high strength and high performance concretes. In this paper, the authors revealed the influence of high temperatures on HVFA concrete columns. These columns are heated from 100oC to 800oC with increments of 100oC and allowed to cool to room temperature by two methods one is air cooling method and the other immediate water quenching method. All the specimens were tested identically, before heating and after heating for compressive strength and material integrity by rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) meter respectively. HVFA concrete retained more residual strength by water quenching method than air-cooling method.

Keywords: HVFA concrete, NDT methods, residual strength, non-destructive tests

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25 Investigations in Machining of Hot Work Tool Steel with Mixed Ceramic Tool

Authors: B. Varaprasad, C. Srinivasa Rao


Hard turning has been explored as an alternative to the conventional one used for manufacture of Parts using tool steels. In the present study, the effects of cutting speed, feed rate and Depth of Cut (DOC) on cutting forces, specific cutting force, power and surface roughness in the hard turning are experimentally investigated. Experiments are carried out using mixed ceramic(Al2O3+TiC) cutting tool of corner radius 0.8mm, in turning operations on AISI H13 tool steel, heat treated to a hardness of 62 HRC. Based on Design of Experiments (DOE), a total of 20 tests are carried out. The range of each one of the three parameters is set at three different levels, viz, low, medium and high. The validity of the model is checked by Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Predicted models are derived from regression analysis. Comparison of experimental and predicted values of specific cutting force, power and surface roughness shows that good agreement has been achieved between them. Therefore, the developed model may be recommended to be used for predicting specific cutting force, power and surface roughness in hard turning of tool steel that is AISI H13 steel.

Keywords: hard turning, specific cutting force, power, surface roughness, AISI H13, mixed ceramic

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24 Detoxification of Hazardous Organic/Inorganic Contaminants in Automobile Shredder Residue by Multi-Functioned Nano-Size Metallic Calcium Composite

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byoung Ho Lee, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Simion Cristian


In recent years, environmental nanotechnology has risen to the forefront and the new properties and enhanced reactivates offered by nanomaterial may offer a new, low-cost paradigm to solving complex environmental pollution problems. This study assessed the synthesis and application of multi-functioned nano-size metallic calcium (nMC) composite for detoxification of hazardous inorganic (heavy metals (HMs)/organic chlorinated/brominated compound (CBCs) contaminants in automobile shredder residue (ASR). ASR residues ball milled with nMC composite can achieve about 90-100% of HMs immobilization and CBCs decomposition. The results highlight the low quantity of HMs leached from ASR residues after treatment with nMC, which was found to be lower than the standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The use of nMC composite in a mechanochemical process to treat hazardous ASR (dry conditions) is a simple and innovative approach to remediate hazardous inorganic/organic cross-contaminates in ASR.

Keywords: nano-sized metallic calcium, automobile shredder residue, organic/inorganic contaminants, immobilization, detoxification

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23 Estimation of Aquifer Properties Using Pumping Tests: Case Study of Pydibhimavaram Industrial Area, Srikakulam, India

Authors: G. Venkata Rao, P. Kalpana, R. Srinivasa Rao


Adequate and reliable estimates of aquifer parameters are of utmost importance for proper management of vital groundwater resources. At present scenario the ground water is polluted because of industrial waste disposed over the land and the contaminants are transported in the aquifer from one area to another area which is depending on the characteristics of the aquifer and contaminants. To know the contaminant transport, the accurate estimation of aquifer properties is highly needed. Conventionally, these properties are estimated through pumping tests carried out on water wells. The occurrence and movement of ground water in the aquifer are characteristically defined by the aquifer parameters. The pumping (aquifer) test is the standard technique for estimating various hydraulic properties of aquifer systems, viz, transmissivity (T), hydraulic conductivity (K), storage coefficient (S) etc., for which the graphical method is widely used. The study area for conducting pumping test is Pydibheemavaram Industrial area near the coastal belt of Srikulam, AP, India. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the aquifer properties for developing contaminant transport model for the study area.

Keywords: aquifer, contaminant transport, hydraulic conductivity, industrial waste, pumping test

Procedia PDF Downloads 331